Calendar overview 1223
|Louis VIII becomes King of France.|
|1223 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||671/672 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1766/67 (southern Buddhism); 1765/66 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||585/586 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||619/620 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th February)|
|Jewish calendar||4983/84 (August 27-28)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1533/34 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1534/35 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1279/80 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The accession of Louis VIII.
- July 14th : Due to the death of his father Philip II in Mantes , Louis VIII becomes the first-born king of France . The French hereditary monarchy comes into being with him. For the first time in the history of the Capetian dynasty, only the birthright prevailed, as this change of rule was not preceded by a consultative assembly. Louis VIII is also the first Capetian king who was not ordained king during his father's lifetime in order to secure his right of succession.
- August 6th : Louis VIII and his wife Blanka of Castile are anointed and crowned King and Queen of France by Archbishop Guillaume de Joinville in the Cathedral of Reims . Immediately after taking office, Ludwig renewed the Franco- Staufer pact for the isolation of England with Emperor Friedrich II.
- March: Raimund Roger , Count of Foix , recaptures Mirepoix , one of the most important cities in his county, from the crusaders of the Albigensian Crusade . A few days later he dies on March 27th . He is succeeded by his son Roger Bernard II .
- Autumn: Count Raymond VII of Toulouse allies himself with Raymond II Trencavel, who has returned from Catalonia . Together they set out to recapture the county of Carcassonne and begin the siege of the city of Carcassonne, held by a few crusaders under Amaury de Montfort .
- December: Pope Honorius III. calls on King Louis VIII to start another crusade against the Cathars in Languedoc .
- March: Llywelyn from Iorwerth , Prince of Gwynedd and most powerful Prince in Wales , crosses the Shropshire border and conquers the castles of Kinnerley and Whittington . Their owner William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke , then launched a counterattack.
- April 24th : William Marshal captures Cardigan Castle . A few days later he also captured Carmarthen Castle from Llywellyn's ally Maelgwn ap Rhys .
- A battle between William Marshal and Llywelyn's son Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr at Kidwelly Castle ends in a draw.
- July 8th : Negotiations begin between the parties to the dispute through the mediation of Archbishop Stephen Langton . When this failed on July 10, Langdon excommunicated Llywelyn and occupied his empire with the interdict.
- July: William Marshal conquers Kidwelly Castle from Rhys Gryg and other areas in Ceredigion , which he hands over to his ally Cynan ap Hywel . He also captured and expanded Cilgerran Castle . The English regent Hubert de Burgh is planning a campaign to Powys in the meantime , but returns to England on July 20 when he learns of the death of the French king and hopes to regain lost territories in Normandy.
- August: Renewed negotiations between the parties to the dispute are unsuccessful.
- Early September: Llywellyn from Iorwerth begins the siege of Builth Castle in Powys, which is defended by Reginald de Braose . On September 12th Hubert de Burgh returns to Wales with a feudal army and horrifies the castle on September 23rd .
- October 7th : Llywelyn from Iorwerth , Maelgwn ap Rhys and Rhys Gryg submit to the English King Henry III. and accept the conquests made by William Marshal and Cynan ap Hywel. Stephen Langton lifts Llywellyn's excommunication.
- March 25th : After the death of his father Alfons II , Sancho II ascends the Portuguese throne. At this point the country is in the midst of a conflict with the Catholic Church, into which it has led the policy of Alfonso II. His father died excommunicated and the interdict imposed on Portugal. Sancho first comes to terms with the church, lets the Archbishop of Braga , whom his father has expelled from the country, return and pays him high compensation.
Kingdom of Sicily
Central and Northern Europe
- May 6th : Count Heinrich von Schwerin takes the Danish King Waldemar II prisoner on the island of Lyø , thereby breaking Denmark's supremacy in the Baltic region . Since the county of Schwerin is occupied, he temporarily brings Waldemar to Dannenberg Castle . Waldemar's nephew Albrecht II of Orlamünde is appointed as imperial administrator by the Danish nobility.
Eastern Europe / Caucasus / Asia Minor
- January 18 : Giorgi IV. Lascha , King of Georgia , dies unexpectedly and leaves behind only one underage, illegitimate son. For him, Giorgi's sister Rusudan should initially rule, but due to David's minority the high nobility crowns Rusudan as queen. War broke out with the Kipchaks in the first year of their reign . Displaced from their habitat by the Mongols , they move to Georgia, where they demand settlement land from the queen. When this was rejected, they turn to looting Ganja , and besiege the city Qabala . They surprised and defeated a Georgian punitive expedition. When the Kipchaks were still devastating the eastern border areas of Georgia and withdrawn with rich booty, Georgian troops pursued the enemy, defeated them and took the booty from them again.
- May 31 : Among the generals Subutai and Jebe leading Mongols a first attack on Europe: The Battle of the Kalka River ends with a bitter defeat for the Rus . After their victory, however, the Mongols no longer advance into the territories of the ancient Russian principalities, but instead move home via the areas north of the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea .
- There were several smaller battles between the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks and the Empire of Trebizond under Andronikos I.
First documentary mentions
- January 4th : Germanos II Nauplios becomes Patriarch of Constantinople in exile in Nikaia. He succeeds Manuel I. Charitopoulos, who died last year, in this position.
- November 29th : The Franciscans are appointed by Pope Honorius III. accepted in the Bull Solet annuere according to the second version of the rules of the order by Francis of Assisi .
- December 25th : Francis of Assisi recreates the Christmas events in Greccio with living animals and people .
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes Fasolus , politician and legal scholar from Pisa († 1286 )
- John FitzAlan , English nobleman († 1267 )
- Gerhard , Count of Durbuy and Lord of Roussy († around 1303)
- Ichijō Sanetsune , Japanese regent († 1284 )
- Geoffrey de Langley , Vogt of the English King († 1274 )
- Maud de Lacy , English noblewoman, Countess of Hertford and Countess of Gloucester († 1289 )
Born around 1223
- Baibars I , Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria († 1270 )
- Hugh le Despenser, 1st Baron le Despenser , English nobleman and rebel, Chief Justiciar of England († 1265 )
- Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , last independent prince of Wales († 1282 )
First half of the year
- January 18 : Giorgi IV. Lasha , King of Georgia (* 1193 )
- March 3 : Wincenty Kadłubek , Bishop of Cracow and Polish chronicler (* around 1150 )
- March 9 : Henry II of Veringen , Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg
- March 25 : Alfonso II , King of Portugal (* 1185 )
- March 27th : Raimund Roger , Count von Foix and opponent of the Albigensian Crusade
- March 28 : Bernhard III. von Oesede , Bishop of Paderborn
- March: Hartwig von Grögling-Dollnstein , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
Second half of the year
- August 19 : William of Cornhill , Bishop of Coventry
- September 9 : Simon of Apulia , Italian-born Bishop of Exeter
- September 11th : Heinrich the Elder , Lord of Mödling (* 1158 )
- December 5th : Otto I. von Lobdeburg , Bishop of Würzburg
Exact date of death unknown
- Gille Brigte, 3rd Earl of Strathearn , Scottish nobleman (* around 1150 )
- Giraldus Cambrensis , cambro-Norman nobleman, bishop of St. Davids (* 1146 )
- Gottfried I von Eppstein , German nobleman (* around 1160 / 1165 or 1169 )
- Jebe , Mongolian general, commander of Genghis Khan (* around 1180 )
- Mechthild I. von Wohldenberg , abbess of the Gandersheim monastery
- Sancho , Margrave of Provence, Count of Cerdanya and Roussillon (* 1161 )
Died around 1223
- Rupert I , Count of Castell