Calendar overview 1215
|Johann Ohneland signs the Magna Charta at Runnymede after the uprising of the barons .|
|1215 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||663/664 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1758/59 (southern Buddhism); 1757/58 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||577/578 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||611/612 (turn of the year May 1st / 2nd)|
|Jewish calendar||4975/76 (August 26-27)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1525/26 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1526/27 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1271/72 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- June 1st : The siege of Beijing ends with the capture of the city by the Mongols under Genghis Khan . The Chinese ruler of the Jin Dynasty , Xuānzōng, was able to move to Kaifeng in good time before Beijing's conquest .
Kingdom of England
- January 6th : Rebel English barons appear armed in front of King John Ohneland in London and present their demands to him. They mainly refer to the Charter of Liberties from 1100 . Johann arranged a negotiating meeting with them on April 26th in Northampton . Both sides then continue their preparations for a civil war.
- March 4th : The English King Johann Ohneland announces a crusade to Palestine and collects troops for it.
- May 3rd : After Johann did not show up at the agreed meeting point on April 26th, the barons present gave up their loyalty to him. You begin with the siege of Northampton Castle .
- May 17 : The City of London opens its gates to the rebels, although Johann recently granted the city the privilege of electing its own mayor. In Wales , too , rebellious princes conquered vast areas.
- May 27th : The civil warring parties reach an armistice through Archbishop Stephen Langton's mediation .
- June 15 : The English King Johann Ohneland signs the Magna Charta libertatum in Runnymede after an uprising by the barons . Most of the barons then renew their feudal silk before Johann on June 19, and the civil war is over for the time being.
- August 24th : Pope Innocent III. rejects the Magna Carta, negotiated domestically by King Johann Ohneland of England, and threatens those who obey her with excommunication . King Johann then openly disregards their regulations.
- September: Troops under the command of Hugo von Boves , who Johann wants to bring from Flanders to England for reinforcement, get caught in a storm on the canal. Numerous ships sink and the crews are killed. The rebels take advantage of this weakness of the king. You turn to the French King Philip II and offer his son Ludwig the English crown. In an advance from London they occupy Rochester Castle , the most powerful castle in Kent after Dover Castle . Reginald of Cornhill , once a loyal follower of the king, opens the gates to them.
- November 30th : Johann Ohneland recaptures Rochester Castle.
- End of November: The vanguard of a French invading army under the command of Crown Prince Ludwig lands in southern England.
- Beginning of December: A delegation of 25 barons hands over Northumberland , Cumberland and Westmorland to the Scottish King Alexander II. In Wales , Llywelyn unites seven other Welsh princes from Iorwerth and can thus conquer large parts of South Wales with seven castles, including Cardigan, in three weeks and Carmarthen Castle .
- January 8 : The papal legate Robert de Courçon calls a council in Montpellier to decide on the political order of Occitania and Languedoc . The local clergy there voted for the expropriation of Raimund VI. whose lands and titles were to be transferred to Simon de Montfort , the leader of the Albigensian crusade . Pope Innocent postponed the matter to the Fourth Lateran Council in the fall.
- Early July: Simon de Montfort conquers Toulouse , the capital of the county of Toulouse .
- November 30th : The Fourth Lateran Council resolves the formal removal of Raymond VI. and the installation of Simons de Montfort in all rights of a Count of Toulouse, with the exception of the Agenais , which is to be handed over to the young Raymond VII as his mother's inheritance.
Holy Roman Empire
- July 25 : . Frederick II is in Aachen by the Mainzer archbishop Siegfried II of Eppstein. Again crowned king.
- November: At the Fourth Lateran Council Friedrich is recognized as the Roman-German King and the lifting of the excommunication of his adversary Otto IV is rejected.
- February: The Hungarian King Andreas II marries his second wife Jolante von Courtenay in Székesfehérvár .
- Michael I. Komnenos Dukas , despot of Epirus , is murdered by a servant. He is succeeded by his half-brother Theodoros I Komnenos Dukas , who begins an expansive policy against the Kingdom of Thessaloniki . Michael 's illegitimate son of the same name goes into exile in the Principality of Achaia in the Peloponnese .
- During the 4th Crusade , the Ionian Islands are conquered by the Republic of Venice and henceforth called the Levantine Islands . Each island gets a council, which is formed from the hereditary nobility. The Tocci represent the governor of Corfu , the Orsini rule the Palatinate Kefalonia .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documentary mention of Mahlberg , Monthey and Ramstein
- Nördlingen becomes a free imperial city .
Culture and society
- Aachen goldsmiths manufacture the Karlsschrein on behalf of King Friedrich II . Friedrich personally carries out the transfer of the remains of Charlemagne and the closure of the shrine on July 27th .
- Winter: In ten months, Thomasîn von Zerclaere writes the first monumental didactic poem of the Middle Ages in German, the more than 14,700 verse Wälschen Gast .
- The knitter wrote the fantastic Arthurian novel Daniel from the blooming valley .
- around 1215: In Bologna the students of the three schools join together to form two 'Nationes'.
- around 1215: First pharmacies in German cities
Fourth Lateran Council
- November 11th : The Fourth Lateran Council begins in the Roman Lateran .
- November: Fourth Lateran Council , some of the resolutions:
- Frederick II's election as king is recognized and Otto IV is declared deposed,
- the extradition of the condemned Albigensians to secular power is demanded,
- the rule of Augustine is confirmed,
- Joachim von Fiore's views on the Trinity as tritheism are rejected,
- some of the previously common judgments like the water test are banned,
- the doctrine of transubstantiation is dogmatized.
- In addition, the confessional secrecy is formulated for the first time in a general church.
- Dominikus de Guzmán founds an order of preachers in Toulouse during the Albigensian Crusade with the aim of spreading Catholic doctrine and fighting heresy . They adopt the rule of Augustine .
- The Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria is established.
- The abbots of Ellwangen Abbey become imperial princes .
Date of birth saved
- September 23 : Kublai Khan , Great Khan of the Mongols, Emperor of China and founder of the Yuan Dynasty († 1294 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Berthold of Hohenbourg , Margrave of Vohburg-Hohenbourg († 1256 / 57 )
- David VII , King of Georgia († 1270 )
- Beatrix von Este , Queen of Hungary († 1245 )
- Heinrich II , Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben († 1266 )
- Ibn Kammuna , Jewish philosopher, theologian and doctor († 1284 )
- Johann I , Count of Dreux and Braine († 1249 )
- John of Jaffa , Count of Jaffa, Lord of Ramla and Bailli of Jerusalem († 1266 )
- Mary of Antioch-Armenia , Antiochian princess, pretender to the throne of Armenia and mistress of Toron and mistress of Tire († around 1250 )
- Otto III. , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1267 )
Born around 1215
- 1210/1215 : Master Gerhard , first Cologne cathedral builder († around 1271 )
- 1210/1215 : Gertrud von Babenberg , Countess of Thuringia († 1241 )
- Albert I of Pietengau , bishop of Regensburg († 1260 / 62 )
- Alexander Comyn, 6th Earl of Buchan , Scottish nobleman, Guardian of Scotland († 1289 )
- Agnes von Andechs , Duchess of Austria, Styria and Carinthia († 1263 )
- Dafydd ap Llywelyn , Prince of the Welsh Principality of Gwynedd († 1246 )
- Eleanor of England , English princess from the House of Plantagenet
- Emich IV. , Count of Leiningen († before 1279)
- Heinrich the Illustrious , Margrave of Meissen, Margrave of Lusatia, Landgrave of Thuringia and Palatine of Saxony († 1288 )
- Hugh d'Aubigny, 5th Earl of Arundel , English magnate († 1243 )
- Mécia Lópes de Haro , Queen of Portugal († around 1270 )
- Otto II , Count of Geldern († 1271 )
- Robert Kilwardby , Archbishop of Canterbury and Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina († 1279 )
- Roger of Leybourne , English military man and knight († 1271 )
- Wilhelm von Moerbeke , Flemish clergyman and translator († 1286 )
- between 1215 and 1220 : Wilhelm von Rubruk , Flemish Franciscan missionary and explorer († around 1270 )
Date of death secured
- February 3 : Eustace , Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely
- February 6 : Hōjō Tokimasa , Japanese prince (* 1138 )
- June 9 : Manegold von Berg , abbot of the monasteries of St. Georgen, Kremsmünster, Tegernsee and Bishop of Passau (* 1140s / 50s)
- August 1st : Eisai , founder of the Rinzai school of Japanese Zen Buddhism (* 1141 )
- September 1 : Otto I von Geldern , Bishop of Utrecht (* around 1194 )
- September: Hugo von Boves , French knight
- November 14th : Philipp von Ratzeburg , Bishop of Ratzeburg and Premonstratensian
- November 17th : Giles de Braose , Bishop of Hereford (* around 1176 )
- before December 20: William Malet , English nobleman and rebel (* around 1175 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Esclarmonde de Foix , Occitan Cathar
- Manfred II , Margrave of Saluzzo (* 1140 )
- Michael I. Komnenos Dukas , Despot of Epiros
- Roncelin of Marseille , abbot of the Saint Victor monastery in Marseille