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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Family coat of arms of the Hōjō
Insi Go-Toba tries in vain in the Jōkyū war to regain
his power from the Hōjō clan.
1221 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 669/670 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1213/14
Buddhist calendar 1764/65 (southern Buddhism); 1763/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon 庚辰)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 583/584 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 599/600
Islamic calendar 617/618 (turn of the year February 24th / 25th)
Jewish calendar 4981/82 (September 17-18)
Coptic calendar 937/938
Malayalam calendar 396/397
Seleucid era Babylon: 1531/32 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1532/33 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1259
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1277/78 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events


  • The Jōkyū war begins: Insi Go-Toba determines the imperial succession without consulting the Shōgunate and invites a large number of potential allies from the ranks of the eastern warriors of Kyōto to a large festival in order to increase the allegiance of those who reject them check. A prominent official is murdered after revealing his allegiance to the shogunate. The imperial court declares Hōjō Yoshitoki , the regent and representative of the shogunate, an outlaw and three days later all of eastern Japan is in revolt.
  • Hōjō Yoshitoki and his son Hōjō Yasutoki march with his armed forces from three sides on the capital. These meet only little resistance. In the third battle of Uji at the bridge over the Uji river, the imperial units suffer a crushing defeat.
  • The capital Kyoto is taken by Yasutoki and the rebellion is put down. Go-Toba was banished to the Oki Islands for the rest of his life . His sons and the newly appointed Tennō Chūkyō are also banished. The new Tennō was Go-Horikawa , a nephew of Go-Toba.
  • In Kyoto , the office of the Tandai is established, who is responsible for security around the capital and for legal matters. The first incumbent is Hōjō Yoshitoki .

Central Asia

  • November: Jalal ad-Din Hassan , 25th Imam of the Shia of the Nizari-Ismailis and sixth ruler of Alamut , dies of dysentery in the middle of the fasting month of Ramadan . His nine year old son Ala ad-Din Muhammad III. follow him to the throne. His vizier, acting as guardian, takes rumors of Hassan's poisoning as an opportunity to have all adult members of the ruling family executed in order to be able to take over the underage ruler for himself.

Fifth crusade

Latin Empire

The Latin Empire and the three Byzantine empires in exile (Nikaia, Trebizond, Epirus) after 1204

After Robert von Courtenay had spent the winter at the Hungarian royal court, he reached Constantinople in the spring and was crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire by the Latin Patriarch Matthaeus on March 25 in Hagia Sophia . At this point in time the empire is in a two-front war against the empire of Nikaia and the despotate of Epirus . At first he succeeds in making peace with Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris by promising him to marry his daughter Eudokia Laskarina . He can then turn his military forces to the despot Theodoros I Komnenos Dukas , who set himself the goal of smashing the Kingdom of Thessaloniki and who has already conquered Serres and Drama this year .

Holy Roman Empire

Kingdom of Sicily

France / Occitania


In July, the papal legate Pandulf resigns from his position as advisor and in autumn the task of Peter des Roches as educator of the underage King Henry III. declared over. This leaves only Hubert de Burgh from the Regency Council installed in the previous year and takes over the actual power in the Kingdom of England . The first minor revolt by the aristocratic aristocrats around Christmas was quickly put down.

City rights and first documentary mentions

Culture and religion

West facade of Burgos Cathedral


  • February 6th: The thirteen-year-old King James I of Aragón marries his cousin Eleanor of Castile in Ágreda and shortly afterwards he is awarded the sword in Tarazona . This marriage is largely mediated by Eleonora's older sister Berenguela and promoted by the Aragonese-Catalan greats who want to see their king married as early as possible so that he can father numerous children very early in order to prevent an impending vacancy in the event of his possible early death .


Date of birth saved

  • October 9: Salimbene of Parma , Italian Franciscan and chronicler († after 1288)
  • November 23: Alfonso X , King of Castile and León, anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire († 1284)

Exact date of birth unknown

  • Bonaventure , Italian Doctor of the Church and philosopher, General Minister of the Franciscans and Cardinal von Albano († 1274)
  • Hugo XI. , Lord of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême and regent of the Counties of Penthièvre and Porhoët († 1250)
  • Margaret of Provence , Queen of France († 1295)
  • Nisshō , Japanese Buddhist monk († 1323)
  • Theobald II , Count of Bar († 1291)
  • Theodor II , Emperor of Byzantium in exile in Nikaia († 1258)
  • Colmar Dominican chronicler , anonymous author of an important historiographical-chronistic work († around 1305)

Born around 1221


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1221  - Collection of images, videos and audio files