|Otto I and his brother Walram I of Nassau divide their lands between themselves and establish the two main lines of the House of Nassau .|
|1255 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||703/704 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1798/99 (southern Buddhism); 1797/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||617/618 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||652/653 (turn of the year 9/10 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5015/16 (September 3-4)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1565/66 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1566/67 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1311/12 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- March 28 : The Duchy of Bavaria and the Palatinate near Rhine are divided between his two sons two years after the death of Duke Otto II , although imperial principalities are considered indivisible at that time: Ludwig II receives the Duchy of Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate, Heinrich XIII . the Duchy of Lower Bavaria . After the death of their father, Ludwig and Heinrich initially took over the rule together and in the autumn of 1254 confirmed their will to rule together. This is the first division of Bavaria .
- June 29th : The Rheinische Städtebund holds its third federal assembly.
- November: Würzburg joins the first Rhenish city union
- December 16 : Otto I and his brother Walram I of Nassau divide their lands between themselves and establish the two main lines of the House of Nassau .
- Ulrich II von Munzenberg dies without male offspring. The Münzenberger inheritance consisting of the Office Münzenberg who münzenberg castle , the city Münzenberg , the "county" Assenheim and the rule Hagen ( Hain in Dreieich ) and some smaller possessions and rights will be divided among his six secular remaining sisters. Lucardi's seventh sister, on the other hand , was resigned to the Patershausen monastery , which was rebuilt for her as a Cistercian and where she became abbess.
- The Bulgarian Tsar Michael II. Assen , who has lost numerous territories to the Byzantine Empire in recent years , tries to take advantage of the change of throne in the Nicaea Empire that took place in the previous year and marches into Thrace with his troops . The new emperor Theodor II then undertakes a counter-offensive. In the ensuing peace treaty, Bulgaria had to cede further areas and lost all of Thrace with the exception of the coastal cities.
Other events in Europe
- After a crusade against the pagan Pruzzen by the Teutonic Order , a settlement was built on the site of a destroyed Prussian fortification , which was named Königsberg in honor of King Ottokar II of Bohemia , who took part in the crusade . The capital of East Prussia and coronation city of the Prussian kings later developed from this .
- Pope Alexander IV and the English King Heinrich III. take on large loans from Sienser and Florentine merchants to carry out their planned warlike actions against Manfred of Sicily .
Voyages of discovery
The Flemish Franciscan and explorer Wilhelm von Rubruk leaves the capital Karakoram in spring after spending two years in Mongolia and starts his journey home. After a short detour via Cyprus, he arrives in Tripoli near Beirut on August 15th . There, his superiors did not let him travel to his clients in Rome or France, but entrusted him with the task of a theology lecturer in Acre . Here he dictates his travel report Itinerarium Willelmi de Rubruc in the form of a letter to the French king and has one of his companions deliver it to him.
- December 1st : Ala ad-Din Muhammad III. 26. Imam of the Shia of the Nizari-Ismailis and seventh ruler of Alamut , murdered in his sleep by his closest confidante Hasan-i Mazandarani with an ax blow while on a tour through his territory. His son and successor Rukn ad-Din Khurschah , who has been publicly abused by his father on several occasions, has the murderer and some of his family members executed, but the rumor persists that the crime was carried out with his consent.
- After Batu Khan's death , Sartaq Khan becomes ruler of the Golden Horde and the Blue Horde of the Mongols .
Local history and first documentary mentions
- March 30th : Alfons of Poitiers , Count of Toulouse and brother of the French King Louis IX. , founds the fortified village ( bastide ) Montréal on the site of a Roman oppidum .
- July 16 : Alfons of Poitiers founds another bastide, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande .
- Aarwangen , Bertschikon near Attikon , Biezwil , Burbach , Ginsburg , Grafenau , Göd , Hemmiken , Hüttwilen , Meienried , Neuenbürg , Orpund , Schielberg and Szente were first mentioned in a document
- The monastery villages of Frauenalb merge to form the community of Marxzell .
- The Rietburg receives the status of a Reichsburg .
- until 1255: Formation of a bourgeois-patrician council and struggle of the council and the citizenship for the achievement of the communal autonomy in Erfurt .
science and technology
- In the course of the mendicant dispute, Pope Alexander IV orders the revision of some of the statutes of the Paris University .
- The ban on public and private reading of the natural philosophical writings of Aristotle and the commentaries on them , resolved by the Paris Synod in 1210, was lifted (under threat of excommunication ) .
- De ente et essentia , one of Thomas Aquinas' early works, was written around 1255 . In it he explains the basic concepts of Aristotelian metaphysics . In addition to other modifications, it establishes connections with Christian theology . In particular, it explains the terms substance and form , substance and accident , as well as genre , species and species- forming difference . In addition to Aristotle , Thomas Aquinas also discusses Boëthius , the Arab philosophers Avicenna and Averroes, and the Jewish Neoplatonist Avicebron ( Shlomo Ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol ).
- The Styrian minstrel Ulrich von Liechtenstein is writing the first German novel in first-person form with Frauendienst . The Middle High German work consists of 1850 epic stanzas, 57 songs, a corpse , three little books and seven letters.
- Louis IX of France gives Henry III. from England an elephant that he brought back from his crusade from the Holy Land .
- Einar Smjørbak Gunnarsson becomes Archbishop of Nidaros in Norway, succeeding Sørle, who died the previous year . At this time he was studying in Paris and went straight to Pope Alexander IV in Rome. He is consecrated in March.
- Jacques Pantaléon, who later became Pope Urban IV , becomes Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem . The previous Bishop of Verdun succeeds Robert von Nantes, who died last year .
- Gerhard von Borgo San Donnino publishes the three main works of Joachim von Fiore in Paris - Concordia Novi et Veteris Testamenti, Expositio in Apocalypsim and Psalterium decem chordarum - and adds his own work with the title Introductorius in Evangelium aeternum . Immediately after the publication of the Gospel aeternum , the scriptures were rejected by a cardinals commission in Anagni (see Spirituals ).
- Christine von Stommeln fled the country to the Cologne beguines at the age of 13 .
- Turn of the year 1254/1255 : Margaret of France , French princess and Duchess of Brabant († 1271 )
- July: Albrecht I , King of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Austria († 1308 )
- Ferdinand de la Cerda , Crown Prince of Castile († 1275 )
- Gregory of Sinai , Byzantine monk and important representative of hesychasm, Orthodox saint († 1346 )
Born around 1255
- Duccio di Buoninsegna , Italian painter († 1319 )
- Vidkunn Erlingsson , Norwegian knight († 1302 )
- Johannes de Grocheo , Italian music theorist († around 1320 )
- Henry II , Count of Vaudémont († 1299 )
- Nicholas I , Bohemian nobleman, Duke of Troppau, captain of Cracow and Sandomir and governor in Greater Poland († 1318 )
- Imagina of Isenburg-Limburg , Roman-German Queen († 1318 )
- Georg Komnenos , Emperor and Grand Comnene of Trebizond († after 1284)
- William de Ros, 1st Baron de Ros , English nobleman and military man († 1316 )
- Bruno Warendorp , Mayor of Lübeck († 1341 )
- 1255/ 1260 : Ulrich I , Lord of Hanau († 1305 / 1306 )
- 1255/ 1260 : Gottfried von Waldeck , Bishop of Minden († 1324 )
Date of death secured
- February 2 : Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel , member of the Welf service team, Reichsministeriale (* around 1177 )
- May 1 : Walter de Gray , English prelate and statesman, Lord Chancellor of England, Bishop of Worcester and Archbishop of York
- August 11th : Ulrich II von Munzenberg , Reichsministeriale and last male descendant of the von Hagen-Munzenberg family
- December 1 : Ala ad-Din Muhammad , Imam of the Nizarites (* 1212 )
Exact date of death unknown
- around July 20 : Warin de Munchensi , English nobleman, rebel and soldier (* around 1195 )
- between July 20 and 28: Eva de Briouze , English noblewoman (* before 1230)
- around August 27 : Hugh of Lincoln , English boy who was allegedly the victim of a Jewish ritual murder (* around 1246 )
- Batu Khan , Mongolian ruler, Khan of the Golden Horde (* 1205 )
- Boček of Jaroslavice and Zbraslav , Moravian nobleman, burgrave of Znojmo, count of Pernegg and founder of the monastery
- Chenga Dragpa Chungne , Lama of the Drigung Kagyu School of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1175 )
- Jarler , Archbishop of Uppsala
- Jean de Beaumont-Gâtinais , Lord of Villemomble and Grand Chamberlain of France (* around 1190 )
Died around 1255
- Werner II. , Count of Battenberg and Wittgenstein