|James I becomes King of Sicily .|
|1285 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||733/734 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1828/29 (southern Buddhism); 1827/28 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||647/648 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||683/684 (turn of the year March 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5045/46 (August 31 / September 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1595/96 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1596/97 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1341/42 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The Aragonese Crusade of the French King Philip III, which began in the previous year . against Peter III. von Aragón is under a bad star: His supporters Charles of Anjou and Pope Martin IV die on January 7th and March 28th, respectively . Martin's successor Honorius IV also supports him, and despite bitter resistance from the population, he succeeds in conquering the city of Girona and having his son Charles I crowned King of Aragón, but he is ridiculed for lack of one Crown must be done with a cardinal's hat. At the same time, that of Peter III. General Ruggiero di Lauria called to help destroying the French fleet. Further defeats on land followed. The French army, cut off from supplies, had to retreat to Perpignan , where the dysentery broke out in the camp and Philipp died on October 5th . His nephew Philip IV , the handsome, son of Louis IX. , becomes King of France as his successor and negotiates the withdrawal over the Pyrenees with Peter.
But also Peter III. only survived the fighting briefly. He dies on November 11th in Vilafranca del Penedès . His successor as King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona and King of Valencia is his elder son Alfonso III. while his younger son James I takes over the crown of the Kingdom of Sicily .
Other events in Europe
- January 7th : After the death of Charles I of Anjou , Robert II of Artois is appointed regent of the Kingdom of Naples , because the successor Charles II is still in captivity of Peter III. , King of Aragon .
- The impostor Tile Kolup , who pretended to be the returned Emperor Friedrich II , is handed over to King Rudolf I of Habsburg by the city of Wetzlar and burned as a heretic on July 7th .
- August 15 : Amadeus V the Great succeeds his deceased uncle Philip I, Count of Savoy .
- Erik II of Norway concludes in Kalmar a comparison, mediated by the Swedish King Magnus I , with the Hanseatic League in the trade conflict over Bergen and the Øresund.
First documentary mentions
- In Nuremberg for the first time, a "Mezzerer" (cultellator) ( Cutler called) Henricus Mern villages.
science and technology
- First evidence for the use of the term Portolan
- Aegidius Romanus finally receives a chair in Paris (see 1277 ).
- Gottfried von Fontaine also teaches in Paris (see web links).
- around 1285: Lohengrin is created (Middle High German poetry of a Thuringian traveler and a Bavarian knight) ( Stein , cultural timetable ).
Religion and science
- April 2 : Giacomo Savelli is elected Pope by the conclave to succeed Martin IV, who died in Perugia on March 28, and takes the name Honorius IV . The new Pope, paralyzed in his hands and feet due to gout , is continuing the pro-France policies of his predecessor.
- Munio von Zamora becomes the 7th master of the Dominican order .
- The Gotteszell Monastery in Lower Bavaria is founded as a Cistercian monastery .
nature and environment
- Germany: Winter is very warm and has a lot of rainfall
Date of birth saved
- March 9 : Go-Nijō , 94th Tennō of Japan († 1308 )
- May 1 : Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel , English magnate († 1326 )
- December 6 : Ferdinand IV , King of Castile and León († 1312 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Adelheid von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen , Duchess of Carinthia and (titular) Queen of Bohemia († 1320 )
- Buyantu Khan , Emperor of China from the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty († 1320 )
- Michael Komnenos , Emperor and Grand Comnene of Trebizond († after 1355)
- Matthaeus Silvaticus , Italian medical writer and botanist († 1342 )
- Ziya'-ud-Din Barani , Indian historian and civil servant († after 1357)
Born around 1285
- Jacobus Novelli, under the name Benedict XII. Pope in Avignon († 1342 )
- Johann von Jandun , French philosopher and theologian († 1328 )
- Margaretha von Berg , Countess of Ravensberg († 1340 )
- Hugo Spechtshart von Reutlingen , German pedagogue, chronicler and music theorist († 1360 )
Date of death secured
- January 7th : Charles I , King of Naples, Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence (* 1227 )
- February 8 : Dietrich von Landsberg , German nobleman (* 1242 )
- February 17th : Luke of Padua , Italian Franciscan (* around 1200 )
- March 17th : Heinrich IV. Von Barmstede , Holstein nobleman
- March 28 : Simon de Brion, under the name of Martin IV Pope (* around 1210 )
- April 16 : Gottfried von Passau , Bishop of Passau
- April 23 : Heinrich III. von Geldern , Bishop of Liège (* around 1215 )
- May 12th : Berthold von Leiningen , Bishop of Bamberg
- May 20 : John I , King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem (* around 1256 )
- June 17th : Yekuno Amlak , Emperor of Ethiopia
- July 3 : Margaret of Flanders , Duchess of Brabant (* around 1251 )
- July 7th : Tile Kolup , German impostor
- July 30th : Johann I , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg (* 1249 )
- August 6th : Ludolf von Mihla , Bishop of Naumburg
- August 15 : Philip I , Count of Savoy (* around 1220 )
- August 22 : Philipp Benizi , Italian saint and founder of the order (* 1233 )
Exact date of death unknown
- June: Otto III. , Count of Weimar-Orlamünde (* 1244 )
- before November 14th: Humbert II , lord of Montpensier and Connétable of France
- Cerverí de Girona , Catalan trobador (* 1259 )
- Chim Namkha Dragpa , person of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1210 )
- Christian III , Count of Oldenburg
- John of Wales , philosopher and Franciscan
- Raymundus Martinus , Catalan Dominican (* 1220 )
- Robert de Ros , English nobleman
- Roger of San Severino , Count of San Severino and Marsico
Died around 1285
- Rutebeuf , Parisian poet