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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Japanese attack ships.  Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, ca.1291
A typhoon decides the battle of Koan in favor of Nippon , the Mongol invasion force fails.
1281 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 729/730 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1273/74
Buddhist calendar 1824/25 (southern Buddhism); 1823/24 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 66th (67th) cycle

Year of the Metal Snake辛巳 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Dragon 庚辰)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 643/644 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 659/660
Islamic calendar 679/680 (turn of the year April 21/22)
Jewish calendar 5041/42 (September 14/15)
Coptic calendar 997/998
Malayalam calendar 456/457
Seleucid era Babylon: 1591/92 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1592/93 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1319
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1337/38 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events


  • The Mongolian Chastening Japan Office established by Kublai Khan is preparing another attempt to invade Japan from China and Korea . However, the Chinese are faced with logistical problems, triggered by a dock workers' uprising, the death of a high-ranking Chinese officer and difficulties in filling the ship's crew, which is why they will not be ready to sail until the summer. In contrast, the Mongols are urging the Koreans, who are ready to attack in the spring, to attack the Japanese island of Tsushima without waiting for the support of the Chinese. The Japanese were able to repel this first attack due to their improved defense.
Japanese samurai board Mongolian ships, Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba ,
  • August 15 : A typhoon , later known as Kamikaze in Japan , decides a sea ​​battle for Japan in favor of the Japanese Kamakura shogunate , the Mongolian armed forces fail. Most of the Mongolian armed forces, allegedly over 100,000 men, are killed in the storm.
  • September 23 : News of the victory reaches Bakufu . Even so, the Japanese army has to keep up with arms because another Mongol invasion is feared. Although the Mongolian invasions were successfully repulsed, they weakened the shogunate due to the high financial burden .


Coat of arms of the Walramids of Zweibrücken

City rights and first documentary mentions

science and technology

  • The Islamic scholar Kutb al Din al Schirasi describes a planet model that deviates from the Ptolemaic model , in which uniform movements are more important.
  • No other city in Germany had more students in the second half of the 13th century than Erfurt . In the Carmen satiricum occulti Erfordensis of Nikolaus von Bibra (/ 1284 ) the number of 1000 Erfurt scholars is given.


  • Konrad von Würzburg begins work on the historical epic Trojan War , which remains unfinished due to his death in 1287 .


Gertrud von Helfta

nature and environment

  • Germany : The winter is cold and snowy.


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1281


Date of death secured

Tumba Gertruds von Hohenberg in Basel Minster
Epitaph of Duke Władysław Opolski

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1281  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files