Calendar overview 1251
|Conrad IV moves to Italy to take over his inheritance.|
|1251 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||699/700 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1794/95 (southern Buddhism); 1793/94 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||613/614 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||648/649 (turn of the year 25/26 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5011/12 (September 17/18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1561/62 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1562/63 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1307/08 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The Italian procession of Conrad IV.
- April: Pope Innocent IV excommunicated the German King Konrad IV from the Hohenstaufen family .
- October: Conrad IV moves to Italy to gain control of imperial Italy and to take over his inheritance in the Kingdom of Sicily . His pregnant wife Elisabeth of Bavaria stayed behind in the German part of the empire. To finance the Italian move , Konrad pledged several imperial properties. In November he arrives in the Verona area . He is in contact with several imperial supporters in imperial Italy and also maintains connections as far as the eastern Mediterranean. Two of Konrad's closest confidants during his stay in Italy are Margrave Berthold von Hohenburg and Walter von Ocra .
Further events in the empire
- February 9th : Matthew II dies. His son Friedrich III. becomes Duke of Upper Lorraine. At this point he was not yet thirteen years old, so that his mother, Katharina von Limburg, took over the reign for him.
- April 4 : Mechthild von Baden marries Ulrich I , Count of Württemberg . The wedding is of great importance for the territorial development of Württemberg and Baden . During this time, the House of Baden shifted the focus of its rule away from the possessions in the central Neckar area to the northern Black Forest between Pforzheim and Baden . With the marriage, the future state capital Stuttgart joined Württemberg.
- Ottokar II Přemysl becomes Duke of Austria and Margrave of Moravia after making peace with his father Wenceslaus I of Bohemia . However, there is no mortgage lending by King Koenrad IV.
France / Holy Land
- After repairing the defenses of Acre towards the end of the sixth crusade , the French King Louis IX breaks . on a pilgrimage. He spent the night in Sepphoris on March 24th and entered Nazareth the following day, traveling over Mount Tabor , where he attended a mass in the Basilica of the Annunciation . From there he moves on to Caesarea , where he will lead the reconstruction of the city walls in the coming months. Ludwig again rejects an alliance with an-Nasir Yusuf of Damascus , although the latter offers him the prospect of a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
- April: André de Longjumeau reaches the court of King Louis IX after his journey to the Mongol Empire. in Caesarea Maritima and brings news of the ruler's widow Ogul Qaimish . This rejects an alliance between the Mongols and the Christians and instead calls on them to submit, failing which it threatens to destroy the crusader states. However, Lonjumeau can also tell the king of Möngke's election as the new Great Khan, who is inclined to Christianity and has family ties with the priest king John . During this time, Wilhelm von Rubruk very likely met the Dominican who had returned from Mongolia .
- When the news of the capture of King Ludwig IX. while the sixth crusade invaded France last year , the Shepherds' crusade of 1251 against the nobility and clergy began there.
Levant and North Africa
- February 2 : On the eastern edge of the Nile Delta near the place al-Salihiyya, the battle of al-Kura takes place between an army of the Mamluks ruling Egypt under Sultan al-Mu'izz Aybak and Faris ad-Din Aktay and an army of the Ayyubids ruling in Syria under the command of an-Nasir Yusuf . The victorious Mamluks can thus consolidate their rule over Egypt, which the Ayyubids won the previous year, and will move back into Cairo on February 4th .
- On March 22nd, Faris ad-Din Aktay launched an attack on Palestine and captured Gaza , creating a protective apron for Egypt. The militarily weakened an-Nasir Yusuf withdraws to Damascus and seeks an alliance with the crusader states in the Levant against the Mamluk. This results in a balance of power in the Orient between Cairo, Damascus and Acre for the coming years.
- In one of the sons Toluis and the Golden Horde under Batu Khan convened Kurultai the river Kherlen River is Möngke Khan , with the support of his mother Sorghaghtani Beki fourth Great Khan of the Mongol appointed. Ogul Qaimish , who has ruled the empire since the death of her husband Güyük Khan , the third Great Khan, refuses to attend the meeting. Most of the sons Ögedeis and Tschagatai support them in this.
- After Möngke has been elected, Ogul's sons and Ögedei's grandson Shiremun try to overthrow him. When the conspiracy is exposed, Khoja is exiled to the South China Front and Shiremun is executed. Ogul and Shiremun's mother Qadaqach are called to the Khan's court and arrested, Ogul tortured and executed. The descendants of Chagatai are also deposed, while Batu Khan is made co-regent.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documentary mention of Brettheim , Diepflingen , Essel , Gordisa , Guggenhausen , Leuth , Rosenberg (Baden) , Safnern , Siegelau , Tambach and Wiliberg
- Dorsten receives city rights from the Archbishop of Cologne , Konrad von Hochstaden .
- Otto von Mehringen becomes Bishop of Brandenburg .
Foundations of monasteries
- The Prières monastery is donated and richly endowed by Duke John I of Brittany . The founding convention comes from the Buzay Monastery . This means that the monastery belongs to the filiation of the Clairvaux primary abbey . The salt pans of La Guérande belong to the temporalia of the monastery.
- First documentary mention of St. Catherine's Monastery in Stralsund
Date of birth saved
- April 7 : George de Cantilupe , English nobleman († 1273 )
- May 26 : Burchard of Avesnes , Bishop of Metz († 1296 )
- June 5 : Hōjō Tokimune , Japanese regent of the Kamakura shogunate and leader of the Japanese armed forces in the defense of the two Mongol invasions in Japan († 1284 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Peter I , French Prince, Count of Alençon and Le Perche as well as Count of Blois and Chartres and Lord of Guise († 1283 )
Born around 1251
- Geoffroy de Charnay , French nobleman and Knight of the Templar Order, executed together with Jacques de Molay († 1314 )
Date of death secured
- January 16 : Přibyslav von Křižanov , Moravian nobleman, Kastelan of Veveří Castle, Burgrave of Brno
- February 9 : Matthew II , Duke of Lorraine (* around 1193)
- February 22nd : William de Cantilupe , English nobleman
- February 27th : Thomas I of Aquino , Count of Acerra and Regent of Sicily
- March 31 : William of Modena , Bishop of Modena, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina. Papal legate for Livonia, Prussia, Holstein, Estonia, Semgallia, Samland, Courland, Wierland, Guland (Öland?), Bornholm, Rügen and Gotland
- May 23 : Berthold V , Count of Andechs-Meran, Archbishop of Kalocsa and Patriarch of Aquileia (* around 1180)
- June 6th : Wilhelm II , Lord of Dampierre and Count of Flanders (* 1224 )
- June 28th : Luder von Borch , Bishop of Verden
- August 25th : Gunner , Danish clergyman and bishop of the Viborg diocese, chief author of Jutian law (* 1152 )
- October 9 : Yolanda of Hungary , Queen of Aragon (* 1219 )
- October 16 : Volkard von Neuburg , Bishop of Chur
Exact date of death unknown
- January: Ferchar, 1st Earl of Ross , Scottish nobleman (* around 1190 )
- Godan Khan , Mongolian Khan (* 1206 )
- Gwladus ferch Llywelyn , Welsh princess of Celtic origin (* around 1195 )
- Johann II , Count of Roucy and Lord of Pierrepoint
- Knut Magnusson , Swedish nobleman in Västergötland
- Nicholas of Castro Arquato , Latin Patriarch of Constantinople
- Otto I. , Count of Oldenburg (* around 1175 )
- Pétronille , Countess of Bigorre and Vice Countess of Marsan and Nébouzan (* around 1184 )
- Ogul Qaimish , regent of the Mongol Empire (* before 1216)
- Sakya Pandita , founder of the Sakya tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1182 )