Bavarian division of the country

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bavaria-Landshut with Upper Bavaria (without Bavaria-Straubing) 1373-1392
The four Bavarian partial duchies after the division of the country in 1392

Treaties with which some Bavarian rulers from the House of Wittelsbach divided the territory of the Duchy of Bavaria among themselves in the 13th and 14th centuries are referred to as Bavarian state division . In some cases, individual partial duchies were also connected with parts of the Wittelsbach rulership outside of Bavaria.


The first Bavarian division took place in 1255, when Ludwig II (the strict) and Heinrich XIII. , the sons of Duke Otto II (the illustrious) , divided the duchy among themselves after two years of joint rule. A temporary reunification took place in 1340 under Ludwig IV (the Bavarian) . But even the sons of Ludwig IV divided the inheritance among themselves into three, and his grandchildren into four sub-duchies. The final reunification of Bavaria did not take place until 1505 after the Landshut War of Succession .

On July 8, 1506, Duke Albrecht IV (the Wise) issued the Primogeniture Act , so that later there would no longer be any division of the country, but rather the first-born son should inherit the entire duchy. From then on, Bavaria remained undivided.

The divisions are often denoted by ordinal numbers, e.g. B. the division of 1255 as the first Bavarian division, the 1349 second and that of 1392, although it did not affect the entire territory of Bavaria, the third. But since the partial duchies were also divided again, different authors consider a different number of these divisions. So z. B. Christian Haeutle in his genealogy of the illustrious parent company Wittelsbach has eight divisions. Therefore, the indication of the year or the name of the division contract is a more reliable designation for the divisions.

List of divisions

date description Remarks Sub-areas reunion
March 28, 1255 Bavarian division from 1255
( First Bavarian division )
Division of Otto II's inheritance after two years of joint rule by his sons 1340 under Ludwig IV.
October 1, 1310 Upper Bavarian division from 1310 End of the joint government of the sons of Ludwig II. June 21, 1313: Resumption of common government ( Peace of Munich )
August 4, 1329 House contract from Pavia Transfer of the palatinate near Rhine to the sons of Rudolph I. In 1628, Elector Maximilian I received the Upper Palatinate as war compensation after the Battle of the White Mountain .
In 1777 Karl Theodor inherited from the Palatinate line after the death of Maximilian III. Joseph , the last Bavarian Wittelsbacher, Bavaria. The Palatinate and Bavaria became Electoral Palatinate Bavaria .
1331 Lower Bavarian division from 1331 Division of Lower Bavaria among the grandchildren of Heinrich XIII. In 1332 Heinrich XIV. And Heinrich XV ruled. together again in
1334 Heinrich XIV. after the death of Otto IV. Bavaria-Burghausen to
1340 fell all of Lower Bavaria after the death of Johann I to Ludwig IV.
September 13, 1349 Landsberg Treaty
( Second Bavarian State Division )
Division of the legacy of Ludwig IV after two years of joint rule by his sons In the Luckau Treaty of December 1351, Ludwig V gave the Mark Brandenburg to his brothers Ludwig VI. and Otto V. in order to be able to rule Upper Bavaria alone in return.

In 1363, after Meinhard's death, Upper Bavaria fell to Stephan II of Bavaria-Landshut.

June 3, 1353 Regensburg Treaty Division of Lower Bavaria and the Dutch counties after four years of communal rule In 1429 the Straubinger Ländchen , the Bavarian part of Straubing-Holland, after the death of Johann III. Distributed in the Pressburg arbitration award to the three partial duchies created in 1392.
March 24, 1376 Bavarian division of the country from 1376 purely administrative division in two while maintaining the overall political government Lasted until the division of the country in 1392
November 19, 1392 Bavarian division from 1392
( Third Bavarian division )
Division of the inheritance of Stephen II. In 1447 Bavaria-Ingolstadt fell to Bavaria-Landshut after the death of Ludwig VII .
In 1505, after the death of George the Rich and the Landshut War of Succession , Bavaria-Landshut fell to Albrecht IV of Bavaria-Munich.

Partial duchies

The following table gives an overview of the partial duchies of Bavaria from the 13th to the 16th century, as they emerged from the “great” divisions of 1255, 1349, 1353 and 1392. The very short-term divisions of 1310 and 1331, the purely administrative division of 1376 and the area of Bavaria-Dachau , which Duke Siegmund kept to himself in 1467 after his retreat in favor of his younger brother Albrecht IV, until his death in 1501, are not taken into account . The Palatinate, which was connected to Bavaria before 1329 and after 1777 and was itself divided several times, is also not included in the following table.

Bavaria (until 1255)
Lower Bavaria (1255-1340) Upper Bavaria (1255-1340)
Bavaria (1340-1349)
Lower Bavaria (1349-1353) Upper Bavaria (1349-1363)
Straubing Ländchen
(1353–1425 / 29 part of Straubing-Holland )
Bavaria-Landshut (1353-1363)
Bavaria-Landshut with Upper Bavaria (1363-1392)
Bavaria-Landshut (1392–1429) Bavaria-Ingolstadt (1392–1429) Bavaria-Munich (1392–1429)
Press burger Schied (1429)
Bavaria-Landshut (1429–1503 / 5) Bavaria-Ingolstadt (1429–1447) Bavaria-Munich (1429–1505)
Bavaria-Landshut with Bavaria-Ingolstadt (since 1447)
Bavaria (since 1505)

See also


  • Old Bavaria . The territorial state from the end of the 12th century to the end of the 18th century. In: Andreas Kraus (Ed.): Handbook of Bavarian History . 2nd Edition. tape 2 . CH Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-32320-0 .
  • Helmuth Stahleder : ducal and citizen town . The years 1157–1505. In: Richard Bauer , City Archives Munich (ed.): Chronicle of the City of Munich . tape 1 . Hugendubel, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-88034-835-9 .
  • Wilhelm Störmer : The divisions of Wittelsbach in the late Middle Ages (1255–1505) . In: Suzanne Bäumler, Evamaria Brockhoff, Michael Henker (eds.): By Kaisers Gnaden. 500 years of Pfalz-Neuburg . House of Bavarian History, Augsburg 2005, ISBN 3-937974-01-6 , p. 17-23 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Christian Haeutle: Genealogy of the illustrious parent company Wittelsbach from its reinstatement in the duchy down to our day. Munich / Mainz 1870, pp. 5, 7, 12, 18, 20.
  2. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 33. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 72-75, 541-542.
  3. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 69. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 141-142, 144, 542.
  4. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 96. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 173-175, 542.
  5. Handbook of Bavarian History . Vol. 2, p. 181.
  6. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 123. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 200-202.
  7. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 127. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, p. 201.
  8. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 204, 267-270. See also article in the Bavarian Historical Lexicon .
  9. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, p. 147. Handbook of Bavarian History . Vol. 2, pp. 202, 225-226.
  10. Stahleder: Chronicle. Vol. 1, pp. 170-171. Handbook of Bavarian History. Vol. 2, pp. 203, 233.