Calendar overview 1291
Crusades ended with the conquest of Acre
by the Mamluks .
|Swiss national myth, the Swiss Confederation was founded .|
|1291 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||739/740 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1834/35 (southern Buddhism); 1833/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||653/654 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||689/ 690 /691 (Year 3-4 January. // 23-24 December.)|
|Jewish calendar||5051/52 (August 26-27)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1601/02 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1602/03 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1347/48 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Siege of Acre
- March: Chalil , the new sultan of the Mamluks from the Bahri dynasty in Egypt , marches from Cairo towards Acre , where there was a massacre of Muslim traders last year. He gathers his troops in Damascus.
- April 5 : Chalil sets up camp near Acre. An enormous number of volunteers have joined his army, who are used in particular for excavation work. He is additionally reinforced by the armies of his vassals Lajin from Damascus, al-Muzaffar Taqai ad-Din from Hama, Bilban from Tripoli and Baibars al-Dewadar from Kerak, who join in front of Acre. The latter contingent also includes the Arab historian Abu l-Fida , who reports on the siege in his work Mukhtassar tarikh al-Bashar.
- King Henry II of Jerusalem finds himself sick in Cyprus at the beginning of the siege . The city is under the command of Amalrich of Tire . This is supported by the contingents of the four orders of knights, the Templars under Grand Master Guillaume de Beaujeu , the Hospitallers under Grand Master Jean de Villiers , the German Knights under Grand Master Burchard von Schwanden , who surprisingly resigns and hands over his command to Heinrich von Bouland , and a troop of the Order of Lazarus . There is also a small contingent of English knights under Otton de Grandson , a French contingent under Jean I. de Grailly , and other smaller European contingents.
- May 5 : King Henry II arrives in Acre.
- May 18 : With the conquest of Acre after six weeks of siege by the Mamluks under Sultan Chalil and the associated fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem , the era of the Orient Crusades and the Crusader states ends . The entire population of Accon is massacred after the fall of the city. Only a few, including King Henry II, can save themselves on the few ships in the port and flee to Cyprus. The Knights Templar and the Order of Hospitallers also withdraw to Cyprus and make the island their new headquarters.
- to August: Chalil conquers the crusader castles Tire (May 19), Sidon (July 14), Beirut (July 31), Château Pèlerin and Tartus (both August 14) and expels the last crusaders from Palestine and Syria . Only on the fortified, waterless island of Aruad off the coast of Tartus can the crusaders hold out for a few years.
Other events in Asia
- March 7 : The influential Mongolian commander Ta'achar kills Arghun , the ruler of the Mongolian Ilkhan in Iran . He wants to put his cousin Baidu on the throne, who does not appear at the Kurultai . Arghun's brother Gaichatu becomes the fifth ruler of the Ilkhan.
Holy Roman Empire
- July 15 : The Roman-German King Rudolf I of the House of Habsburg dies. He did not succeed in convincing the electors to choose his son Albrecht . Instead, in the course of the year, a prince alliance was formed in favor of Albrecht's opponent Adolf von Nassau .
- Beginning of August: According to Swiss national myth, the Swiss Confederation ( Rütli oath , federal letter ) is founded by the three original cantons of Uri , Schwyz and Unterwalden on the Rütliwiese on Lake Lucerne .
Other events in Europe
- June 18 : After the death of Afonso III. his brother James II becomes King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona . At this point in time he was already King of Sicily , which then fell under the Aragonese Crown .
- In the Treaty of Treviso , Venice was given sovereignty over the Istrian coast from Capodistra to Rovigno .
Voyages of discovery
- May: The Genoese merchants Ugolino and Vandino Vivaldi set off with two galleys to discover the sea route to India . Her further fate is unknown.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- The places Altdorf , Böbingen an der Rems , Derendingen , Guntershausen bei Berg , Illerrieden , Oberweningen and Viller Mühle (Lower Rhine) are first mentioned in a document.
- Antwerp receives city rights .
- Bernkastel on the Moselle receives city rights .
- Pentecost: At the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Palencia it is decided that a Spanish convent should give classes in Arabic and Hebrew.
- August: Thibaud Gaudin becomes 22nd and penultimate Grand Master of the Templar Order .
- The Dominican and inquisitor Bernhard Gui teaches theology in Limoges .
- The Franciscan Johannes Duns Scotus is ordained a priest.
- Windsheim Monastery is founded.
Date of birth saved
- February 8 : Alfonso IV , King of Portugal († 1357 )
- March 9th : Cangrande I della Scala , Lord of the City (Signore) of Verona († 1329 )
- September 23 : Bolesław III. , Duke of Breslau and Duke of Brieg and Liegnitz († 1352 )
- October 31 : Philippe de Vitry , French poet, composer, politician and Bishop of Meaux († 1361 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Guido Gonzaga , Count of Mantua († 1369 )
- Luis de la Cerda , Spanish nobleman († 1348 )
- Luitgard von Wittichen , German mystic and founder of a monastery († 1348 )
- Peter I von Rosenberg , Chamberlain of Bohemia († 1347 )
- Theodor I , a Byzantine prince and margrave of Montferrat († 1338 )
Born around 1291
Date of death secured
- January 6th : William de Braose , cambro-Norman nobleman (* 1220 )
- March 7th : Arghun , ruler of the Mongolian Ilkhan (* around 1258 )
- May 18 : Guillaume de Beaujeu , Grand Master of the Templar Order (* after 1243)
- May 18th : Mathieu de Clermont , Knight of the Hospitaller Order
- May 25 : Bengt Birgersson , Bishop of Linköping and Duke of Finland (* 1254 )
- June 5 : Johann I , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg
- June 18th : Alfonso III. , King of Aragon (* 1265 )
- June 26 : Eleonore de Provence , Queen of England (* around 1223 )
- August 16 : Friedrich Tuta , regent of the margraviate of Meißen (* 1269 )
- August 17th : Senge , Tibetan-Uighur monk student, religious head of the Yuan Empire
- October 8 : Heinrich I , Lord of Werle (* around 1245 )
- November 21 : Simon von Schöneck , Bishop of Worms
- 13 / December 16 : Leopold I , Bishop of Seckau
Exact date of death unknown
- Hawise de la Pole , English noblewoman (* around 1350 )
- Gerhard von Zbraslav and Obřany , Moravian nobleman (* around 1246 )
- Ludwig II of Rosdorf , German nobleman (* around 1230 )
- Theobald II , Count of Bar (* 1221 )
- Ulrich von Ramschwag , Imperial Bailiff in the Prince Abbey of St. Gallen (* 1265 )
- Werner Huno , German businessman and councilor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck
Died around 1291
- Gozzo von Krems , city judge and builder of the Gozzoburg in Krems as well as land clerk of Upper Austria