Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|coat of arms|
|Hainaut county around 1250
|Form of rule||county|
|Ruler / government||Count|
|Today's region / s||
parts from BE-WBR
parts from FR-59
|Capitals / residences||Valenciennes , Mons|
1356: Wittelsbacher, Straubing-Holland line
|Denomination / Religions||Roman Catholic|
|Language / n||
|Incorporated into||1548: Seventeen provinces
The county of Hainaut (Latin Hannonia ; Dutch Henegouw for the Gau, Henegouwen for the later county; French le Hainaut , named after the Haine river ), named after the area on the Henne River , is a historical territory in what is now Belgium and France .
Antiquity and early Middle Ages
From the high Middle Ages to the modern age
The county of Hainaut was created from the union of three imperial fiefs:
- The county of Bergen from old Hainaut, acquired by Reginar IV in 998 .
- The southern county of Brabantgau, acquired by Reginar V. von Bergen from his father-in-law, Count Hermann von Eenham , Gaugraf in Brabant , around 1024.
- The Margraviate of Valenciennes , an imperial fief that was established in 1047 after the deposition of Count Baldwin V of Flanders because of his rebellion against the German Emperor Heinrich III. probably Reginar von Hasnon, the father of Richilde von Hennegau (no Egisheim), was assigned. After the death of her father, Richilde brought the margraviate into her marriage to Count Hermann von Bergen .
In 1051 Count Hermann von Bergen, son-in-law of Count Reginar V, died. His widow Richilde brought the three counties to her second husband, Count Balduin VI. of Flanders († 1070), who was called Baldwin I in Hainaut. After her defeat in the Battle of Cassel (1071), Richilde tried to monetize her counties and allodes with the German King Henry IV . Bishop Dietwin von Liège bought the feudal sovereignty over the Allode and the Imperial Fiefs. He gave the fiefdom of the new county of Hainaut to the Duke of Lower Lorrainewho then gave the county to Countess Richilde as a fief. In this way ( called refeodalization ) the imperial immediacy was lost.
Baldwin V of Hainaut, through his marriage to Margaret of Alsace and Flanders in 1191, united the county of Hainaut with Flanders (and Namur ) for the second time . Baldwin VI. (IX of Flanders), an offspring of this marriage, became the first Latin emperor of Constantinople in 1204 ; his hereditary lands fell first to his eldest daughter, Johanna von Flandern , then in 1244 to her sister Margarete von Flandern , who first worked with Burchard von Avesnes and then with Wilhelm von Dampierrewas married. In 1246 the children of the first marriage were assigned to Hainaut, the second marriage to Flanders. There was now protracted fighting between the sons from both marriages, in which Margarete sided with the Dampierres . Subject of discord was primarily Reich Flanders ( Flemish war of succession ).
But in 1279, after Margarete's death, her grandson Johann II followed in Hainaut; this also acquired the county of Holland in 1299 . With Wilhelm II in 1345 the male line of the Avesnes in Hainaut died out. Count Wilhelm I, the Good (1304–37) daughter Margarethe , wife of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria , brought Hainaut, including Holland and Zeeland, to the House of Wittelsbach in 1345 . Her great-granddaughter, Jakoba von Bayern , ceded her inheritance to Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1433 , and so Hainaut with the Burgundian inheritance came to the in 1477House of Habsburg , in which it remained with the Spanish line from 1556 to 1713 , then (until the French Revolution ) with the Austrian line .
Valenciennes was the first city in the Spanish Netherlands to be occupied by Spanish troops during the civil war against Spanish rule, mainly because the Calvinists were very strong there due to the proximity to France . Friedrich Schiller notes that it was a saying in Hainaut at the time that the province was only under God and under the sun.
After the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659) and the Peace of Nijmegen (1678), the southern part of Hainaut with its capital Valenciennes , which is now part of the French Northern Department , came to France . From the rest of Hainaut, the former Flemish landscape of Tournaisis , the Namur district of Charleroi and some parts of Brabant and Liège , which previously made up the French department of Jemappes , became the Dutch and then Belgian province of Hainaut between 1815 and 1830 .
Counts of Hainaut
- Gilbert of Mons: Chronicle of Hainaut. ( Memento from November 2, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Charles Duvivier: Recherches sur le Hainaut ancien ("pagus hainoensis") du VIIe au XIIe siècles. J. Olivier, Brussels 1865. online
- Léo Verriest: Le régime seigneurial dans le comté de Hainaut du XIe siècle à la Révolution. Impr. P. Smeesters (Louvain) 1956.
- Jean-Marie Cauchies: Hainaut . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA) . tape 4 . Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , Sp. 2131-2133 .
- Jean-Marie Cauchies: La législation princière pour le comté de Hainaut: ducs de Bourgogne et premiers Habsbourg 1427–1506. Publications des Facultés universitaires Saint-Louis, Brussels 1982, ISBN 2-8028-0025-6 .
- Frans J. Van Droogenbroeck, De markenruil Ename - Valenciennes en de investituur van de graaf van Vlaanderen in de mark Ename , Handelingen van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring van Oudenaarde 55 (2018) pp. 47-127
- Friedrich Schiller : History of the waste of the United Netherlands by the Spanish government in the Gutenberg-DE MCMVI Leipzig project in Inselverlag (Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst edition), p. 233, footnote 2. Schiller cites Strada 174 as his source .