|Béla IV of Hungary is defeated by Frederick II of Austria in the Battle of the Leitha .||interregnum begins in Austria with the death of Duke Friedrich II, the last Babenberger , in the Battle of the Leitha .|
|1246 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||694/695 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1789/90 (southern Buddhism); 1788/89 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||608/609 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||643/644 (turn of the year 18/19 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5006/07 (September 12/13)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1556/57 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1557/58 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1302/03 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The decision in the Anglo-Welsh War comes with the sudden death of Lord Dafydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd on February 25th . Demoralized by the death of their leader and weakened by the British trade blockade and a resulting famine, Maredudd ab Owain and Maredudd ap Rhys, the first Welsh lords of Central and South Wales, submit to King Henry III of England . When the royal commander Nicholas de Moels, with the help of his new Welsh allies, led an English army from Carmarthen through the highlands of Wales to Deganwy in the summer , Owain Goch and Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , the sons of Dafydd's brother Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr , saw each other inherited Gwynedd, politically isolated.
Holy Roman Empire
- April 16 : Friedrich von Hochstaden , whose brother Konrad I has been Archbishop of Cologne since 1238 , donates the County of Hochstaden , which he inherited after the death of his brother Lothar II and his son Theodorich, to the Archbishopric of Cologne for incorporation.
- May 22 : The Landgrave of Thuringia , Heinrich Raspe , is elected by a minority of the German princes in Veitshöchheim near Würzburg as the German anti-king after the Staufer Friedrich II was banned and deposed by Pope Innocent IV at the Council of Lyon last year is. The secular imperial princes stay away from the election. Because of the electoral assistance of the Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne , Siegfried III. von Eppstein and Konrad von Hochstaden, and additional donations from Rome, Heinrich soon received the nickname "Pfaffenkönig". His kingship remains controversial because Frederick's son Konrad IV refuses to renounce the throne.
- June 15 : Duke Frederick II of Austria is killed in victory in the Battle of the Leitha against King Béla IV of Hungary . With the death of Friedrich the Babenberg dynasty in Austria ends and the Austrian interregnum begins.
- August 5th : Heinrich Raspe defeats the Roman-German King Konrad IV in the battle of Frankfurt . The Swabian Counts Hartmann II von Grüningen and Ulrich I von Württemberg , who stabbed Konrad in the back at the decisive moment, played a decisive role in Konrad's defeat . Pope Innocent IV provided them with plenty of money, "7000 marks silver", and on top of that offered them the prospect of taking over Staufian property in Lower Swabia and the Swabian ducal dignity as a reward. The actual goal of this coup, to clear Konrad out of the way or to take him prisoner, is not achieved, however, because Konrad escapes to Frankfurt and finally escapes to Bavaria.
- September 1 : Conrad IV marries Princess Elisabeth of Bavaria , daughter of Duke Otto II the Illustrious , in Vohburg on the Danube . This marriage made the Wittelsbachers the most powerful German allies of the Hohenstaufen .
Western and Southern Europe
- As part of the Reconquista , the Kingdom of Castile conquered the Andalusian city of Jaén .
- Charles I of Anjou receives from his brother Ludwig IX. the county of Anjou .
- March 1245 or 1246: Pope Innocent IV accuses King Sancho II of Portugal of the worst offenses in the Bull Inter alia desiderabilia , on July 24th in Grandi non immerito he declares him an “unfit ruler” ( rex inutilis ) and his brother Alfons III. to the "administrator and defender" of the kingdom. Sancho II, however, is not prepared to accept this dismissal without a fight; civil war breaks out in Portugal .
A group of Boljars around the third wife of the late Tsar Ivan Assen II , Irene Komnene , overthrew and murder Ivan's underage successor, Kaliman I Assen, and crowned Irenes' also underage son Michael II Assen as Tsar of the Second Bulgarian Empire under the reign of his mother.
When John III. stays in Melnik during his offensive against the Bulgarian Empire , the magnates of the Kingdom of Thessaloniki conspire against the unpopular ruler Demetrios Komnenos Dukas and deliver the city to the imperial troops in December. Demetrios is deposed and banished to the fortress Lentiana in Bithynia . Thessaloniki becomes part of the expanding Nikaia Empire, which sees itself in the tradition of the Byzantine Empire .
Mongol Empire and Eastern Europe
Güyük Khan , son of Ögedei Khan and the regent Töregene Hatun , is enthroned on a Kurultai as the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire after Batu Khan of the Golden Horde managed to postpone this enthronement for years.
Svyatoslav III. Vsevolodovich becomes Grand Duke of Vladimir according to the seniority principle . He succeeds his brother Jaroslaw II. Vsevolodowitsch , who was murdered on September 30th at the court of the Mongolian Great Khan in Karakoram . Yaroslav's sons Andrei Jaroslawitsch and Alexander Jaroslawitsch Newski try to enforce their own succession to the throne and protest against Batu Khan.
- Wilhelm II of Villehardouin succeeds his late brother Gottfried II of Villehardouin as Prince of Achaia .
- February 16 : Go-Saga resigns from Japan as Tennō and hands over the throne to his son Go-Fukakusa . He himself retires to a monastery from where he holds the strings of power in his hands as an insi .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documentary mention of the places Ammerndorf , Böckten , Bottmingen , Eberhardzell , Frauenfeld , Giebenach , Gossliwil , Grafenberg , Herlazhofen , Klein-Gerau , Lichtenau (Middle Franconia) , Muotathal , Pflaumloch , Schwörstadt , Unterwaldhausen , Villars-le-Grand and Wegenstetten
- Establishment of the Ladbergen Association of Cities by the cities of Münster , Osnabrück , Minden , Coesfeld and Herford
- Elbing receives Luebian law .
science and technology
- The term ' studium generale ' is used for the first time at the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Paris . It is to be set up in the four provinces of Provence, Lombardy, Germany and England.
- Construction on the Sainte-Chapelle begins.
- With the register book of Passau's dean Albert Behaim , a manuscript is made from paper for the first time.
- In the diocese of Liege is Corpus Christi introduced.
- Konrad II von Riesenberg resigns from his office as Bishop of Hildesheim and retires to the Schönau monastery . The choice of his successor is not clear: the majority of the canons elect Heinrich I von Rusteberg , but a minority elects Hermann von Gleichen, an opposing bishop.
- At the church meeting in Skänninge , the first steps to regulate the relationship between church and empire in Sweden are initiated.
- The Dominican monastery in Neuruppin is founded.
- March 24th : Heinrich von Mechelen , Flemish philosopher, translator and astronomer († after 1310)
- Dragpa Öser , Tibetan Buddhist monk, imperial teacher of the Mongol emperors Shizu (Kublai Khan) and Chengzong (Timur Khan) († 1303 )
- John of Montecorvino , Italian soldier, doctor, judge, monk, missionary and bishop († 1328 )
- Nikkō , Japanese Buddhist monk († 1333 )
- 1244/1246 : Heinrich II. Von Virneburg , Archbishop and Elector of Cologne, Counter-Archbishop of Trier († 1332 )
First half of the year
- January 18 : Ioakim I , Bulgarian clergyman, founder of the Ivanovo Monastery, Metropolitan of Tarnowo and patriarch and saint of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- February 25 : Dafydd ap Llywelyn , Welsh prince of Gwynedd (* around 1215 )
- February 25 : Heinrich IV. Of Limburg , Duke of Limburg-Niederlothringen, Count von Berg, Lord of Monschau and Vogt von Deutz (* around 1200 )
- March 19 : Siegfried , Bishop of Regensburg (* 1188 )
- April 15th : Petrus Gonzales , Spanish Dominican and saint (“San Telmo”), seafarers missionary
- June 4th : Isabella of Angoulême , in her own right Countess of Angoulême and Queen Consort of England (* around 1188 )
- before June 8th: John de Neville , English forest judge and crusader
- June 15 : Frederick II, the pugnacious , last Duke of Austria and Styria from the Babenberg family (* 1211 )
- June 16 : Lutgard von Tongern , Flemish Cistercian and mystic, saint of the Catholic Church (* 1182 )
- June 22nd : Theodora Angela , Princess of Byzantium, Duchess of Austria and Styria, Cistercian in Abbey Lilienfeld (* around 1182 )
- before June 24th: Richard of Chilham , English nobleman and military man
- June 28th : Friedrich II. Von Parsberg , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
Second half of the year
- September 20 : Michael von Tschernigow , Prince of Perejaslavl, Prince of Novhorod-Siverskyj, Prince of Tschernigow, Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Halitsch and Grand Prince of Kiev (* 1185 )
- September 30 : Yaroslav II. Vsevolodowitsch , Grand Prince of Vladimir (* 1190 )
- September: Rudolf II. , Count of Eu and Lord of Issoudun (* around 1200 )
- after October 13: Matteo Rosso Orsini , Roman Senator (* around 1178 )
- October: Mieszko II. , Duke of Opole-Ratibor (* around 1220 )
- November 3 : Robert of Bingham , Bishop of Salisbury
- November 8 : Berenguela , Queen of Castile (* 1180 )
- November 26th : Gerhard von Malberg , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* before 1200)
- December 1 : Eberhard von Regensberg , Archbishop of Salzburg (* around 1170 )
- December 5 : Thomas Gallus , French philosopher and scholastic (* 1190 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alice , regent of Cyprus and Jerusalem (* 1196 )
- Richard d'Argentine , English nobleman
- Henry Audley , English nobleman (* around 1175 )
- Érard I. von Brienne-Ramerupt , lord of Ramerupt and Venizy, pretender to the county of Champagne (* around 1170 )
- Gottfried II of Villehardouin , Prince of Achaia (* 1195 )
- Kai Chosrau II , Sultan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
- Kaliman I. Assen , Tsar of Bulgaria (* 1234 )
- Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland , Scottish nobleman (* 1198 )
- Walter IV. , Count of Brienne and Jaffa (* 1205 )