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| 14th century
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Insi Go-Toba tries in vain in the Jōkyū war to regain
his power from the Hōjō clan.
|1221 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||669/670 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1764/65 (southern Buddhism); 1763/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle
Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon 庚辰)
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||583/584 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||617/618 (turn of the year February 24th / 25th)|
|Jewish calendar||4981/82 (September 17-18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1531/32 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1532/33 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1277/78 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 13: Juntoku resigns from Japan as Tenno in favor of his three-year-old son Chūkyō . Together with his father Go-Toba he prepares an uprising against the Kamakura shogunate . Their allies consist largely of members of the Taira clan and other enemies of the Minamoto , the victors in the Genpei War and representatives of the Shogunate .
- The Jōkyū war begins: Insi Go-Toba determines the imperial succession without consulting the Shōgunate and invites a large number of potential allies from the ranks of the eastern warriors of Kyōto to a large festival in order to increase the allegiance of those who reject them check. A prominent official is murdered after revealing his allegiance to the shogunate. The imperial court declares Hōjō Yoshitoki , the regent and representative of the shogunate, an outlaw and three days later all of eastern Japan is in revolt.
- Hōjō Yoshitoki and his son Hōjō Yasutoki march with his armed forces from three sides on the capital. These meet only little resistance. In the third battle of Uji at the bridge over the Uji river, the imperial units suffer a crushing defeat.
- The capital Kyoto is taken by Yasutoki and the rebellion is put down. Go-Toba was banished to the Oki Islands for the rest of his life . His sons and the newly appointed Tennō Chūkyō are also banished. The new Tennō was Go-Horikawa , a nephew of Go-Toba.
- In Kyoto , the office of the Tandai is established, who is responsible for security around the capital and for legal matters. The first incumbent is Hōjō Yoshitoki .
- November: Jalal ad-Din Hassan , 25th Imam of the Shia of the Nizari-Ismailis and sixth ruler of Alamut , dies of dysentery in the middle of the fasting month of Ramadan . His nine year old son Ala ad-Din Muhammad III. follow him to the throne. His vizier, acting as guardian, takes rumors of Hassan's poisoning as an opportunity to have all adult members of the ruling family executed in order to be able to take over the underage ruler for himself.
- Genghis Khan's son Tolui Khan massacres hundreds of thousands in the destruction of the Turkmen Merw .
- July: After the fortification of the Egyptian coastal city of Damiette , the crusaders of the Damiette crusade decide to advance into the Nile Delta towards Cairo . There they are, however, pushed into unfavorable terrain and severely beaten in August by a united army of the Ayyubids under al-Kamil and his brother al-Mu'azzam near al-Mansura , who had come to help from Syria .
- September: The crusaders under Cardinal Pelagius von Albano have to leave Egypt defeated.
After Robert von Courtenay had spent the winter at the Hungarian royal court, he reached Constantinople in the spring and was crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire by the Latin Patriarch Matthaeus on March 25 in Hagia Sophia . At this point in time the empire is in a two-front war against the empire of Nikaia and the despotate of Epirus . At first he succeeds in making peace with Emperor Theodor I. Laskaris by promising him to marry his daughter Eudokia Laskarina . He can then turn his military forces to the despot Theodoros I Komnenos Dukas , who set himself the goal of smashing the Kingdom of Thessaloniki and who has already conquered Serres and Drama this year .
Holy Roman Empire
- February 18: Dietrich the distressed , Margrave of Meißen and Lausitz from the Wettin family , dies, possibly poisoned by his personal doctor. His son and successor Heinrich III. is six years old at the time, so his uncle Ludwig IV , Landgrave of Thuringia and Count Palatine of Saxony , takes over the guardianship. In the same year he married the Hungarian king's daughter Elisabeth .
- With the death of Günter III. From Käfernburg , the house from Käfernburg-Schwarzburg is divided into the two lines Schwarzburg-Käfernburg and Schwarzburg.
Kingdom of Sicily
- King Frederick II of Sicily added four further norms to the Assises of Capua after his arrival in Messina .
France / Occitania
- February: Amaury de Montfort breaks off the siege of Count Raymond VII of Toulouse in Castelnaudary after about six months and retreats to Carcassonne with the troops of the Albigensian crusade . Raimund pursues him and conquers Montréal , where the old crusader Alain de Roucy is killed. By the end of the year, Raimund freed Agen and the rest of the Agenais , which Montfort never gave him despite the judgment of the Fourth Lateran Council .
- November 21: After the death of his mother Alix von Thouars , her four-year-old son Johann I inherits the Duchy of Brittany under the tutelage of his father Peter Mauclerc .
In July, the papal legate Pandulf resigns from his position as advisor and in autumn the task of Peter des Roches as educator of the underage King Henry III. declared over. This leaves only Hubert de Burgh from the Regency Council installed in the previous year and takes over the actual power in the Kingdom of England . The first minor revolt by the aristocratic aristocrats around Christmas was quickly put down.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- April 15: The Leuchtenburg near Seitenroda was first mentioned in a document when Hartmann IV von Lobdeburg -Leuchtenburg settled a legal dispute in Dornburg .
- Vienna receives city rights .
- First documentary mention of Alchenstorf , Obercunnersdorf , Sollstedt , Treiten , Tschugg and Wurmberg
Culture and religion
- July 20th: Construction of Burgos Cathedral begins in Castile .
- At the second general chapter of the Dominicans in Bologna , the already existing 60 or so convents in eight provinces (one of which is Teutonia) are grouped together.
- Francis of Assisi establishes the (second) rule of the order of the Franciscans .
- The French monastery Almanarre is founded.
- The Order of Montjoie is merged with the Order of Calatrava .
- around 1221: The monastery of St. Maria von Percheio in the Latin Empire is founded.
- February 6th: The thirteen-year-old King James I of Aragón marries his cousin Eleanor of Castile in Ágreda and shortly afterwards he is awarded the sword in Tarazona . This marriage is largely mediated by Eleonora's older sister Berenguela and promoted by the Aragonese-Catalan greats who want to see their king married as early as possible so that he can father numerous children very early in order to prevent an impending vacancy in the event of his possible early death .
Date of birth saved
- October 9: Salimbene of Parma , Italian Franciscan and chronicler († after 1288)
- November 23: Alfonso X , King of Castile and León, anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire († 1284)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bonaventure , Italian Doctor of the Church and philosopher, General Minister of the Franciscans and Cardinal von Albano († 1274)
- Hugo XI. , Lord of Lusignan, Count of La Marche and Angoulême and regent of the Counties of Penthièvre and Porhoët († 1250)
- Margaret of Provence , Queen of France († 1295)
- Nisshō , Japanese Buddhist monk († 1323)
- Theobald II , Count of Bar († 1291)
- Theodor II , Emperor of Byzantium in exile in Nikaia († 1258)
- Colmar Dominican chronicler , anonymous author of an important historiographical-chronistic work († around 1305)
Born around 1221
- 1220/1221: Przemysł I , Duke of Greater Poland († 1257)
- Roger de Clifford , English knight, military man and civil servant († 1286)
- Roger de St John , English nobleman and rebel († 1265)
First half of the year
- February 10: Nicholas , Archbishop of Salerno
- February 18: Dietrich , Margrave of Meißen and Lausitz (* 1162)
- February 25th: Alix de Montmorency , French nobleman
- March 10: Pietro Catanii , companion of St. Francis of Assisi (* before 1180)
- before March 30: William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel , English magnate (* around 1174)
- April 5: Fujiwara no Masatsune , Japanese poet (* 1170)
- April 5: Oda von Tecklenburg , mistress of the Lippe (* around 1180)
- April 22nd: Hermann II , Count of Ravensberg
- June 21: Heinrich III. , Duke of Limburg and Count of Arlon (* around 1140)
Second half of the year
- August 6th: Dominic , Catholic saint and founder of the order of preachers (Dominican) (* around 1170)
- September 18: Konrad von Eberbach , abbot of the Eberbach monastery and church writer
- October 4th: William IV. , Count of Ponthieu (* 1179)
- before October 15: Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford , English magnate
- October 16: Friedrich II. , Count of Brehna, Burgrave of Wettin
- October 31: Ulrich II , Prince-Bishop of Passau
- November 21: Alix von Thouars , Duchess of Brittany and Vice Countess of Thouars (* 1201)
- November: Jalal ad-Din Hassan , Imam of the Nizarites (Assassins)
- after December 7th: Gisela von Spiegelberg , Abbess of the Fraumünster in Zurich
- December 24th: Arnold II von Matsch , Bishop of Chur
Exact date of death unknown
- Adam von Perseigne , French Cistercian abbot and theological writer (* around 1145)
- Alain de Roucy , French knight and crusader (* before 1172)
- Barukh bar Šemu'el , Jewish scholar
- Berengaria of Portugal , Queen of Denmark (* 1194)
- Bernhard II , Count of Wölpe (* 1176)
- Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk , English magnate (* around 1143)
- Guy IV. De Senlis , Lord of Chantilly, Ermenonville, Luzarches, Montépilloy and Bray, as well as grand cupbearer of France and crusader
- Nadschm ad-Dīn al-Kubrā , Islamic mystic (* 1145)
- Sheikh Adi II , leader of the Adawiyya order
- Wilhelm I , Count of Joigny