Margaret I (Holland)

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Margarethe (left) and her husband present the model of the Laurentius Chapel to Our Lady (donor relief from the broken chapel of Munich Castle , Bavarian National Museum ).

Margaret I of Holland (* around 1307/1310 probably in Valenciennes ; † June 23, 1356 in Quesnoy ), also known as Margarethe von Avesnes or Margarethe von Hainaut , was the second wife of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria , whom she met on February 25, 1324 married in Cologne . That is why she was Roman-German Queen from 1324 to 1347 and Roman-German Empress from 1328 to 1347. As Margaret I she was also Countess of Holland , Zeeland and Friesland from 1345 to 1354 (which territories she lost in the fight against her son Wilhelm ), as Margaret II she was also Countess of Hainaut from 1345 to 1356.


Descent, youth and marriage to Ludwig the Bavarian

Margarethe was the eldest daughter of Count Wilhelm III. of Holland and Zeeland, who was also Lord of Friesland and as William I Count of Hainaut. He came from the House of Avesnes and, along with the Duke of Brabant and the Count of Flanders, was one of the most powerful territorial lords on the north-western edge of the Holy Roman Empire . Jeanne von Valois , Wilhelm's wife and mother Margaret since May 1305, was a niece of the French king Philip IV, the fair . Since Margaret's year of birth is not mentioned by any contemporary source, it can only be estimated. Taking into account the fact that, according to the historian Jean Froissart, Margarethe's younger sister Philippa should only be married to the English heir to the throne Eduard after she reached the age of 14 , it is probable that Margarethe will also be at the earliest when she was 14 and at the latest when she was 18 she married Ludwig the Bavarian, i.e. was born between 1306 and 1310. In addition, she and not Philippa would originally have been intended as Edward's wife, but this project ultimately did not materialize.

Tensions between King Philip IV of France and Margaret's father Wilhelm contributed to the conclusion of the alliance between Wilhelm and Ludwig the Bavarian in autumn 1314, when the latter was elected Roman-German king at the same time as the Habsburg Frederick the Fair . This double election led to a controversy over several years for the throne, in which Ludwig could count on the support of Wilhelm as a valuable ally, who in return received the legitimation of his until then controversial possession of the imperial fiefs of Holland, Zealand and Friesland. Probably soon after the death of Beatrix von Glogau , the first wife of Ludwig of Bavaria, on August 24, 1322 , and whose decisive victory in the battle of Mühldorf (September 28, 1322) over his rival Friedrich the beautiful one month later Sealing of the pact between the Wittelsbacher and the Count of Hennegau-Holland through the marriage of Margaret to Ludwig. As was announced in Cologne on that day , Margaret's father agreed on the corresponding marriage contract by August 15, 1323 with the authorized representatives of Ludwig of Bavaria, the Commander of the German Order of Franconia, Konrad von Gundelfingen , and the Landgrave Ulrich I. from Leuchtenberg .

In the marriage contract it was stipulated that Count Wilhelm had to pay the considerable amount of 47,000 pounds Heller as his daughter's dowry, but initially only half of this sum after the completion of the marriage, the rest only after the end of the first year of marriage. In return, the Roman-German king pledged that the annual income of his future wife would amount to up to 11,000 pounds Heller. In order to guarantee the receipt of this money, Margarethe was supposed to come into the possession of the castles Kaub , Fürstenberg, Reichenstein and Lindenfels , but especially the customs income below the castle Kaub, immediately after the marriage . Ludwig the Bavarian probably kept to the most important clauses of the marriage contract; However, since he returned the Rhineland Palatinate areas to his family and thus also the four named castles to the descendants of his brother Rudolf , who died in 1319, at the latest in 1329 , Margarethe could possibly have owned the castles promised to her from 1324 to 1329.

Margaret's wedding with Ludwig, who was a good twenty years her senior, took place in Cologne on February 25, 1324, and was already very much affected by the conflict between the Roman-German king and Pope Johannes XXII. overshadowed who threatened Ludwig with the imposition of the church ban. As a result, most contemporary chroniclers are largely silent about the royal couple's wedding celebration. Only Wilhelm, a monk of the Egmond monastery and chaplain of Brederode , gives a more precise report on this. He states that Margarethes marriage to Ludwig the Bavarian her mother very displeased.

Roman-German queen or empress

Married life; Court of Margaret

After her marriage, Margarethe moved from the Romanesque milieu of Hainaut to the ducal Bavarian world of her husband Ludwig. Relatively few sources are available for the German late Middle Ages , so that the royal couple's route from their wedding celebration in Cologne to Bavaria is unknown.

Margarethe had a not precisely known own budget, at its tip, a steward stand. One of their ladies-in-waiting is known at least through an English informant, William de Norwell, who in his 1338-40 during the trip of Edward III. Wardrobe Book kept on the European continent notes a payment of 9 pounds sterling to Margarethes secretary Ida. Other sources mention a clergyman, a scribe and a Protonotarius Margarethes, but it is not clear whether these persons were permanently in the service of the ruler.

Contemporary historians report nothing about Margaret's appearance, but the Dominican Heinrich von Herford vividly describes the family life of Ludwig the Bavarian in his Liber de rebus memorabilioribus , albeit not on the basis of an autopsy. The latter had conscientiously complied with the marital vow of loyalty; he also loved dance and music and therefore sometimes danced in front of his councilors in the palace with his short wife.

The marriage of Margarethe and Ludwig, from which probably five sons and five daughters emerged (see chapter “Descendants”), seems to have proceeded harmoniously on the whole. According to the Franciscan chronicler Johannes von Winterthur , Margarethe disapproved of her husband's preference for Jews . The chronicler illustrates this with an episode set in March 1336 when the emperor forced a gang of murderers who were persecuting Jews to leave Alsace . Because Margarethe was annoyed by her husband's help with the Jews, she had Ludwig served a roast chicken and replied to his accusation that this was forbidden during Lent, because he was apparently behaving like a Jew, he could now eat a meat dish, as the Jews did too. After a while of reflection, according to Johannes von Winterthur, the emperor promised to atone for his behavior. It is impossible to tell whether this story is based on truth.

Coronation as empress; Role in the quarrel between the emperor and the pope

In the controversy between Ludwig the Bavarian and the Pope, Margarethe never distanced herself from him or his actions directed against the Holy See during her husband's lifetime, although this meant that, like all those who continued to recognize Ludwig as ruler, she was excluded from the church. After Ludwig had decided to take a train to Rome while staying in Trento in January 1327 in order to be crowned emperor against the will of the Pope, he first moved to Como via Bergamo . Meanwhile, Margarethe set out with a force consisting of 500 cavalrymen and 800 riflemen to see her husband, whom she probably met in Como on May 3, 1327 after crossing the Splügen Pass . She then stayed by his side for the entire year and a half that her husband needed to travel through Italy, even when she became pregnant and gave birth to her first son, Ludwig the Roman , on May 7, 1328 in Rome . Her and her husband's coronation as emperor had already taken place in St. Peter's Church in the Eternal City on January 17, 1328, in the presence of three bishops, about which she gave information about eight weeks later in two monosyllabic letters to her mother and the abbot of the Egmond monastery.

Margaret's sister Philippa was now the wife of King Edward III of England. and Philipp von Valois, a brother of Margaret's mother Jeanne, as Philipp VI. became the new French king, so that Margaret's father Wilhelm was the brother-in-law of the French king and the father-in-law of the English king and the Roman-German emperor. Soon, however, there was an initially ebbing conflict between Edward III. and Philip VI. because of the renewed outbreak of old tensions about the English-owned Gascony . At the same time, the differences between Ludwig the Bavarian and the Holy See continued, also as Benedict XII. after the death of John XXII. Had become the new Pope at the end of 1334.

Probably in the early autumn of 1336, Margarethe wrote a letter to King Philip VI, her uncle, certainly in agreement with her husband, in which she asked him to enter into an alliance with her husband. This non-preserved letter from the Empress can be found in a letter from Benedict XII dated November 23, 1336. to Philip VI. to be reconstructed, the content of which was that the French king should not ally himself with Ludwig the Bavarian until his excommunication has been lifted. To achieve this, the emperor would of course have had to submit to the Pope first. Philip VI then rejected Margarethe's letter of request. When in April 1337 a delegation of the emperor led by Margarethes brother-in-law Wilhelm von Jülich in Avignon to negotiations with Benedict XII. arrived, the Pope seemed inclined to settle with Ludwig, but was then persuaded by a high-ranking Paris embassy not to give in. Accordingly, the emperor blamed the French king for the failure of his efforts to reconcile with the pope and supported King Edward III from July 1337 in the Anglo-French Hundred Years War that broke out soon afterwards .

On a court day held in Koblenz in September 1338 , the English king was also present, who was appointed imperial vicar for " Gaul and Germania" by Ludwig the Bavarian . Nothing is known about Margaret's role at this meeting of the two rulers by marriage. Eduard III probably wrote. Margarethe had great influence on her husband; After all, he paid her 2400 guilders as a present and 4000 guilders to the emperor. Ultimately, however, the alliance brought nothing to Ludwig, since Eduard III. could not pay the subsidies promised to him in the amount of 400,000 guilders.

The emperor then turned back to the French king. Margarethe sent an imperial clerk, the protonotary Ulrich Hofmeier, to the court of Philip VI. To inform him that Ludwig the Bavarian wanted to act as a mediator in the Anglo-French war. From this development Philip VI. on June 13, 1340 Benedict XII. being aware of. In March 1341 the French king accepted a new alliance offer from the emperor. Ludwig hoped that Philip VI. would support him in his renewed reconciliation efforts with the Pope. But after the death of Benedict XII. (April 25, 1342) was the new Pope Clement VI. only concerned about the fall of the emperor, so that a reconciliation between Ludwig and the Holy See never came about. Instead, Clement VI imposed. on April 13, 1346 again the ban on Bavaria, which now extended to his descendants. In addition, the Pope tried to enforce Margrave Charles of Moravia as the new Roman-German king.

Assumption of rule over Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland

After Margaret's brother, Count Wilhelm IV of Holland and Zeeland (or Wilhelm II of Hainaut), died on September 26, 1345 in a battle against insurgent Frisians near Stavoren and had left no legitimate offspring, his four sisters were entitled on his legacy. The two youngest sisters, Johanna , wife of Margrave Wilhelm I von Jülich , and Isabella, wife of Robert de Namur , apparently did not initially assert their claims. Edward III. however, as early as October 1345, preparations were made to occupy Zeeland and its neighboring regions from the inheritance of his wife Philippa. Ludwig the Bavarian also did not fail to stand up for his wife's inheritance rights. As supreme liege lord, he enfeoffed Margarethe on January 15, 1346 in Nuremberg with Holland, Zeeland and Friesland, and in return the empress swore allegiance to her husband as liege lord. So that Margarethe could more easily succeed her fallen brother in Hainaut, a fief of the Liège bishop, the emperor declared that he did not want to separate this county from Margaret's imperial fief.

In fact, many leading personalities from Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland recognized the Empress as their princess, which is how Margaret's real political career began. A memorandum dated February 3, 1346 listed the reasons that spoke in favor of Margarethe as sovereign. Most of all, the residents of the three counties were afraid that they would have to pay for the fallen count's high debts. The authors of the memorandum hoped that Margarethe would intervene to help. In addition, they judged the empress as a strong patroness who would stand up for her rights and asked her to go quickly to her counties, where there was conflict between nobles and influential citizens of the cities to which Edward III. could march in and an attack by the Bishop of Utrecht, John IV von Arkel , was to be feared. Her uncle Johann von Hennegau, Herr von Beaumont and probably her mother Jeanne also stood up for the sole successor to Margaret in the lands of the fallen Wilhelm IV .

Together with her nine-year-old son Albrecht and numerous entourage, Margarethe moved via Lorraine , where she was accompanied by the ducal couple there, and Brabant in Hainaut. There she took the oath in front of the estates in Mons on March 14, 1346 to respect the city's freedoms and to want to maintain the unity of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland. Nine days later she performed in much the same way in Valenciennes . Both times she was supported by her uncle Johann von Beaumont, among others. Then she traveled to Holland and Zeeland, received homage from the local estates and confirmed their privileges. On the route she had chosen, she came to Middelburg on April 18, to Dordrecht on April 30, to The Hague on May 10 , to Leiden on June 4 , to Haarlem on June 5 , to Aelbrechtsberge on June 15 on August 1st to Geertruidenberg , before she returned to Mons on September 24th, 1346. In her current documents she not only carried the title of Empress, but also that of Countess of Hainaut, Holland and Zealand and Lady of Friesland.

Although the news about what happened in Hainaut and Holland at the time is sparse, it points to a period of internal unrest. For example, on March 21, 1346, there was a commotion in Valenciennes over the imposition of extraordinary taxes, and the rioters tried to break the entrance to the belfry ; however, the nobles and citizens were able to restore calm. Forty people involved in the riot were arrested and sixteen were beheaded. The nobility and clergy of Hainaut turned to the recently arrived Empress and asked her to remedy some of the things they considered to be grievances. These included the admission of serfs into the citizenry and the fact that there were citizens who had the privileges granted by the counts but lived outside of these cities. On June 3, 1346, the twelve delegates of the nobility and clergy received the approval of their demands that citizens of cities endowed with freedoms had to live there permanently and that a master should be able to dispose of his serfs at any time. The aristocracy of Hainaut wanted a restriction of the importance of the cities and the maintenance of serfdom.

On the other hand, during her stay in Holland, the Empress granted numerous privileges to the cities she traveled through. It also granted the residents of several districts such as South Holland and Kennemerland significant privileges. In the latter case, however, it was the duty of citizens to reside in the cities whose freedoms they wanted to enjoy, not to the liking of those affected. Margarethe also promised that she would never separate the residents of Amsterdam , Oudewater and Woerden from the county of Holland.

On September 7, 1346, Ludwig the Bavarian ordered that Margaret's second son Wilhelm should succeed his mother in the event of her death, and that after Wilhelm, if he died childless, Margaret's third son Albrecht would come next. Instead, Ludwig the Roman, as Margaret's eldest son, renounced the Dutch inheritance. In addition, the emperor assured that he did not want to rule himself in the imperial fiefs of his wife; Margarethe would have sole rule there. This was also the case after an intervention by the French king with the Pope in favor of the Emperor of Clement VI. The condition was not to impose an interdict on Margaret's lands.

Edward III. had meanwhile continued to strive to secure part of the territories left by her fallen brother for his wife Philippa. After his decisive victory over the French king in the battle of Crécy on August 26, 1346 , he had renounced the occupation of Hainaut, which was easily possible for him, and apparently instructed his wife to have a balancing conversation with her sister. Philippa and Margarethe met in Ypres in October 1346 and the Empress agreed to ask her husband to re-establish his earlier alliance with the English king. Philippa apparently promised not to want to enforce her inheritance claims for the time being through war. In the following November Margarethe went to Frankfurt to discuss the situation, and according to Matthias von Neuchâtel , English delegates had come with her to negotiate alliance with the emperor, but these did not lead to anything. In Mons, the Empress left her uncle Johann von Hainaut, Lord von Beaumont, as governor, while she entrusted Holland, Zeeland and Friesland to her 16-year-old son Wilhelm, who was to act as her deputy there in her absence. Wilhelm promised his mother an annual pension of 10,000 gold guilders from the income from these countries (November 13, 1346). Mathilde had already considered her little son Otto with the entitlement to the Burgraviate of Zealand with the lordship of Voorne, from which she would earn income of 4000 pounds of tournaments after the death of Mechtild, mistress of Voorne († 1372).


After the sudden death of Ludwig of Bavaria (October 11, 1347), his descendants promised the English King Edward III to support him in the election to the Roman-German king, for which he was supposed to recognize Margaret's rule over their inherited lands. But now the Margrave Karl von Moravia, who had already been crowned as Charles IV in Bonn on November 26, 1346 as the anti-king to Ludwig the Bavarian, was able to prevail in the power struggle for rule in the Holy Roman Empire by defeating Margaret's brother-in-law Wilhelm von Jülich on January 16, 1348 conceded a quarter of the Dutch inheritance of the fallen Count Wilhelm IV and in the following June an alliance with Eduard III. ratified. The latter renounced his election as Roman-German king, but did not want to continue to enforce the inheritance rights of his wife Philippa by force. The dispute over the Dutch inheritance, which had begun when Wilhelm von Jülich was enfeoffed by King Charles IV, also had almost no consequences.

In the meantime Margarethe had handed over the government of the counties of Holland and Zeeland as well as the rule of Friesland to her son Wilhelm on January 5, 1348 and confirmed Otto's eligibility for the burgrave of Zealand with the rule of Voorne. She herself only wanted to exercise direct government in Hainaut, where she then ruled in peace until the end of her life, by mutual agreement with the most important nobles. While the Hainaut nobility, and in particular Margaret's uncle Johann, Lord of Beaumont, joined France, the county's citizens were unwilling to give up their friendly relations with Brabant and Flanders . At the request of the cities of Valenciennes, Mons, Binche and Maubeuge, this was also approved by Margarethe on June 17, 1347. The alliance was renewed at a parliament held in Ath , in which, according to the testimony of the contemporary chronicler Gilles Li Muisis , English envoys also took part.

War between Margarethe and her son Wilhelm

Wilhelm had to fight in the areas under his control against rebel subjects and the Bishop of Utrecht, with whom he concluded an armistice. At the beginning of 1350 there was a profound and persistent dispute between him and his mother, as the income claimed by Margarethe from the territories ruled by her son did not arrive to the extent desired. Therefore, on May 25, 1350, Wilhelm allied himself with the party of cod , which was opposed to the policy of the imperial widow and was based on numerous cities such as Dordrecht, Delft, Leiden, Haarlem, Amsterdam, Alkmaar, Rotterdam and Vlaardingen. The cod were led by some nobles such as Jan IV. Van Arkel , Jan I. van Egmond and Gerard III. van Heemskerk . The counterparty of the Hoeken (fish hook), to which numerous nobles such as Willem van Duivenvoorde , Jan II. Van Polanen and Dirk III. van Brederode belonged, supported Margarethe.

Because of her son's alliance with the cod lions, Margarethe demanded on May 27, 1350 to take over the government of Holland and Zeeland again. Wilhelm apparently gave in; On September 27, 1350, at a meeting of the estates in Geertruidenberg, he renounced the rule over the fiefs transferred to him and released his followers from the oath they had sworn. Instead, he contented himself with being the heir of the lands administered by Margarethe. But apparently he did not keep his promise, whereupon armed conflicts broke out between Margaret's followers and her son's party. This marked the beginning of the hook-and-cod war , which broke out again some time after the agreement between Margarethe and Wilhelm (1354) and was to drag on until 1490.

Although Margarethe initially offered her son to avoid the continuation of the conflict on January 20, 1351, to leave the administration of Zeeland to him for an annual payment of 2,000 guilders, but this concession did not lead to an agreement. In the absence of sources, it cannot be determined how the personal relationship between the imperial widow and her son developed as a result of the political quarrel. According to the chronicler Johann von Beke , Margarethe was extremely angry. Wilhelm, on the other hand, continued to show her respect, according to other sources. When he found out about his mother's alleged remark that she would let him be dismembered if she got hold of him, he is said to have vowed to behave completely differently in the opposite case and to treat her appropriately.

Probably also under the impression of the conflict with her second son, Margarethe sought reconciliation with the Pope in the first half of 1351. To do this, she first had to renounce not only the prestigious title of Roman-German Empress, which she had used in documents until the end of 1350, but also that of Roman-German Queen, although she had never been crowned one. Clement VI. demanded the recognition of the right that an elected Roman-German king must first be confirmed by the Pope. Margarethe gave on July 30, 1351 in Valenciennes that of Clement VI. requested declaration, also asserted that she always wanted to remain loyal to the Catholic Church and in return achieved the lifting of her excommunication. The Bishop of Tournai, Margaret's mother, Jeanne of Valois, Abbess of Fontenelle, Walram of Luxembourg , Lord of Ligny, and other personalities attended this ceremony.

In the fight against Wilhelm Margarethe had in the meantime received support from her eldest son, Ludwig the Roman. She was also able to win over most of the nobles of Zeeland and confirmed the citizens of Dordrecht to get them on their side, on March 17, 1351 the stacking right . Initially, King Edward III was also there. on your side. To reassure the French King John II , however, she declared on May 6, 1351 that she had not concluded an alliance with England directed against him. Although the fleet of the Hoeken with English support won a small naval battle near Veere against Wilhelm's supporters on June 10, 1351 , the cod lions won a decisive victory over the Hoeken on July 4, 1351 in a sea battle off the coast near 's-Gravenzande and their English and Hennegau auxiliaries. The leader of the English reinforcements was killed, as were several nobles of Margaret's party such as Constijn van Renesse, while others such as Dirk III van Brederode were taken prisoner. Within a year, Wilhelm also took 17 permanent places of his opponents in the alliance with the codfish or forced them to surrender.

In September 1351 Margaret went to London to Edward III. to seek new support against her son. The English king supposedly wanted to act as a mediator in the conflict and on November 6, 1351 ordered that three permanent places in the county of Holland, which were still held by the Hoeken, should no longer be besieged, but his two confidants William Stury and to be handed over to William Burton. But apparently Edward III. at that time already changed sides and tried to bind Margarethes son Wilhelm by his marriage to Maud of Lancaster in 1352 . Thus Margarethe was finally inferior in the fight against her son. More than 500 important nobles from the Hoeken party only had the option of going into exile in neighboring countries.

The controversy between Margarethe and Wilhelm was only officially ended by the mediation efforts of their uncle Johann von Hennegau and their cousin Walram von Luxemburg, Herr von Ligny. On December 7, 1354, in addition to mother and son, several clergymen and nobles from Hainaut and the sea counts met in Mons, whereupon the reconciliation between the two conflicting parties was certified. Margarethe was obliged to forgive Wilhelm, but the son first had to seek this approval. Margarethe also accepted her son's sovereign rule over Holland, Zeeland and Friesland, for which Wilhelm Margaret recognized the possession of the Hainaut and also promised to pay his mother a one-off settlement of 40,000 guilders and an annual pension of 7,000 guilders. After Margaret's death, he was to succeed her in Hainaut.

Last years and death

In the last years of her life, Margarethe resided almost exclusively in Hainaut. In May 1354, in return for a pension of 3,700 pounds, she confessed to Tournosen as a vassal of France. With reference to the general condition of the country and in particular to the unrest caused by changes in the currency, Margarethe introduced maximum tariffs for the payment of wages and the purchase and sale of various goods with an ordinance of July 7, 1354. The daily rate for a master mason was set at 3 sous and for a craftsman at 15 hellers. In addition, there were now numerous precise dress codes for servants.

On March 1, 1355, the abbot of the Augustinian monastery of St. John in Valenciennes obtained that the Pope confessed to Margaret that she would no longer have to obey the prescribed fasting, because, in the opinion of her doctors, her health was too weak. After that she appeared very rarely herself, but instead had her officials deal with political matters. There were, for example, conflicts with neighboring princes; Thus King John II of France renewed a persistent dispute over the right to Ostrevant , and a border dispute broke out with the Bishop of Liège. There was also a conflict with the Count of Flanders over the possession of Lessines and Flobecq .

Before Margarethe reached the age of 50, she died on June 23, 1356 in Quesnoy. She found her final resting place in the Minorite Church at Valenciennes, where her father Wilhelm was also buried. Her son Wilhelm followed her as Count of Hainaut, but at the end of 1357 he fell into a mental illness that lasted until his death in 1389. In the 1430s, Hainaut, Holland, Zeeland and Friesland came into the possession of the Burgundian Duke Philip the Good , which ended the rule of the Wittelsbachers in the Netherlands. The Burgundian historians of the 15th century were not particularly interested in the life of Margaret, whose tomb was apparently destroyed before the end of the 18th century. But its epitaph passed on to Simon Le Boucqu in his Histoire ecclésiastique de Valenciennes .


Margarethe had ten children with Ludwig the Bavarian.

  • Margarete (1325 – after 1358)
  1. ⚭ 1351 Stephan of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia (1332–1354), son of King Charles II. Robert of Hungary from the House of Anjou
  2. ⚭ 1358 Gerlach von Hohenlohe († 1387)
  1. ⚭ 1345 Kunigunde of Poland (1334–1357)
  2. ⚭ 1360 Ingeburg von Mecklenburg (1340–1395)
  1. ⚭ 1350 Cangrande II of Verona from the house of della Scala (1332–1359, murdered)
  2. ⚭ 1362 Ulrich von Württemberg (1342–1388, fallen)
  1. ⚭ 1353 Margaret of Brieg and Silesia (1336–1386)
  2. ⚭ 1394 Margaret of Kleve and the Mark (1375–1412)


Web links


  1. ^ Dates of birth and death according to Heinz Thomas : Kaiserin Margarete . In: Karl Rudolf Schnith (ed.), Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , Verlag Styria, 1997, ISBN 3-222-12467-1 , p. 270.
  2. ^ Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 273–278.
  3. Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 280–283.
  4. Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 283–288.
  5. ^ Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 289–292; Alphonse Wauters : Marguerite de Hainaut . In: Biographie Nationale de Belgique , Vol. 13 (1894-95), Col. 637-640.
  6. Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , p. 292 f .; Alphonse Wauters, in: Biographie nationale de Belgique , Vol. 13, Col. 640 f.
  7. ^ Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 293–296; Alphonse Wauters, in: Biographie nationale de Belgique , Vol. 13, Col. 641–644.
  8. Heinz Thomas, in: Women of the Middle Ages in Life Pictures , pp. 296–298; Alphonse Wauters, in: Biographie nationale de Belgique , Vol. 13, Col. 644 f.
  9. Life and other data for Margaret's children and their spouses according to Stefanie Dick, Margarete von Hennegau, p. 250, unless otherwise stated.
  10. On Wilhelm's death Helga Czerny: The death of the Bavarian dukes in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period 1347–1579. Preparations - dying - funeral ceremonies - burial - memoria (=  series of publications on Bavarian national history . Volume 146 ). CH Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-10742-7 , p. 101 (also dissertation, University of Munich 2004). According to the count at that time (beginning of the year at Easter) he died in 1388.
  11. Year of birth according to Felix EscherOtto V. the lazy. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , p. 677 f. ( Digitized version ).
  12. Life data according to Ferdinand SeibtKarl IV. (Baptismal name Wenzel). In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-428-00192-3 , pp. 188-191 ( digitized version ).
predecessor Office Successor
Bianca Lancia 1246 to 1246 Roman-German Empress
Anna von Schweidnitz 1355 to 1362
predecessor Office Successor
Beatrix of Silesia-Schweidnitz Roman-German queen
Blanca Margaret of Valois