Calendar overview 1281
|typhoon decides the battle of Koan in favor of Nippon , the Mongol invasion force fails.|
|1281 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||729/730 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1824/25 (southern Buddhism); 1823/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||643/644 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||679/680 (turn of the year April 21/22)|
|Jewish calendar||5041/42 (September 14/15)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1591/92 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1592/93 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1337/38 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- The Mongolian Chastening Japan Office established by Kublai Khan is preparing another attempt to invade Japan from China and Korea . However, the Chinese are faced with logistical problems, triggered by a dock workers' uprising, the death of a high-ranking Chinese officer and difficulties in filling the ship's crew, which is why they will not be ready to sail until the summer. In contrast, the Mongols are urging the Koreans, who are ready to attack in the spring, to attack the Japanese island of Tsushima without waiting for the support of the Chinese. The Japanese were able to repel this first attack due to their improved defense.
- August 15 : A typhoon , later known as Kamikaze in Japan , decides a sea battle for Japan in favor of the Japanese Kamakura shogunate , the Mongolian armed forces fail. Most of the Mongolian armed forces, allegedly over 100,000 men, are killed in the storm.
- September 23 : News of the victory reaches Bakufu . Even so, the Japanese army has to keep up with arms because another Mongol invasion is feared. Although the Mongolian invasions were successfully repulsed, they weakened the shogunate due to the high financial burden .
- Friedrich the Naughty starts a war against his father, Landgrave Albrecht the Degenerate of Thuringia .
- After the death of Count Heinrich II , his sons Eberhard I and Walram I initially jointly take over the government of the County of Zweibrücken .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- May 7th : The Dithmarsch parishes of Albersdorf , Burg , Delve , Eddelak , Hennstedt , Wesselburen and Wöhrden are first mentioned in a document.
- Eubach , Hornussen , Liesberg , Neunkirchen (Saar) , Neuthard , Rottenschwil , Selb , Spielberg , Stein , Torgelow , Untersteinach , Wallbach and Wallerstädten are first mentioned in a document.
- King Rudolf I of Habsburg rises Hagenbach for free city .
science and technology
- The Islamic scholar Kutb al Din al Schirasi describes a planet model that deviates from the Ptolemaic model , in which uniform movements are more important.
- No other city in Germany had more students in the second half of the 13th century than Erfurt . In the Carmen satiricum occulti Erfordensis of Nikolaus von Bibra (/ 1284 ) the number of 1000 Erfurt scholars is given.
- Konrad von Würzburg begins work on the historical epic Trojan War , which remains unfinished due to his death in 1287 .
- January 27th : Gertrud von Helfta , Cistercian , experiences a “mystical” key experience that she later records. Since then she has reported her visions, apparitions, auditions, meditations and prayers to her fellow sisters, who they record or which Gertrud writes down herself.
- After the death of Bruno von Schauenburg on February 17th, the cathedral chapter unanimously elects Theoderich von Neuhaus as his successor as Bishop of Olomouc . It is the first choice that the cathedral chapter can make independently. It is directed by the Archbishop of Mainz , Werner von Eppstein , whose church province also includes Bohemia and Moravia . The episcopal ordination of Theodoric takes place in the same year by the Prague bishop Tobias of Bechyně .
- February 22nd : The French Cardinal Simon de Brion is under pressure from Charles I of Naples-Sicily after a six-month conclave in Viterbo as the successor to the late Nicholas III. elected Pope and takes the name Martin IV . One of his measures concerns the Dominicans : In a privilege , “the provincial, in association with the definitors attached to him, is given the power to send preachers and confessors, a right that was previously only possessed by the general of the order ”.
- Bishop Otto von Rietberg founds the Dominican Order in Warburg .
- The Dominican and hagiographer Jacobus de Voragine becomes Provincial of the Order of Lombardy.
nature and environment
- Germany : The winter is cold and snowy.
Date of birth saved
- March 29 : Castruccio Castracani , Italian condottiere and Duke of Lucca († 1328 )
- December 25 : Alice de Lacy , English noblewoman, Countess of Lincoln, Lancaster and Leicester in their own right († 1348)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond , Anglo-Irish nobleman († 1307 )
- Juri I. Daniilowitsch , Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir († 1325 )
- Külüq Khan , Emperor of China from the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty († 1311 )
- Peter Mauley, 2nd Baron Mauley , English nobleman († around 1336 )
- Orhan I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and founder of the Janissaries († 1359 )
Born around 1281
- Agnes of Hungary , Queen of Hungary († 1364 )
- Richard de Gray , English nobleman and military man († 1335 )
- Hamdallah Mustaufi , Iranian historian and geographer at the time of the Ilkhan († around 1344 )
Date of death secured
- February 16 : Gertrud von Hohenberg , Countess von Habsburg, Kyburg and Löwenstein and as Anna von Habsburg, Roman-German Queen (* around 1225 )
- February 17th : Bruno von Schauenburg , Bishop of Olmütz, advisor and diplomat to the Bohemian King as well as marshal and royal deputy in Styria (* around 1205 )
- March 30 : Konrad von Mure , canon and director of the collegiate school at Zurich's Grossmünster (* around 1210 )
- May 14 : Wladislaus I , Duke of Opole-Ratibor (* around 1225 )
- July 22nd : Johann von Ennsthal , Bishop of Chiemsee and Bishop of Gurk
- September 10 : Johann II , Margrave of Brandenburg (* around 1237 )
- September 20 : Isengard von Hanau , Countess von Weilnau (* around 1225 )
- September 20 : Reinhard I. von Hanau , Herr von Hanau (* around 1225 )
- December 20 : Hartmann von Habsburg , son of the Roman-German King Rudolf I and Count of Habsburg (* around 1263 )
- December 24th : Henry V , Count of Luxembourg, Count of Laroche and Margrave of Arlon (* 1216 )
Exact date of death unknown
- before July 25th: Uilleam, 5th Earl of Mar , Scottish nobleman and Guardian of Scotland
- after October 18th: Guy de Lusignan , French-English crusader and lord of Couhé and Cognac
- Alina Basset , English nobleman