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Bonaventure ( Vittore Crivelli )

Bonaventure (da Bagnoregio) , actually Giovanni (di) Fidanza (* 1221 in Bagnoregio near Viterbo ; † July 15, 1274 in Lyon ), was one of the most important scholastic philosophers and theologians , Minister General of the Franciscans and Cardinal of Albano . He headed the Franciscan Order for 17 years until his death and is regarded as its second founder due to his organizational talent. He mediated between the Fratres de communitate , who took a moderate stand on the question of the required poverty of the Church, and the more radical spiritualists or fratizelles in the so-called poverty struggle . On behalf of the General Chapter, Bonaventure wrote an extensive biography of Franz von Assisi in 1263 . In 1273 Gregory X appointed him Cardinal Bishop of Albano and entrusted him with the preparation of the Second Council of Lyon , which was supposed to bring the union negotiations with the Greek Orthodox Church to a conclusion. He was canonized on April 14, 1482 by Sixtus IV and in 1588 by Sixtus V as Doctor Seraphicus declared Doctor of the Church . Bonaventure was one of the historically most influential theologians of scholasticism. Leo XIII. called him "prince among all mystics ". He stood in the Augustinian tradition and was influenced by the mysticism of Hugo of St. Viktor and Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagitas .

Live and act

Francis of Assisi ( José de Ribera )

Childhood and studies

A contemporary biography of Bonaventure does not exist. Before 1300 there was a biography that was written by the Spanish Franciscan Zamorra and has not been passed on. However, biographies from the 14th century refer to references in the work of Salimbenes of Parma from 1282. Bonaventure was born as Johannes Fidanza in Bagnoregio , Latium . The exact date of birth is unknown, it is sometimes dated to 1217, more often to 1221. In his biography of Francis he tells of a miracle of the saint through which he escaped death as a child. The later order name Bonaventura means something like "favorable wind" or "good future". According to legend, this name is derived from St. Francis. The seriously ill child was blessed by Francis of Assisi and soon recovered. When Francis was dying in 1226, the mother and the boy visited him again and Francis exclaimed: "O buona ventura". At the age of 18 he enrolled as a layman in 1235 at the University of Paris ( Sorbonne ). There he first studied the seven liberal arts . The main focus was on language: grammar, rhetoric and logic. Johannes studied with Alexander von Hales , the founder of the commentary on the sentences of Petrus Lombardus . At that time Hales joined the Franciscans, giving the order a chair in theology. Hales valued and promoted Johannes.

First years of the order

Bonaventure joins the Franciscan Order ( Francisco de Herrera )

In Paris, Fidanza entered the order of the Franciscans ( fratres minores , English Minorites) in 1243, according to other sources in 1244 or even as early as 1238, and took on the religious name Bonaventure. He studied theology from 1243 to 1248. At the end of his studies, Bonaventure commented on the Gospel of Luke . Then he received permission from the Minister General of his order, John of Parma , to read himself in Paris. For the next two years he lectured on the Bible. From 1250 to 1252, as a student of Hales, he also commented on the sentences of Petrus Lombardus. In 1254 he was appointed to the theological chair of the Franciscans. There he taught until 1257. In these three years he revised his commentary on Luke and wrote about the Gospel of John and the Old Testament books Jesus Sirach and Wisdom. He held seminars on the knowledge of Christ ( De scientia Christi ), on the mystery of the Trinity ( De mysterio Trinitatis ) and on the evangelical perfection ( De perfectione evangelica ). In it he defended the life of the Friars Minor against theologians who did not belong to any mendicant order . His work De reductione artium ad theologiam , a representation of the system of sciences, is dated to the time of his teaching activity from 1255 to 1257 . At the end of his teaching activity he wrote the Breviloquium , a short introduction to theology.

Minister General of the Order

When Bonaventure was elected general minister of his order as his successor on the proposal of John of Parma in 1257, he gave up his academic career. In April he wrote a circular to his order in which he exhorted the brothers to improve the order's ailing reputation. From 1259 to 1260 he wrote three tracts on the spiritual education of the brothers: Self-talk about four spiritual exercises ( Soliloquium de quatuor mentalibus exercitiis ), The tree of life ( Lignum vitae ) and On the threefold path ( De Triplici via ). At this time Bonaventure also wrote his work Reisebericht des Geistes zu Gott ( Itinerarium mentis in Deum ). It is considered to be Bonaventura's main mystical work and a high point of speculative thought in the Christian Occident. The reason for this work was a visit by Bonaventura in 1259 to Mount Alverna near Arezzo. In the prologue he recalls the stigmatization of Francis on this mountain two years before his death and at the same time of year, namely in September or October 1224. This inspires Bonaventure to write a theological treatise on the knowledge of God. The totality of things including the knowing soul is compared by him with a ladder on which the ascent to God can take place. The last steps presuppose a graceful formation by the light of eternal truth.

Second donor

Bonaventure receives the emperor's ambassadors ( Francisco de Zurbarán )

In 1260 Bonaventure led the general chapter of the Franciscans for the first time, which took place that year in Narbonne , France . It ratified its draft statutes for the life of the brothers. The general chapter in Narbonne commissioned him in 1260 to write a new biography of Francis of Assisi, and the general chapter in Paris in 1266 declared his work for the only authentic biography of Francis. It decided to forbid the brethren from reading any other Vita of the Saint from then on, and ordered that all previous writings about him be destroyed. Two versions of the Legenda Sancti Francisci were distributed. The more extensive Legenda maior was binding, the shorter Legenda minor was more popular . Bonaventure steered the Franciscans on a moderate and lasting course, which earned him the reputation of the "second founder of the order". He reconciled the adherents of the strictest poverty ( spirituales ) with the representatives of a more comfortable view of life ( conventuales ). In the nine years from 1257 to 1266 Bonaventure went on pastoral journeys through France and Italy, in the Franciscan style on foot. Eventually he returned to Paris, where his brothers were attacked by conservative theologians and radical philosophers. He re-published a series of publications, mainly on moral subjects: On the Ten Commandments ( Collationes de decem praeceptis ), 1267, On the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit ( Collationes de septem donis Spiritus sancti ), 1268, a defense of the Friars Minor ( Apologia pauperum ), 1269. Between Easter and Pentecost 1273 he delivered an unfinished series of large-scale public university sermons on the six-day work ( Collationes in Hexaemeron ) in Paris , which are only preserved through audience notes. On the basis of the six days of creation, the sequence of stages of human knowledge up to the completion of the visio beatifica should be developed. In doing so, Bonaventura took a stand against philosophy professors at the University of Paris who wanted to emancipate an independent philosophy and whose teaching, based on Aristotle and Averroes, was incompatible with central beliefs.

Cardinal and Council

Laying out Bonaventura (Francisco de Zurbarán)

In the last years of his life he had become one of the most influential figures in Christianity. During the three-year vacancy in the papal office from 1268 to 1271, Bonaventure preached an important sermon in Viterbo and probably mediated the convening of the conclave . He was considered a promising candidate, but is said to have proposed Teobaldi Visconti as Pope himself. After his installation as Pope, Gregory X appointed Bonaventure Cardinal Bishop of Albano on May 28, 1273 , when he preached on the reunification of the Orthodox and Roman Churches. At the same time, the Pope entrusted him with the preparation and management of the business of the Second Council of Lyons , which was to finally lead the union negotiations with the Greek Church to a success. On May 20, 1274, the Franciscans elected Girolamo Masci d'Ascoli, who later became Pope Nicholas IV, as Minister General to succeed Bonaventura . The goal of ecclesiastical reunification seemed to have almost been achieved at the second council of Lyon, when Bonaventure died on July 15, 1274 after a short and serious illness at the age of 53 or 57. The following day the Pope, the King of Aragon , the cardinals and other council members attended the solemn funeral . The mourning office was held by the Dominican Pietro von Tarantasia, who later became Pope Innocent V.

Philosophy and theology

Critique of Philosophy

Bonaventura's thinking gains its speculative power in the knowledgeable examination of the Aristotelian university philosophy in Paris and is sustainably motivated and shaped by Neoplatonic philosophy. It ties in with Augustine von Hippo , Boëthius , Bernhard von Clairvaux , the Victorians and above all with Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita . Bonaventure strives for the unity of Christian wisdom against the duality of philosophy and theology. For him, the basis of all knowledge demanding security is that the existence of God is an indubitable truth.

“The faculty of knowledge has in itself, as it is created, a light which is sufficient to reject that doubt (whether God is) far from itself [...]. In the case of fooling, this faculty of knowledge fails more voluntarily than inevitably [...]. "

- Bonaventure, Quaestiones disputatae de mysterio Trinitatis I, 1 ad 1.2.3

God's non-existence turns out to be impossible for Bonaventure. He criticizes a method followed by many Dominicans that is based on the understanding of science, the method, the terms and some theses of Aristotle. This approach is insufficient for Bonaventure. Aristotle certainly does recognize parts of the truth. As a pagan, however, he does not have the authority of the church fathers. Even the whole philosophy of Aristotle could not explain the momentary movement of a star. For Bonaventure, God is not a philosophical conclusion, but a living presence. Aristotle and his followers were wrong in contesting the archetypal image, divine providence, and the divine arrangement of the course of the world ( triple error ). They are blind to the claimed eternity of the world, the assumed unity of intellect, and the denied punishment and bliss after this life ( triple blindness ). The full form of truth can only be revealed through knowledge of the divine Logos. Since this further knowledge manifests itself in biblical and ecclesiastical tradition, these sources of knowledge should guide. At the beginning of his fourth Collatio in Hexaemeron there is a sharp criticism of the philosophers. One must be careful not to recommend and appreciate the statements and theses of the philosophers too much. These are incapable of separating themselves from darkness and error and have become entangled in even greater errors:

“[...] and by calling themselves wise, they became fools; by being proud of their knowledge, they became followers of Lucifer. "

- Bonaventura, Collationes in Hexaemeron IV, 1 (V 349a)

About God and the world

Bonaventure da Bagnoregio (Tiberio d'Assisi)

Whoever places his hope in God is blessed, but whoever seeks his salvation in the world is vain. God himself stands in his bliss and is therefore able to support the hopeful by participating in his bliss. By participating in his fullness he gives fulfillment. He gives rest and peace. God is blessed in eternal enjoyment of himself and can therefore also grant man the enjoyment of his bliss. The world does not rest in itself and cannot support anyone. Because the world is only a shadow of the eternal, it can never really fill man who was created for the eternal. Nor can it provide rest or peace. Whoever tries to enjoy the world will suffer damage. The world simulates sublimity, fulfillment and wisdom, but in truth it arouses arrogance, greed and curiosity. Through this man becomes vain inwardly and spiritually sterile. Curiosity seduces him into a chatty "world wisdom" that wanders around unsteadily and aimlessly. Because of his arrogance, people fail to recognize their own inadequacy and exclude themselves from seeing God. Before God this is folly which does not lead to salvation. Christ is the only true teacher, without him no one attains the knowledge of God that leads to salvation. He cannot be caught by philosophizing.

The Trinitarian Structure of God

God is above and at the same time in everything without abolishing his transcendence and absoluteness. Bonaventure understands the divine self-statement “I am who I am” ( Ex 3.13-15  EU ) as the pure, first and absolute being, the pure and highest unity and the simple par excellence. This timelessly excludes every way of being possible and thus of non-being as well as every form of real difference from which a whole could be composed. God is good itself ( ipsum bonum ) and being itself ( ipsum esse ). Since God is pure being, his non-being is unthinkable. Since he is good itself, nothing greater can be thought of beyond God. The good communicates itself ( bonum est diffusivum sui ), there is self-development or self-disclosure.

“For the good is called that which flows out from itself; the greatest good is therefore that which exudes itself to the highest degree. The highest self-efflux, however, can only be something real and inward, something that stands in-itself and personal, something that corresponds to the essence and that is voluntary, something free and necessary, something ceaseless and perfect. "

- Bonaventura, Itinerarium mentis in Deum VI 2 (V 310b)

Since this has to take place internally, substantially and personally, an internal differentiation takes place: The highest good is communicated as father forever in the witness of the son and breath of the spirit. The communication of the Trinitarian persons is absolute with Bonaventure: In him the whole substance and essence gives itself to the other. The relation of the three persons is to be understood as an inseparable coexistence ( circumincessio ) of each different self in inner trinitarian love. Bonaventure depicted this mutual coexistence of the divine persons with the light metaphor :

“As the visible sun shines and glows in its power, its light is powerful and glowing and its glow is powerful and shining, so the Father is in himself, in the Son and in the Holy Spirit, the Son in the Father, in himself and in the Holy Spirit , the Holy Spirit in the Father, in the Son and in himself in the sense of a circumincessio, which means unity in difference. "

- Bonaventure, Collationes in Hexaemeron XXI, 2

The divine Logos

In diffusio ad extra , because of his goodness or goodness, God's self-development takes place in the world that is first constituted. The many emerges from the one . Everything is created through the divine Logos. This is the spiritual image of the divine Father, who knows himself, and as an image of the one at the same time much. The divine Logos contains the exemplary ideas of all things ( rationes aeternae ) in itself. According to these the world was created. The created world could therefore be read by humans like a book until the fall of man, in which the Creator is reflected. In the created things (images of the ideas) man perceived the Creator and was thus led to the worship and love of God. After the fall, man no longer understood the language of this book. But the Holy Scriptures help man again to understand the imagery and similitude of creation and thus to arrive at the love and knowledge of God. All created things are composed of matter and form. The substantial form of physical things is light. It was created by God on the first day before anything else. All things therefore participate in it in different ways.

Human knowledge

Bonaventure (Vittorio Crivelli)

Secure knowledge is possible because God works in people. The creature as a trace ( vestigium ) relates to God as to a principle, insofar as it is from him. As an image ( imago ) it behaves like an object when it recognizes God. As a similarity ( similitudo ) it is to God like a poured gift of grace, provided that God dwells in it.

“But in a work that is performed by a creature in the manner of an image ( imago ), God works in the manner of a moving standard; such is the work of certain and certain knowledge. "

- Bonaventure, Quaestiones disputatae de scientia Christi q. 4, c (24a)

The ephemeral and changeable world enters the human soul through the gates of perception of the senses. The excellence of knowledge ( nobilitas cognitionis ), however, depends on the immutability of the object of knowledge and the infallibility of the subject of knowledge. For cognitio plena , full knowledge, a return to an unchangeable truth is necessary. The soul not only has to grasp the things conceptually and categorically in their changeable being, but for certain knowledge it belongs rather that it touches the things “in some way, provided they are in the eternal creative art.” A created being can only be known when the mind is supported by the insight into perfect, absolute being. Bonaventure thus ties in with the Platonic doctrine of ideas . The ideas are the object of knowledge insofar as something is known through them: As a formal principle of knowledge, they vouch for security on the side of the object of knowledge and the knowing subject. Only the specifying properties and material principles come from experience. For Bonaventure, knowing is a remembering ; only what is present in our memory can be grasped. The true being is not mixed up with potentiality, it is not the particular being in the individual things. It is pure actuality, it is the divine being as the first known. The first being lies ahead of all created beings and is represented by them.

Virtue and soul

Cardinal Bonaventure ( Peter Paul Rubens )

According to Bonaventure, the virtues work in the human soul in three ways: They direct the soul towards the goal, straighten its feelings and heal the sick. None of these three modes of action can be properly understood without revelation. Christian love, which presupposes faith and hope, is the only remedy for the sickness of the soul and at the same time the form of all virtues. Full virtue is not possible without grace. The individual soul is an immortal spiritual substance and at the same time the form of the organic body. The knowledge of truth is innate in the soul endowed with reason. She strives for that of which she is the image in order to attain her blissful perfection in it. It is centered on God. In order to be able to ascend to God, the soul must contemplate itself. In its own structure of memory, mind and will, the soul recognizes the trinitarian structure of God and itself as God's image.

The way to God

Many are knowing, but few are wise. According to Bonaventure there is no safe transition ( transitus ) from knowledge to wisdom. The transitus is an exercise that leads from the pursuit of knowledge to the pursuit of holiness and then to the pursuit of wisdom. It is the task of the wise to teach the path of knowledge that leads to salvation. For this one must love the eternal heavenly and despise the only present, only transitory earthly. Knowledge as an abstraction of sensory perception is insufficient. True knowledge comes only in enlightenment. This is done through the divine Logos. It is present in the human mind as unknowable light. In it the ideas are immanent as exemplary forms of everything created. It is true that these cannot be directly recognized by the human spirit, but the Logos enables man to have true knowledge in enlightenment. The soul should grasp the love of God and the love of God in four spiritual exercises:

  1. First the soul should direct the light of contemplation inwards. In this way she should gain insight into her own naturalness, sin and grace.
  2. Then the soul should let the light of contemplation shine outwards. Through this she realizes how questionable wealth, worldly grandeur and earthly greatness are.
  3. Furthermore, she should direct the light of contemplation on the lower. Thereby she gains insight into the distress of death, the divine judgment and the torment of hell.
  4. After all, the soul should direct the contemplative light to the highest in order to see the joys of heaven.

The goal of the soul is to attain the first, completely spiritualized principle. The way leads them from the world and man as the exemplar to God as the original ground. In the mystical rapture of the soul the intellectual activity comes to rest. The mind is completely absorbed in God and finds peace in ecstatic union with God. But this path cannot be traced, it has to be walked and experienced yourself.


Eight years after his death, the first catalog of his works was published by Salimbene de Adam (1282). Further catalogs followed by Heinrich von Gent (1293), Ubertino da Casale (1305), Tolomeo da Lucca (1327) and in the Chronica XXIV generalium ministrorum (between 1365 and 1368). In the 15th century there were no fewer than 50 editions of his works. The Roman edition in seven volumes, which was produced from 1588 to 96 on behalf of Sixtus V , was particularly famous . It was reprinted in Metz 1609 and Lyon 1678 with slight improvements. A fourth edition in 13 volumes appeared in Venice in 1751 and reprinted in Paris in 1864. All of these editions contained works that were later sorted out and supplemented by others. The more recent research is largely based on the Quaracchi edition in ten volumes from 1882 to 1902.

Alexander of Alexandria († 1314) wrote a Summa quaestionum S. Bonaventura . Further comments are from Johannes von Erfurt († 1317), Verilongus († 1464), Brulifer († 1497), de Combes († 1570), Trigosus († 1616), Coriolano († 1625), Zamora († 1649), Bontemps († 1672), Hauzeur († 1676), Bonelli († 1773) and others. Sixtus V set up a Bonaventure chair in Rome, and there are other chairs named after him in Ingolstadt , Salzburg , Valenzia and Osuna. Benedict XVI. habilitated in 1957 at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich with Gottlieb Söhngen with the text The History of Theology of Saint Bonaventure .

Bonaventura's writings influenced the councils of Vienne (1311), Constance (1417), Basel (1435), Florence (1438), Trient (1546) as well as the First Vatican Council (1870) and the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965).

In Dante's Divine Comedy , Bonaventure appears in the fourth heaven, the sun heaven. The Franciscan narrates the life story of St. Dominic, while the Dominican Thomas Aquinas tells the life story of St. Francis.


Bonaventure (Claude François, called Frère Luc)
Work editions
Selected works and single editions

For collected information on dating and attributions cf. Balduinus Distelbrink: Bonaventurae scripta, authentica dubia vel spuria critice recensita , SSFr5, Rome 1975. The compilation by Rolf Schönberger et al. (Ed.): Alcuin. Regensburg Infothek der Scholastik , overview page on Bonaventure, as well as the list of works for the complete catalog of the cradle prints .

  • Isaac Syrus. Bonaventure. (Collective manuscript) Düsseldorf: Kreuzherrenkonvent, around 1460–1465 ( digitized version )
  • Itinerarium mentis in deum. [Cologne]: [Arnold ter Hoernen], [around 1472] ( digitized version )
  • Sermones de tempore et de sanctis . - Zwolle: Peter van Os, or rather Johannes de Vollenhoe, 1479. Digitized edition
  • Opuscula: P. 1.2. [Cologne]: Bartholomäus von Unkel; Johann Koelhoff the Elder Ä., [[Shortly after 28.VI.] 1484 - [around 1485]] ( digitized version )
  • Opuscula , Cologne 1486. ​​( digitized version )
  • Opuscula: P. 1-2 . Strasbourg: [Printer of Jordanus (= Georg Husner)] 1, 1495. ( digitized version )
    • Opuscula: P. 1 . Strasbourg: [Printer of Jordanus (= Georg Husner)] 1, 1495. ( digitized version )
    • Opuscula: P. 2 . Strasbourg: [Printer of Jordanus (= Georg Husner)] 1, 1495. ( digitized version )
  • Sermones mediocres de tempore . - Strasbourg: Printer of Jordanus (= Georg Husner), 1496. Digitized edition
  • Commentarius in IV libros sententiarum Petri Lombardi (1248–55)
  • Quaestiones disputatae:
    • De mysterio trinitatis (1254–55), online: ital.
    • De scientia Christi (1254), Online: span .; Translated by Andreas Speer, Meiner, Hamburg 1992
    • De perfectione evangelica (1254ff)
  • Meditationes vitae Christi . Johann Grüninger, Strasbourg around 1496. ( digitized version )
  • De reductione artium ad theologiam (1254–55 / 1269?)
  • Breviloquium (between 1253–57)
    • Breviloquium. An outline of theology, trans. v. Fanni Imle with the assistance of Julian Kaup, 1931.
    • Online: franz.
  • Soliloquium de quatuor mentalibus exercitiis (after 1257)
    • Soliloquium de quatuor mentalibus exencitiis. Solo conversation about the four spiritual exercises, transl. Josef Hosse, 1958.
    • Online: franz.
  • MS-B-203 - (Ps .-) Anselmus Cantuariensis. Bonaventure. (Ps .-) Augustine. (Ps .-) Bernardus Claraevallensis. Arnulfus de Boeriis. Petrus de Alliaco (theological collective manuscript). Kreuzherrenkonvent (?), Düsseldorf [around 1508] ( digitized version )

Remembrance day


  • Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz:  Bonaventure (Johannes Fidanza). In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 1, Bautz, Hamm 1975. 2nd, unchanged edition Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-013-1 , Sp. 679-681.
  • Jacques Guy Bougerol: Saint Bonaventure . Etudes sur les sources de sa pensée. Northampton: Variorum Reprints, 1989 (= Collected studies series, 306)
  • Christopher M. Cullen: Bonaventure , Great medieval thinkers, Oxford University Press, Oxford a. a. 2006, ISBN 978-0-19-514926-5 .
  • F. Nitzsch Gaß:  Bonaventura, Johannes Fidanza . In: Realencyklopadie for Protestant Theology and Church (RE). 3. Edition. Volume 3, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1897, pp. 282-287.
  • Stefan Gilson: Saint Bonaventure , Hegner, Hellerau 1929
  • Étienne Gilson : The Philosophy of St. Bonaventura , WBG, Darmstadt 2nd edition 1960
  • Dieter Hattrup : Ecstatic History . The development of the christological epistemology of Bonaventura. Schöningh, Paderborn 1993. - 341 pages, ISBN 3-506-76273-7
  • Dieter Hattrup: Bonaventure between mysticism and mystification . Who is the author of De Reductione? In: ThGl 87 (1997) 541-562
  • Klaus Hemmerle : Theology as a successor . Bonaventure, a way for today. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau, 1975, ISBN 3-451-17183-X (online)
  • Ulrich Horst: Evangelical poverty and church : Thomas von Aquin and the poverty controversies of the 13th and early 14th centuries, sources and research on the history of the Dominican order. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-05-002248-5 , 144-167 et passim.
  • Ulrich Köpf : The beginnings of theological philosophy of science in the 13th century. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1974, (= contributions to historical theology 49), ISBN 3-16-136072-9 .
  • Francesco P. Papini (ed.): S. Bonaventura 1274-1974 . Volume commemorativum anni septies centenarii a morte S. Bonaventurae Doctoris Seraphici, cura et studio Commissionis Internationalis Bonaventurianae, Praeses JG Bougerol, vol. II: Studia de vita, mente, fontibus et operibus S. Bonaventurae, Grottaferrata 1973
  • A. Pompei (ed.): San Bonaventura maestro di vita francescana e di sapienza cristiana . Atti del Congresso internazionale per il VII centenario di San Bonaventura di Bagnoreggio, Roma, 19-26 September 1974. Pontificia Facoltà teologica "San Bonaventura", Roma 1976
  • John Quinn: The Historical Constitution of St. Bonaventure's Philosophy . Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto 1973.
  • Joseph Ratzinger : The theology of history of St. Bonaventure . Schnell & Steiner, Munich 1959; New edition: Eos Verlag, Sankt Ottilien 1992
  • Sofia Vanni Rovighi: San Bonaventura .: Vita e Pensiero, Milano 1974 (= Filosofia e scienze umane, 2)
  • Kurt Ruh : Bonaventure German. A contribution to the German Franciscan mysticism and scholasticism. Bern 1956 (= Bibliotheca germanica. Volume 7) (also: Philosophical habilitation thesis, University of Basel 1953).
  • Hermann Schalück : Poverty and Salvation . A study of the idea of ​​poverty in the theology of Bonaventura, 1971, ISBN 3-506-79414-0
  • Hartmut Sommer: Franziskus, Bonaventura and the places of the early Franciscan movement in Umbria, Latium and Tuscany , in: Die große Mystiker , Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2008, ISBN 978-3-534-20098-6 .
  • Andreas Speer : Bonaventure . In: Theo Kobusch (ed.): Philosophers of the Middle Ages . WBG, Darmstadt 2000, pp. 167-185
  • Ildefons Vanderheyden (ed.): Bonaventura. Studies on its history of effects . Lectures of the Bonaventure Congress from 10. – 12. September 1974 in Münster / Westphalia. Dietrich-Coelde Verlag, Werl 1974
  • S. Bonaventura francescano. Convegno del Centro di Studi sulla spiritualità medievale, 14-17 ottobre 1973. Accademia Tudertina, Rimini / Maggioli / Todi 1974 (= Convengi del Centro di Studi sulla spiritualità medievale, 14)

Web links

Commons : Bonaventura  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Bonaventura  - Sources and full texts (Latin)
Secondary literature

Individual evidence

  1. Ferdinand Peter Moog and Axel Karenberg : A report of St. Bonaventure in the mirror of the history of neurology. In: Würzburger medical history reports 23, 2004, pp. 169–178; here: p. 174 f.
  2. Their authenticity is generally considered to be certain in research, but recently Dieter Hattrup has questioned it for reasons of content.
  3. See Kurt Ruh , Geschichte der occländischen Mystik , Vol. 2, Munich 1993, p. 412 ff.
  4. Itinerarium mentis in Deum V, 1 (V 308a); Quaestiones disputatae de scientia Christi, q. 4, c (V 24a)
  5. ^ Jacques Le Goff , Franz von Assisi , Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2006, p. 41
  6. Andreas Speer, Bonaventura , in: Theo Kobusch (Ed.), Philosophen des Mittelalters, WBG, Darmstadt 2000, p. 168
  7. Werner Beierwaltes , Platonism in Christianity , Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 86
  8. Andreas Speer , Bonaventura , in: Theo Kobusch (Ed.), Philosophen des Mittelalters, WBG, Darmstadt 2000, p. 169
  9. Quaestiones disputatae de mysterio Trinitatis, q. 1, a. 1, c (V 50a)
  10. See Étienne Gilson, The Philosophy of St. Bonaventura , 2nd edition Darmstadt, WBG 1960, p. 8
  11. Collationes in Hexaemeron VI, 3-4 (V 361 from); Collationes in Hexaemeron VII, 1-2 (365 from)
  12. Collationes in Hexaemeron XIX, 12 (V 422a)
  13. ^ Sermones selecti de rebus theologicis - Sermo IV. Christ unus omnium magister
  14. Itinerarium mentis in Deum V (V 310a ff.)
  15. Werner Beierwaltes, Platonism in Christianity , Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 89
  16. Jan Rohls, Philosophy and Theology in Past and Present , Tübingen 2002, p. 212
  17. Itinerarium mentis in Deum VI 2 (V 310b f.)
  18. Werner Beierwaltes, Platonism in Christianity , Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 95 f.
  19. Werner Beierwaltes, Platonism in Christianity , Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 92
  20. Collationes in Hexaemeron (German conversations about the six-day work)
  21. Cf. Itinerarium mentis in Deum II, 6 (V 301a)
  22. Quaestiones disputatae de scientia Christi, q. 4, c (23b-24a)
  23. Itinerarium mentis in Deum III, 3 (V 304a)
  24. See Andreas Speer, Bonaventura , in: Theo Kobusch (Ed.), Philosophen des Mittelalters, WBG, Darmstadt 2000, p. 173
  25. Itinerarium mentis in Deum III, 1 (V 303b)
  26. Itinerarium mentis in Deum V, 3 (V 308b-309a); see. also Collationes in Hexaemeron X 6 (V 387a) and Collationes in Hexaemeron I, 13 (V 331b)
  27. Collationes in Hexaemeron X, 18 (V 379b)
  28. Jean Porter, Art. Virtue , in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Volume 34, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1977, pp. 187 f.
  29. Quaestiones disputatae de mysterio Trinitatis, q. 1, a. 1, c (V 49a)
  30. Quaestiones disputatae de scientia Christi, q. 4, ad 19 (V 26a)
  31. Collationes in Hexaemeron XIX, 3 (V 420b)
  32. Soliloquium de quatuor mentalibus exercitiis (German self-talk about the four spiritual exercises)
  33. Itinerarium mentis in Deum (German pilgrim book of the soul to God)
  34. The latter dating from R. Rieger: De reductione artium ad theologiam , in: Michael Eckhert, Eilert Herms , Bernd Jochen Hilberath, Eberhard Jüngel (eds.): Lexikon der theologische Werke, Stuttgart 2003, p. 196f.
  35. Bonaventure in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
predecessor Office successor
Rudolf de Chevriêres Cardinal Bishop of Albano
Buntuvenga de Bentivenghi