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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Celestine V on a fresco by Niccolò di Tommaso
Pope Celestine V abdicates five months after his election.
Contemporary depiction by Timur Khan
After the death of Kublai Khan , Timur Khan becomes Emperor of China from the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty .
1294 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 742/743 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1286/87
Buddhist calendar 1837/38 (southern Buddhism); 1836/37 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 66th (67th) cycle

Year of the wood horse甲午 ( at the beginning of the year water snake 癸巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 656/657 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 672/673
Islamic calendar 693/694 (turn of the year 20/21 November)
Jewish calendar 5054/55 (September 22/23)
Coptic calendar 1010/11
Malayalam calendar 469/470
Seleucid era Babylon: 1604/05 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1605/06 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1332
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1350/51 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events


Holy Roman Empire

Western and Southern Europe

  • Between the French king Philip IV. And the English King Edward I there is a war for the English Festlandsbesitzungen in France ( Guyenne ), which extends to 1297 drags on. Philip orders the property of the Riccardi from Lucca in France to be confiscated because of their collaboration with the English crown ( its most important lender since 1274 ).
  • Portugal under King Dionysius and England sign the first of a series of trade treaties. The "Anglo-Portuguese Alliance" is considered to be the oldest trading partnership between two countries that still exists.

First documentary mentions


  • Gaichatu , ruler of the Mongolian Ilkhan in Persia , tries to refill the state treasury , which has been depleted due to his extravagant lifestyle and cow disease, by issuing additional money. On August 13th, he announced that anyone who did not accept the new “ paper money ” would be punished with death.
  • October to November: In Iran , printed elongated banknotes with Chinese imprint and the Islamic creed in Arabic script are in circulation.


Pope election

Modern statue of Coelestins V.
  • July 5th : Pietro del Murrone is elected Pope by eleven remaining cardinals in Perugia after a two-year vacancy . The almost 85-year-old hermit has a reputation for holiness and is known through a letter to the assembled cardinals, which he wrote as the head of his Benedictine congregation, and in which he calls on them to finally vote. After a few days, despite his concerns, he accepted the election. Following the example of Christ on Palm Sunday, on July 28th he rides a donkey into the city of L'Aquila , where he takes the name Celestine V and the church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio, which he founded and which is now the main church of his order , will be crowned on August 29th . Then he comes under the influence of Charles II , who brings him to Naples .
  • September 27th : The Pope confirms the rule of the Order of Celestine .
  • December 13 : Pope Celestine V, who is hopelessly overwhelmed with his office, abdicates voluntarily five months after his election. Before that, he passed a constitution on the abdication of a pope. He sees himself prompted by the resistance of the people who want to prevent his resignation with a demonstration in front of the official residence of the Pope. After the constitution was passed, Celestine laid down the papal insignia and exchanged the papal robes for the monk's robe.
  • December 23rd : The conclave of 1294 elects Cardinal Matteo Rubeo Orsini as Pope on the first day , but he does not accept the election.
  • December 24th : On the second day of the conclave, Benedetto Caetani is elected Pope, who chooses the name Boniface VIII . As a first official act, he tries to have his predecessor arrested in order to forestall a possible split in the church. However, Coelestin escapes when he is transferred to Naples and flees via Sant'Onofrio to Rodi Garganico .


  • April 18th : Master Eckhart gives a sermon on the occasion of Easter with the topic: Pascha nostrum (first documented date). After returning to Erfurt, he became prior of the Dominican Convention and vicar of the Thuringia order nation. There he produced until 1298 / 1300 , the speeches of the instruction .

nature and environment

  • Germany: humid and warm summer weather


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


Date of death secured

Kublai Khan

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1294

  • around 1294: Roger Bacon , English Franciscan and philosopher (* around 1220 )

Web links

Commons : 1294  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files