Calendar overview 1248
|Louis IX of France embarks on the sixth crusade to relieve the crusader states .|
Castillo de Santa Bárbara above Alicante
is conquered by the Kingdom of Castile .
|1248 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||696/697 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1791/92 (southern Buddhism); 1790/91 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||610/611 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||645/646 (turn of the year 25/26 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5008/09 (September 18-19)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1558/59 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1559/60 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1304/05 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February: During the siege of the renegade city of Parma , Emperor Friedrich II suffers a heavy defeat on his Italian expedition .
- June 19 : Duke Otto VIII von Meranien from the Andechs family dies childless. His Tyrolean possessions thus go to his father-in-law Albert III. of Tyrol .
- November 1st : King Wilhelm of Holland from the Gerulfinger family is crowned in Aachen , which he has conquered after a long siege, by the Archbishop of Cologne , Konrad von Hochstaden . Since most of the secular imperial princes are in favor of the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, Wilhelm retires to his home country of Holland in the same year .
- 4th January : Portugal under the Burgundian rulers : After the death of his brother Sancho II , Alfonso III climbs . who previously acted as regent , the Portuguese throne.
- November 23 : The city of Seville is after several months of siege as part of the Reconquista by Ferdinand III. recaptured for the Kingdom of Castile . This ends the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in al-Andalus . Muhammad I. ibn Nasr , Emir of Granada , makes military victories in Castile. In return he can assert his rule for the Nasrids as the only Muslim ruler on the Iberian Peninsula.
- December 4th : The fortress above Alicante , today's Castillo de Santa Bárbara , is conquered by Castilian troops from Moorish possession.
- The Merinids under Abu Yahya Abu Bakr conquer Fez from Ali Abu l-Hasan as-Said , the tenth caliph of the Almohads , and make it their capital.
- June 16 : King Ludwig IX. takes the oriflamme from the hands of the legate Odo von Châteauroux in Saint-Denis and then sets out with his entourage to the south. In Lyon he tries to mediate with Pope Innocent IV for the banished emperor Friedrich II. Shortly after Lyon he storms the castle on the rock of Glun, whose master dared to extort toll from pilgrims and crusaders passing through.
- August 25 : Louis IX. embarks with the majority of his crusade army in the port of Aigues-Mortes for Cyprus. His closest entourage includes his wife Margaret of Provence , his brothers Robert von Artois and Karl von Anjou, as well as numerous bishops and nobles of his country. The fourth brother, Alfons von Poitiers , stays behind for the time being and is only supposed to leave later with contingents who are moving to the future. The ships and their crews are mainly provided by Genoa . Ludwig's mother Blanka of Castile takes over the reign in France again . The Sixth Crusade has generated little enthusiasm in other countries . The Hungarian King Béla IV protested to the Pope about the crusade sermons in his country, which had been depopulated by the Mongol storm only a few years earlier and is now incapable of defense, whereupon the Pope recognizes the character of a crusade of its own in the fight against the Mongols in both Hungary and Poland . Even Pope Innocent prefers his conflict with the Hohenstaufen to the conquest of the Holy Land .
- September 17th : The crusade fleet lands in Limassol in the Kingdom of Cyprus , where further contingents and stragglers will join the army in the coming weeks. In Cyprus, the knights of the crusader states of the Levant and Greece, as well as troops of the knight orders of the Templars , the Hospitallers , the Teutonic Order and the Lazarenes join the army. The Cypriot King Henry I also joins the crusade.
- December: André de Longjumeau and Wilhelm von Rubruk are with Louis IX. in Cyprus, when he received a delegation from the Mongols , whose Great Khan Güyük Khan offered cooperation and benevolence towards Christianity.
Mongolian Empire / Eastern Europe
- The Mongolian Great Khan Güyük Khan wages a campaign against his cousin Batu Khan , but dies in March or April before a military conflict can arise. This leads to a power struggle between Batu, who is supported by his sister-in-law Sorkhatani Beki , and Güyük's wife Ogul Qaimish , who takes over the reign of the Mongol Empire .
- Andrei II. Jaroslawitsch and Alexander Jaroslawitsch Newski succeeds after two years, their uncle Svyatoslaw III. from the throne. Batu Khan , who has sovereignty over the Principality of Vladimir with the Golden Horde , deposes Svyatoslav and entrusts the brothers with joint government. Alexander receives the area around Kiev , Andrei the city of Vladimir and its surrounding area. Andrei II tries to forge an alliance against the divided Mongol rulers. To this end, he made contact with the Roman Church through his father-in-law Daniel Romanowitsch of Galicia and gathered allies among the Russian princes .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- January 4th : Margrave Johann I of Brandenburg founds the city of Neubrandenburg with a letter of foundation . As a locator and the first mayor is Herbord Raven called.
- Bergstedt , Buchsdorf , Flensburg , Grönwohld , Großensee , Kirchleerau , Lauffen ob Rottweil , Neustadt-Glewe , Peterswaldau , Rahlstedt , Schattdorf and Werbach are first mentioned in a document.
- The French King Louis IX. commissions Étienne Boileau , the Vogt of Paris , to bring order to the organization of trades and guilds, to train young apprentices and to improve the technical knowledge of the guild members. It gathers representatives from over 100 trades, including the " goose roasters ".
- The Guild of Spinning Weather , the builders' guild in Basel , is founded.
- The city of Zwickau forbids blacksmiths to use coal because of air pollution .
science and technology
- The Dominicans are the first order to set up a Studium generale in Germany in the Cologne Convention . Albertus Magnus is elected as the first director . Thomas von Aquin came to Cologne with him as a pupil and Ambrosius Sansedonia from Siena as a lecturer .
- March 17th : Wilhelm is elected Bishop of Schwerin . He succeeds Dietrich, who died at the end of the previous year . It will be consecrated on May 16 . On June 15, he inaugurated the Schwerin Cathedral , which was completed after 76 years .
- April 13 : In Cologne, with the approval of Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden , the demolition of the Romanesque Hildebold Cathedral is decided. The contract to finance the Cologne Cathedral company is concluded.
- April 26th : The two-story palace chapel Sainte-Chapelle is consecrated in Paris . The chapel was built by order of King Ludwig IX. built by the saint to keep the precious passion relics (“Christ's Crown of Thorns ” and parts of the “ True Cross ”) as well as the tip of a lance that is said to have belonged to the Roman centurion Longinus .
- August 15 : The cornerstone ceremony for the new construction of Cologne Cathedral by Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden , the most important Gothic building in Germany based on the French model, takes place.
- The Franciscan Bonaventure begins his main work, the 'Commentary on Sentences'.
- The St. Marienstern monastery of the Cistercians is founded in Lusatia .
- November 24th : In the Chartreuse massif in Savoy , a landslide occurred on the night of November 25th at Mont Granier , which buried several places under 150 million m³ of rubble and caused the deaths of an estimated 5,000 people.
- December 28 : The Allerkind flood claims many victims and causes severe damage, especially on the Dutch and Lower Saxony North Sea coasts.
Date of birth saved
Exact date of birth unknown
- Angela von Foligno , Italian Franciscan and mystic, saint of the Roman Catholic Church († 1309 )
- Blanche d'Artois , regent of Navarre and Champagne-Brie († 1302 )
- Josef Gikatilla , Castilian Kabbalist, philosopher and mystic († around 1325 )
- Johann II , Count of Holland and Hainaut († 1304 )
Born around 1248
- 1245/1248 : Siemomysław , Duke of Kujawien in Inowrocław († 1287 )
- 1247 /1248: Peter Olivi , French theologian († 1296 / 1298 )
- Giovanni Pisano , Pisan goldsmith, ore caster, architect and sculptor († after 1314)
- Verde di Salizzole , Lord of Verona († 1305 )
First half of the year
- after January 3rd: Sancho II , King of Portugal (* 1207 )
- February 1 : Henry II , Duke of Brabant and Lower Lorraine (* 1207 )
- February: Suleiman ibn Daoud , last imam of the Hafizi Ismailis
- before March 15th: Morgan ap Hywel , Welsh Lord of Gwynllŵg and Caerleon at Gwent
- March / April: Güyük Khan , Great Khan of the Mongols (* 1206 )
- April 3 : Simon , abbot in Münsterschwarzach
- April 9 : Hugo I of Châtillon , Count of Blois and Dunois and Lord of Guise (* after 1197)
- between April 23 and May 9: Baldwin I , Count of Bentheim and Burgrave of Utrecht (* before 1190)
- June 4th : Rapoto III. , Count of Kraiburg-Marquartstein and Count Palatine of Bavaria
- June 19th : Otto VIII , Duke of Merania and Count Palatine of Burgundy
Second half of the year
- August 7th : Takeda Nobumitsu , Japanese nobleman, civil servant and general (* 1162 )
- August 25 : Heinrich von Tanne , Prince-Bishop of Konstanz (* around 1190 )
- September 13 : Kunigunde von Staufen , Queen of Bohemia (* 1200 )
- September: Robert de Cressonsacq , Bishop of Beauvais and crusader
- around October 28 : Walter Mauclerk , English diplomat and treasurer, Bishop of Carlisle
- Autumn: Patrick II, Earl of Dunbar , Scottish nobleman and crusader
- November: Robert VII , French nobleman
- December 14 : Walter de Chouson , Valais canon and grand cantor (* around 1185 )
- December 15 : Laurentius Hispanus , canonist and bishop of Orense (* around 1180 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Al-Adil II , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt (* 1222 )
- Hermann I. von Buxthoeven , Bishop of Dorpat (* 1163 )
- Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar , Spanish-Arabic doctor, botanist and pharmacologist (* around 1190 )
- Ibn al-Qiftī , Arab historian (* 1172 )
- Simon Langton , English clergyman and diplomat
- Subutai , Mongolian general (* 1176 )
- Thomas , Bishop of Turku
- Clarin , Bishop of Carcassonne
Died around 1248
- Richard Siward , English knight, mercenary and courtier