Christmas crib

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House crib, Germany
Excerpt from a private nativity scene created over decades, exhibited in the Mülheim-Kärlich City Museum

A Christmas crib is a representation of the birth of Christ from the Christmas story or other scenes from the life of Jesus Christ with figures in a model landscape that symbolizes a place near Bethlehem . Many nativity scenes combine the images of the Advent season with those of the Epiphany .

The tradition of the Christmas cribs goes back to early Christianity , but the depictions of the first centuries only showed the baby Jesus ( lying in a manger according to the tradition of the Gospel of Luke ) with the two animals ox and donkey . The figure of Mary was only added in the Middle Ages , St. Josef even later.

On the other hand, by 500 there were already pictorial representations in which three wise men offer their gifts to the child of God. This is evidenced both by the mosaic in Sant'Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna and in Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

Biblical basis

The evangelists Matthew and Luke put their depictions of the life of Jesus in front of a prehistory that is the basis for the nativity scenes. The details of the narrative differ fundamentally in the two Gospels. Most nativity scenes combine elements from both Gospels when they contain both the adoration of the shepherds (according to Luke) and that of the kings . In the Gospel of Matthew, the birth of Jesus is mentioned rather casually and without a location.

The text in the Gospel of Luke:

“So Joseph also went up from the city of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; for he was of the house and tribe of David. He wanted to be registered with Maria, his fiancée, who was expecting a child. While they were there, the time of her confinement came for Mary and she gave birth to her son, the firstborn. She wrapped him in diapers and put him in a crib because there was no room for her in the inn. ( Lk 2,4–7  EU ) "

The course of the story is told in the two Gospels as follows:

Luke chapters 1 and 2

  1. Annunciation of the birth of John the Baptist to Zacharias and conception by Elisabeth ( Lk 1,5–25  EU )
  2. Annunciation of the birth of Jesus to Mary ( Lk 1.26–38  EU )
  3. Meeting of Maria and Elisabeth ( Visitation of the Virgin Mary ) ( Lk 1.39–56  EU )
  4. Birth, circumcision and growing up of John the Baptist ( Lk 1.57–80  EU )
  5. Birth of Jesus ( Lk 2.1–7  EU )
  6. Annunciation to the Shepherds ( Lk 2.8–15  EU )
  7. Adoration of the Shepherds ( Lk 2.15–20  EU )
  8. Presentation of Jesus in the Temple of Jerusalem, circumcision of Jesus and testimony of Simeon and Hanna ( Lk 2,21-40  EU )
  9. Pilgrimage of the twelve year old Jesus with his parents to Jerusalem ( Lk 2,41–52  EU )

Matthew chapters 1 and 2

  1. Family tree of Jesus ( Mt 1,1-17  EU )
  2. Announcement of the birth of Jesus to Joseph , birth of Jesus and naming by Joseph ( Mt 1,18-25  EU )
  3. Adoration of the Magi ( Mt 2,1-12  EU )
  4. Flight into Egypt ( Mt 2,13-15  EU )
  5. Herod's child murder in Bethlehem ( Mt 2,16-18  EU )
  6. Return from Egypt to Nazareth ( Mt 2,19-23  EU )

The third chapter of both Gospels is followed by the appearance of John the Baptist and the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan.

The crib and the search for a hostel

The manger (from Latin praesaepe , “enclosure”, “stable”, from saepio , “to fence”, “to freeze”, Greek φάτνη phátnä ) stands in the Vulgate ( Lk 2.7  VUL ) for the feed manger in which Maria in the presentation of the Gospel of Luke laid her newborn child after she and Joseph had not found a place in an inn. The Greek φάτνη and the Hebrew אֵבוּס, which are often translated as crib in German translations, stand for feeding trough. When אֵבוּס occurs in the Old Testament, bull, ox or donkey are often mentioned in the same sentence (e.g. Isa 1,3  EU and Job 39,9  EU , Prov 14,4  EU and Isa 1,3  EU ). The mention of the manger in a stable in Lk 2,7  is the only description of the place of Jesus' birth in the New Testament . Matthew only speaks of one place “where the child was” ( Mt 2 : 9, 11  EU ).

In German, the term crib stands in this context as pars pro toto for the entire three-dimensional Christmas picture.

“Lying in a manger” seems to have a prominent meaning in the text of Luke, because this is intended to serve as a symbol in the scene of the Annunciation to the shepherds. This alludes to the beginning of the book of Isaiah : “The ox knows its owner and the donkey its master's manger; But Israel has no knowledge, my people have no insight ”( Isa 1,3  EU ). In the New Testament the term “manger” is found only four times - apart from Lk 13.15  EU - three times in the second chapter, where the birth of Jesus is described ( Lk 2.7; 12; 16  EU ). The symbolic power of the crib is that there is “food” to be found there for those looking for it. Isaiah represents the ox and donkey positively as those who know where good is to be found, in contrast to the people of God, who have forgotten it. Isaiah in particular is the book of the prophets, which heralds God's end-time saving action and is therefore seen by Christians as the advance notice of the Messiah . In the Gospels, however, the ox and donkey are not mentioned.

In Luke's communication that the newborn child had to be placed in a manger “because there was no room for them in the inn”, the theological motif of kenosis (“emptying”) is echoed. In the prologue of the Gospel of John , which the evangelist put in place of a childhood story, it says: "He came into his own, but his own did not receive him" ( John 1:11  EU ); In his letter to the Philippians, the apostle Paul quotes an early Christian hymn in which it says: “Christ Jesus was equal to God, but did not cling to being like God, but emptied himself and became like a slave and like men . His life was that of a man; he humbled himself and was obedient until death, until death on the cross. That is why God exalted him above all and gave him the name that is greater than all names, so that all in heaven, on earth and under earth bow their knees before the name of Jesus ”( Phil 2: 6-10  EU ). The emptying and becoming equal to the human being of the Johannine and Pauline theology are - just like the childhood story according to Luke with the parents looking for inns - not statements about the child Jesus, but they characterize the entire mission of Jesus Christ as God's salvific act for redemption of people, from his birth to his death on the cross.


Baroque crib in Gutenzell (Upper Swabia, 1704)
Neapolitan crib ( Palazzo Reale, Naples )

As the founder of the obvious representation of the Christmas event, St. Francis of Assisi , who in 1223 in Greccio, instead of a sermon, reenacted the Christmas events with people and living animals. The Christkindl cradle, which was widespread in women's convents of the 13th and 14th centuries, is possibly connected with this. The worship of the holy place near Bethlehem, however, goes back significantly. The church fathers Hieronymus and Justinus as well as the church writer Origen already mention a cave at the place in Bethlehem, above which St. Helena had the Church of the Nativity built.

It is true that the Christmas Gospel does not mention the poverty of the Holy Family, but the Bible passage according to which the child was placed in a place that is otherwise intended for the food of the animals has been interpreted accordingly. So it was supposed that Jesus was not of a high class, but one of the common people. Accordingly, late medieval figurative representations of the birth of Christ were already realistic, as can be seen in the late Romanesque castle chapel Hocheppan near Bozen around 1200. A possibly continuous further development up to the now known Christmas crib was interrupted by the Reformation . Encouraged by the Council of Trent (1545–1563), the orders of the Jesuits , Servites and Franciscans tried to revive the content of the Bible by means of scenic representations. Especially Christmas and the Passion at Easter were brought closer in this way. Boxes with biblical representations were placed in churches and soon became popular in aristocratic circles.

The Christmas representation set up by the Jesuits in Prague in 1562 is generally considered to be the first mention of a nativity scene in today's sense. Based on the model of the nativity scene set up in Munich in 1607 , one was built in Innsbruck around 1608 and in Hall in 1609 . A nativity scene in the Benedictine convent Nonnberg in Salzburg has been in evidence since 1615 .

The most famous nativity scenes to this day include the Neapolitan nativity scenes, whose heads with strong characters are reminiscent of the masks of the Italian Commedia dell'arte . The scene of the birth of Christ is often embedded in extremely elaborate and detailed street and market scenes, so that the depiction of the birth often seems only a minor matter. In the Baroque era, many nativity scenes were created based on the Neapolitan model in Austria and southern Germany (Bavaria, Swabia, Allgäu).

Under Empress Maria Theresa and Joseph II , Christmas cribs were banned from public buildings, especially from churches, through several bans. Archbishop Hieronymus Franz Josef von Colloredo-Mannsfeld issued a similar ban on November 22nd, 1784 for the Prince Diocese of Salzburg . As a result, the Christmas cribs found their way into the private sector. This remained even after the bans were lifted.

Before the Christmas tree became widespread in the 19th century , the nativity scene was the focus of Catholic Christmas celebrations. In Protestant Germany , the nativity scene was spread particularly through the work of Gustav Jahn , who had nativity figures made by the inmates of the Züllchower establishments . With the serial production of nativity scenes from relatively inexpensive materials such as terracotta and paper maché , which began at the end of the 19th century , even less affluent private individuals were able to purchase a nativity scene for their home; for poorer parishes, these figures were correspondingly larger, also affordable.

From around 1865 to the 1970s, mission money boxes were part of many nativity scenes in church buildings.

Nativity scenes are still an integral part of church and domestic Christmas decorations and are made in all imaginable artistic styles and materials.

In 2019, Pope Francis recognized and recommended the custom of setting up Christmas cribs in private and public areas with a separate Apostolic Letter ( Admirabile signum ).

Period of installation of the crib

The crib is set up for Christmas. In some places, the installation with individual figures and scenes begins at the beginning of Advent . On December 24th the full picture with the baby Jesus is shown in the manger, until the feast of the Epiphany on January 6th the three wise men will be added. The crib will remain in place until the end of Christmas time. In the extraordinary form of the Roman rite this extends to the feast of the Presentation of the Lord on February 2, in the ordinary form to the feast of the baptism of the Lord . In some places the custom has been preserved to leave the crib until the feast of the Presentation of the Lord. The Christmas season ends on February 2nd with the rite of the closing of the crib . In Protestantism, the Christmas festivities end three weeks before the Passion season on the last Sunday after Epiphany ; then it is traditionally the last date to dismantle the crib.

Nativity figurines

The main characters in Christmas cribs are:

  • the baby Jesus in a manger
  • Mary , mother of Jesus; Depiction as an enthroned Madonna possible
  • Joseph , the foster father of Jesus ( Mt 1,24-25  EU ), mostly depicted as an older man
  • The ox and donkey are not mentioned in the biblical Christmas stories, but nevertheless have a biblical justification. This can be found in Isaiah Isa 1,3  EU and reads: “An ox knows its master and a donkey the manger of its master; but Israel does not know it, and my people do not hear it. ”From here, it is assumed, ox and donkey moved into the stable in Bethlehem in the first centuries.
    In early Christian literature ( patristic ), for example in a Christmas homily of Augustine , the ox and donkey were interpreted as symbols of the two parts of the Christian church , which was formed from Jews (people of God) and pagans (all other peoples). The Council of Trent (1545–1563) later failed to ban them from the manger for the sake of the “truth” of the Bible.
  • Shepherds and sheep (often with a shepherd dog)
  • Three wise men from the Orient (Caspar, Melchior, Balthasar) with gifts ( gold , frankincense , myrrh ), often with camels or elephants
  • Angel of the Annunciation (some shown with a banner in their hands)

Figures depicting child murder in Bethlehem are rarer, such as are part of the Probst brothers' annual crib .

Types of cribs

Cribs can be differentiated according to the type of their location, the material they are made of and the external shape:

Installation site

Christmas crib in the Vienna Minorite Church (2011)
Example of a free nursery (floating crib in the Veldener Bucht on the Wörthersee )

Depending on the place where the crib is set up, a distinction is made between church cribs, house cribs and free nurseries.

Design of the exterior

According to the scenery:

  • Cave cribs
  • Landscape nativity scenes
  • oriental nativity scenes
  • Ruin cribs
  • Stable cribs
  • Temple nativity scenes
  • Root manger

According to the construction:

  • Box cribs (the crib is built into a box)
  • Wooden cribs (stage-like structure with festoons )
  • Triangle corner cribs
  • Round cribs
  • Rotating cribs
  • Relief cribs
  • mechanical cribs
  • Miniature cribs
  • Large cribs


Oriental nativity scenes depict events in an environment modeled on the Holy Land . Local nativity scenes depict events in an environment with typical features of the home of the creator or of the viewer (e.g. alpine snow nativity scene with winter landscape). Milieu cribs show what is happening in a specific ambience with figures and types of the respective environment (for example several times in Cologne churches).

Figure making

Nativity scene made of Lechsteins, “Maranatha” nativity scene museum, Luttach
  • "Loammandl" cribs (made of clay, made with molds)
  • Nativity figures made from a black flour and glue water mass ("dough") (until the middle of the 19th century a common material in toy figure production, e.g. in Thuringia , Saxony and Upper Franconia )
  • Santons (Provencal crib figures made of clay or terracotta)
  • Terracotta cribs
  • Carved nativity scenes (possibly also clothed)
  • Wax cribs
  • Paper mache cribs
  • Nativity scenes with biblical narrative characters
  • Glass ribs
  • Straw manger, corn straw manger
  • Tin cribs
  • Metal cribs (silver, bronze, lead, tin)
  • Paper cribs
  • Ice and snow cribs
  • Stone nativity scenes


  • Natural materials (e.g. root wood, roots, tree sponge, moss, bark)
    • In 1998 Gustel Hertling built a root wood nativity scene, which was included in the Guinness Book of Records for this year as the “largest natural root nativity scene in the world” ; it is set up every year in the run-up to Christmas in the Christmas village of Waldbreitbach in the Catholic parish church and can be viewed there until the beginning of February. In 2006 the nativity set maker beat his own record with an even larger nativity mountain landscape with running water (8.50 m high on 130 m² floor space, permanent in the exhibition hall).
    • The Rheinbrohl root nativity scene in the St. Suitbertus church was recognized in 1991 by the ArsKrippana nativity scene in Losheim as the largest artistically designed root nativity scene in Europe.
  • Artificial materials (e.g. synthetic resin, paper)
Diorama of the Holy Sepulcher ( Philipp Schumacher , 1866–1940)


The depiction of the birth of Christ, often with the adoration by the three wise men from the Orient, is the most common and best-known nativity scene. Other nativity scenes show further images of the Christmas event (including the Annunciation , Mary and Joseph's search for shelter, the flight to Egypt and Herod's child murder in Bethlehem, for example in the Probst brothers' annual nativity scene ; also original Mary changing nappies in the Cologne chapel “ Madonna in the rubble "). Frequent nativity scenes from Christ's youth are the offering of Christ in the temple and the house in Nazareth with Mary at the spinning wheel and Jesus helping Joseph in the carpenter's workshop. The representation of the wedding at Cana , the first miracle of Jesus, was particularly popular in the Baroque era , as the motif with a wedding party in magnificent robes and a large banquet table offers a wide range of design options. Crib-like depictions of the Passion of Jesus Christ, such as the entry of Christ into Jerusalem , the crucifixion or the Holy Sepulcher with the risen One, are rarer.

Number of scenes shown

Simultaneous cribs show several representations at the same time. With so-called changing cribs, it is possible to depict different scenes with the same figures. With an annual nativity scene, the feasts of the entire church year can be displayed.

Special forms

Munich city crib
Station of the Mettinger Krippenweg
  • City cribs are set up, for example, by the diocese or the city administration as a representative work of art for the city. An old Bavarian nativity scene has been set up in Munich since 1954 as part of the Christmas market . It can be viewed in the courtyard of the Munich City Hall . Cities like Cologne, Innsbruck or Bonn also have city cribs with sometimes changing scenes from the Christmas events.
  • Christmas pyramids ; as mostly rotating representation of nativity scenes driven by candlelight heat.
  • Mechanical cribs where the figures move. There are beautiful mechanical cribs, for example. B. in the pilgrimage places Altötting , Maria Taferl , Christkindl and Mariazell as well as in Olešnice v Orlických Horách (Gießhübel, Bohemia). The largest mechanical nativity scene in the world is located in Rajecká Lesná (Freiwald, Slovakia ).
  • Christmas mountains , in which the biblical Christmas story is integrated into a mountainous landscape, are typical of the Ore Mountains . The nativity scene is partly supplemented by scenes from the domestic world of life and work - especially from mining. The figures on the Christmas mountains are often set in motion by ingenious mechanical drives.
  • Living nativity scenes, such as the living nativity scene in the rock caves of Matera in Italy .
  • Avant-garde cribs intended to stimulate discussion
  • Crib paths with Christmas cribs lined up like a station in houses, on houses and / or outdoors (the Mettinger Krippenweg presented a total of 72 stations in 2017/2018, for example)
  • Cribs made from consumables or waste materials. The depiction of crib figures from the area of ​​socially disadvantaged people is a specialty that originated in Herne and was shown in many churches in Germany and expanded by actively involved.
Small buttress arch

In some cases, representations of the birth of Christ that are visible all year round are given special prominence for Christmas. The Trier Cathedral , for example, does not set up a Christmas crib, but a corresponding stucco relief is decorated in the Marienkapelle.

Crèche builders, crèche researchers and crèche sponsors

Well-known crib builders

Siegfried Schneider OFM, the "Nativity Father"

The German Franciscan Siegfried Schneider OFM (1894–1935) is known as the “Krippenpater” because of his importance for the crib apostolate in the German-speaking world. In the 1920s and 1930s, in addition to nativity plays and sermons, he wrote numerous publications on nativity scenes and encouraged exhibitions and associations of nativity scene friends in the German-speaking area. In doing so, he rendered outstanding services to the renewal and maintenance of the religious nativity scene and at the same time significantly shaped the modern nativity movement. In many places today there are associations that are dedicated to building cribs. This can be done by jointly building a crib, but also by organizing crib building courses or exhibitions. Some of these associations also maintain a nativity museum on their premises.

Adalbert Kuhn: Inculturation of the "Good News" over the Christmas crib

The German Catholic theologian Adalbert Kuhn has been collecting, documenting and presenting African and Latin American Christmas cribs since 1984. He presented these to the public in church parishes, in crib exhibitions and on KiP-TV ( Catholic Church on private television ). The artistic, historical, social, political and theological backgrounds and horizons of African and South American nativity scenes could be experienced. In his collection of around 140 nativity scenes, Kuhn documents, for example, colorful Peruvian annual nativity scenes in the form of a mountain made of clay, a Bolivian pocket nativity scene made of wood in the form of a hinged altar to a high carving art of the Tanzanian maconde , made from a single piece of ebony . Using such cribs, the inculturation of the “ Good News ” of the birth of Christ in non-European cultures can be demonstrated. In African nativity scenes Jesus is depicted as an African, in Latin American nativity scenes with facial features of local people. Similar statements can be made with regard to the robes of the persons and the crib accessories . The “desire to show one's own life and one's own world in the manger can be found in the everyday depictions of the Neapolitan and South German nativity scenes as well as, for example, in the rich nativity scene in Peru.” Every Christian culture lays its experience and life world in your own pictures and symbols. The joy of the birth of Christ unites the nativity scenes of Europe, Africa, Latin America and even those of the whole world. Some of the nativity scenes are in churches all year round. The first-mentioned Peruvian nativity scene stands as a sign of a Peru partnership of the community in the Church of St. Antonius in Pforzheim-Brötzingen

Crib collections and nativity museums

Selection of year-round exhibitions:

In Germany

Other museums have departments on nativity scenes, such as B. the Tirschenreuth Museum Quarter .

In Italy

In Austria

In Switzerland

In Czech Republic

  • The world's largest mechanical Christmas crib, created by Tomáš Krýza, in the Jindřichův Hradec City Museum
  • Betlém Museum - mechanical nativity scene created by Josef Probošt, Josef Kapucián and Josef Friml in Třebechovice pod Orebem
  • Nativity scene collection and museum at the foot of Karlštejn Castle , 15 kilometers west of Prague

See also


  • Rudolf Berliner (Hrsg.): Monuments of the crib art . Filser Verlag, Augsburg 1926/30 (Lfg. 1–21).
  • Gerhard Bogner: The new nativity dictionary. Knowledge - symbolism - belief. A manual for the crib fan . Fink, Lindenberg 2003 ISBN 3-89870-053-4
  • Christoph Daxelmüller , Jörg Paczkowski: Nativity scenes from all over the world (Christoph Daxelmüller collection) - Exhibition in the Hist. Museum for the city and County of Wertheim December 10th, 1981 - January 6th, 1982. Wertheim 1981. ISBN 3-921999-03-0 .
  • Christoph Daxelmüller: Cribs in Franconia . Real publishing house, 1978. ISBN 3-429-00572-8 .
  • Wilhelm Döderlein: Old cribs . Callwey Verlag, Munich 1960.
  • Erich Egg , Herlinde Menardi: The Tyrolean Nativity Book. The crib from the beginning to the present . 2nd edition Tyrolia, Innsbruck 2004 ISBN 3-7022-2604-4 .
  • Nina Gockerell, Walter Haberland: Nativity scenes in the Bavarian National Museum (catalogs of the Bavarian National Museum, New Series, Volume 1). Munich, Hirmer, 2005. ISBN 3-7774-2855-8 .
  • Erich Lidel: The Swabian crib (contributions to regional studies of Swabia, 5). Verlag, Konrad, Weißenhorn 1987. ISBN 3-87437-148-4 .
  • Franz Grieshofer (Ed.): Cribs. History, museums, crib friends . Pinguin-Verlag, Innsbruck, 1987, ISBN 3-7016-2270-1 .
  • Helena Johnova: Folk Christmas cribs . National Museum, Prague 1967.
  • Ute Krebs, Wolfgang Schmidt: Erzgebirge Christmas Mountains . Chemnitzer Verlag, 2017. ISBN 3944509455
  • Reinhard Linß, Ursula Müller (ed.): Christmas cribs in the Saxon Ore Mountains (series of publications "Erzgebirgische Volkskunst"; Vol. 10). Husum Verlag, Husum 1998, ISBN 978-3-88042-882-9 (on behalf of the vocational school for tourism, Chemnitz).
  • Ursula Pfistermeister : Baroque nativity scenes in Bavaria . Theiss, Stuttgart 1984. ISBN 3-8062-0398-9 .
  • Alfons Rudolph, Josef Anselm Graf Adelmann von Adelmannsfelden : Swabian baroque nativity scenes . Theiss, Stuttgart 1989. ISBN 3-8062-0815-8 .
  • Daniela Lucia Saccà with contributions by Katharina Bieler, Karl – Heinz Fischer, Christine Riegelmann – Nickolaus, Konrad Vanja : Zum Stern! Christmas cribs from Europe , Small writings from the Friends of the Museum of European Cultures, Issue 1 2000.
  • Luciano Zeppegno: Nativity scenes. Originated in Italy and climaxed in Naples. A colorful overview of the early nativity scene on the way to us . Südwest-Verlag, Munich 1970. ISBN 3-517-00187-2 .

Web links

Commons : Nativity Scene  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Christmas crib  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Karl-Heinrich Bieritz : The church year. Celebrations, memorials and holidays in the past and present. Revised edition. Beck, Munich 1998, p. 199
  2. Wilfried Eckey: The Gospel of Luke. Taking into account its parallels, Vol. 1: Lk 1,1-10,42 . Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2004, pp. 138-140
  3. ^ Willem A. M. Beuken: Isaiah 1–12 (Herder's Theological Commentary on the Old Testament) . Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 2003, to Isa 1,3
  4. Martina Schwager: The eagle that was a vulture. (No longer available online.) Evangelical Church in Germany , archived from the original on December 9, 2014 ; Retrieved December 9, 2014 .
  5. Thomas HT Wieners : What are ox and donkey doing at the crib? Presentation of the Christmas events goes back to Francis of Assisi / Customs strongly rooted in the people , in: Christmas Journal . Supplement to Schwarzwälder Boten No. 298 of December 24, 2013.
  6. z. B. Hermann Löscher : Christmas cribs and pyramids in the Saxon Ore Mountains , in Max Wenzel (Ed.): Merry Christmas! A festival booklet . Association for Saxon Folklore , Chemnitz 1915, p. 8.
  7. Retrieved January 16, 2018 .
  8. ( Memento of the original from December 25, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. Crèche heats Heidelberg spirits . In: Main-Post . December 26, 2013, accessed December 9, 2014 . (Page not freely accessible)
  10. Cf. Giancarlo Collet, Andreas Feldkeller, Klaus Schatz, Robert J. Schreiter, Thomas H. Groome: Inkulturation . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 5 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1996, Sp. 504-510 . Schreiter presents inculturation Christologically in the incarnation, life, death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. In the same article, Groome describes inculturation practically and theologically as a "lively exchange" and dialogue between the gospel and the respective culture. According to Giancarlo Collet, the concept of inculturation has been found since 1974/1975, first in documents of the 32nd General Congregation of the Jesuits and subsequently in official church documents such as Ad populum Dei nuntius Art. 5 (Roman Synod of Bishops 1977, final document)
  11. Christoffer H. Grundmann, Edmund Arens, Mark R. Francis, Bert Hoedemaker:  inculturation . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 4, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 2001, Sp. 144-149.
  12. Section after: Adalbert Kuhn: God arrives. Christmas cribs from Africa and Latin America. Norderstedt 2020. ISBN 9783751970006 . Pages 15–18
  14. Krýza's Christmas crib . In: . Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  15. Třebechovice Crib Museum . In: . Retrieved December 19, 2016.