Calendar overview 1294
|Celestine V abdicates five months after his election.||Kublai Khan , Timur Khan becomes Emperor of China from the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty .|
|1294 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||742/743 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1837/38 (southern Buddhism); 1836/37 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||656/657 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||693/694 (turn of the year 20/21 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5054/55 (September 22/23)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1604/05 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1605/06 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1350/51 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- After the death of Kublai Khan on February 18, his grandson Timur Khan becomes Emperor of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty in China . He asserts himself against his brother Kamala. Alcohol-addicted Timur becomes a surprisingly benevolent ruler who represents Chinese interests, promotes the teachings of Confucius , and avoids wars.
Holy Roman Empire
- Around September 22nd : King Adolf von Nassau devastates Thuringia to take possession of the land bought by Landgrave Albrecht the year before .
- As Duke of Bavaria, Rudolf the Stammler issues the Rudolfinische Handfeste , which for the first time defines the rights and duties of the citizens of Munich .
- The Lübeck Chancellor Albert von Bardewik has the Bardewik Codex named after him laid down as a version of Lübsche law.
Western and Southern Europe
- Between the French king Philip IV. And the English King Edward I there is a war for the English Festlandsbesitzungen in France ( Guyenne ), which extends to 1297 drags on. Philip orders the property of the Riccardi from Lucca in France to be confiscated because of their collaboration with the English crown ( its most important lender since 1274 ).
- Portugal under King Dionysius and England sign the first of a series of trade treaties. The "Anglo-Portuguese Alliance" is considered to be the oldest trading partnership between two countries that still exists.
First documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Bellach , Brünisried , Ebenheid , Krün , Niedergösgen , Rolle , Saignelégier and Utzenfeld .
- Magdeburg acquires the mayor's office from the archbishopric .
- Munich receives city rights .
- Gaichatu , ruler of the Mongolian Ilkhan in Persia , tries to refill the state treasury , which has been depleted due to his extravagant lifestyle and cow disease, by issuing additional money. On August 13th, he announced that anyone who did not accept the new “ paper money ” would be punished with death.
- October to November: In Iran , printed elongated banknotes with Chinese imprint and the Islamic creed in Arabic script are in circulation.
- July 5th : Pietro del Murrone is elected Pope by eleven remaining cardinals in Perugia after a two-year vacancy . The almost 85-year-old hermit has a reputation for holiness and is known through a letter to the assembled cardinals, which he wrote as the head of his Benedictine congregation, and in which he calls on them to finally vote. After a few days, despite his concerns, he accepted the election. Following the example of Christ on Palm Sunday, on July 28th he rides a donkey into the city of L'Aquila , where he takes the name Celestine V and the church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio, which he founded and which is now the main church of his order , will be crowned on August 29th . Then he comes under the influence of Charles II , who brings him to Naples .
- September 27th : The Pope confirms the rule of the Order of Celestine .
- December 13 : Pope Celestine V, who is hopelessly overwhelmed with his office, abdicates voluntarily five months after his election. Before that, he passed a constitution on the abdication of a pope. He sees himself prompted by the resistance of the people who want to prevent his resignation with a demonstration in front of the official residence of the Pope. After the constitution was passed, Celestine laid down the papal insignia and exchanged the papal robes for the monk's robe.
- December 23rd : The conclave of 1294 elects Cardinal Matteo Rubeo Orsini as Pope on the first day , but he does not accept the election.
- December 24th : On the second day of the conclave, Benedetto Caetani is elected Pope, who chooses the name Boniface VIII . As a first official act, he tries to have his predecessor arrested in order to forestall a possible split in the church. However, Coelestin escapes when he is transferred to Naples and flees via Sant'Onofrio to Rodi Garganico .
- April 18th : Master Eckhart gives a sermon on the occasion of Easter with the topic: Pascha nostrum (first documented date). After returning to Erfurt, he became prior of the Dominican Convention and vicar of the Thuringia order nation. There he produced until 1298 / 1300 , the speeches of the instruction .
- The Diocese of Freising becomes the Bishopric levied.
- The Franciscan John of Montecorvino reached Beijing after the death of Kublai Khan .
- The Dominican Dietrich von Freiberg is appointed vicar general of the order .
- The Dominican, inquisitor and religious writer Bernhard Gui teaches theology in Castres .
nature and environment
- Germany: humid and warm summer weather
Date of birth saved
- July 14th : Obizzo III. d'Este , Lord of Ferrara and Modena († 1352 )
- March 18 : Henry VI. , Duke of Breslau († 1335 )
- June 18 : Charles IV , French king († 1328 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Hugo IV , King of Cyprus († 1359 )
- Hugo V , Duke of Burgundy († 1315 )
- Kusunoki Masashige , Japanese folk hero († 1336 )
- Simonida , Byzantine princess († 1340 )
- Hermann von Wickede I , Mayor of Lübeck († 1367 )
Date of death secured
- January 28 : Safi ad-Din al-Urmawi , musician and music theorist (* 1216 )
- February 2 : Ludwig the Strict , Duke of Bavaria and the Rhine (* 1229 )
- April 17 : Rudolf von Bern , child murder victim and cause of a pogrom against the Bernese Jews (* around 1290 )
- May 3 : John I of Brabant , Duke of Brabant (* 1252 / 1253 )
- August 12th : Guillaume de Conflans , Bishop of Geneva
- October 26 : Bogo de Clare , English clergyman (* 1248 )
- November 2nd : Heinrich II. Edler von Stadion , abbot of the St. Blasien monastery
- November 26th : Albrecht von Ramstein , Abbot of the Lake Constance Monastery in Reichenau
- December 25 : Mestwin II , Prince and Duke of East Pomerania (* around 1220 )
Exact date of death unknown
- January: Rabban Bar Sauma , Nestorian monk and diplomat (* around 1220 )
- after February 4th: Johannes von Vechta , Archbishop of Riga
- after April: Ogerio Alfieri , Italian politician and chronicler
- Philip Burnell , English nobleman
- Dmitri I of Perejaslavl , Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal (* around 1250 )
- Guittone d'Arezzo , Italian poet (* around 1250 )
- Heinrich von Stretelingen , member of a knight family on Lake Thun and minstrel (* 1258 )
- Brunetto Latini , Italian statesman, scholar and writer (* around 1220 )
- Ludwig von Tübingen , Count of Horb
- Andreas Taft , Florentine mosaic worker (* around 1213 )
- Jean de Villiers , Grand Master of the Order of St. John