Christian theology is the theology that traces back to Jesus Christ as the Word of God (logos theou). Christian theology sees itself traditionally and historically as a subject on an equal footing with the sciences , which is divided according to the various Christian denominations .
General Christian theology
The Christian theology represents the self, a scientific examination of the sources to make Christian faith and religious practice as well as deliver the presentation Christian faith and its systematic analysis. The scientific capacity of theology is controversial. Questions of the scientific theory of theology are dealt with in the sub-area of fundamental theology , which is a sub- discipline of systematic theology .
The rough breakdown gives an initial overview of the numerous individual disciplines of Christian university theology:
- I. Biblical theology ,
- II. Historical theology ,
- III. Systematic theology ,
- IV. Practical theology ,
- V. Intercultural Theology .
The delimitation of the five main areas and the allocation of the individual disciplines can, however, differ depending on the denomination.
For Christians of all denominations, the starting point for all talk of God is the Bible . A large part of university theological research and teaching is concerned with biblical scriptures.
Biblical exegesis is the translation, examination and interpretation of scriptures using certain exegetical methods.
- Hermeneutics is generally a scientific reflection on the condition and possibility of understanding: here on biblical texts, specifically as a reflection on the methodology of exegesis.
- Introductory science is that part of biblical research that tries to shed light on its origins (authors, traditions, place, time, circumstances) in order to provide the necessary background knowledge for exegesis.
Exegesis is traditionally divided into the two main parts of the Bible, the Old and the New Testament. Both subjects have the sub-areas Introduction, History, Theology and Ethics . The exact delimitation is often not possible, since the origin of the Bible can only be understood from the history of Israel, as can theology and ethics, which cannot be separated.
- Old Testament :
- New Testament
The connection between the two “Testaments” is often negotiated under the name of “Biblical Theology”, especially in Reformation theology. This also includes Judaic studies for the time “between” the wills, which was previously viewed as a marginal area and its importance for Bible exegesis was underestimated.
This generic term usually includes the history of the church and dogma. Today it is often preferred as a collective term to the earlier sub-area “Church history”, but does not designate a separate subject . It is a cross-disciplinary branch in which historically working theology areas are dealt with.
- Historical theology
- Church history
- History of religion
- History of dogma (also history of theology)
- History of ecumenism
- Historical development level in the article Christianity
- Chronology of the Christian churches, denominations and special groups
- Timeline history of Christianity
Confessional differences can show up in the different epochs or different weighting of individual epochs .
- Fundamental theology in Catholic theology is the fundamental reflection of the characteristics of the Christian faith and its delimitation from other world views and religions. With regard to the latter, it used to be called apologetics . This term also denotes a historical epoch of Christian theology (2nd and 3rd centuries), as the explanation and, above all, the defense of Christian beliefs against their critics in the Roman Empire played a major role in it.
Dogmatics reflects the contents of the Christian faith and presents them systematically (usually based on the order of the creeds). Today one differentiates between the following areas / treatises:
- Theological anthropology Creativity, likeness of God, the fall of man, justification of man
- Doctrine of God Word and term "God" in general; the Judeo-Christian God; Creation, Providence, Omnipotence, Fatherhood, Trinity, etc.
- Christology is the reflection and interpretation of the person Jesus Christ.
- Soteriology is the reflection on the salvation associated with the person Jesus Christ.
- Pneumatology is the study of and reflection on the Holy Spirit.
- Ecclesiology is the reflection on the nature and reality of the church in the light of its theological determination.
- The doctrine of the sacraments is the reflection on the sacraments in general and the presentation of the seven individual sacraments.
- Eschatology (formerly: doctrine of the “last things”) is the reflection on the hope for the perfection of the world and the perfection of the individual, which result from faith.
- Ethics (Protestant) or moral theology (Catholic) reflect on the norms, guidelines and principles of Christian lifestyle.
- Philosophy of religion (rather Catholic) reflects on the relationship between belief and knowledge. Reformation theology here rather emphasizes the opposition between faith and general religion or theology and philosophy.
- Religious Studies researches religiosity and religions in general. Whether it belongs to systematic or historical theology depends on the faculty. At some universities (e.g. Leipzig ), religious studies are placed in the humanities or social sciences faculties and emphasize the empirical nature of their work in contrast to theology. As such an independent subject, it reverses the point of view and looks more at Christian theology as a sub-area among other theologies. Within empirical religious studies there is a strong emancipation movement towards theology and parts of religious studies influenced by it.
This sub-area applies to the practice of church and Christian action, e.g. B. Divine service, diakonia, liturgy, pastoral care, etc.
- Pastoral theology
- Homiletics is the doctrine of preaching.
- Liturgy ( liturgical science and comparative liturgical science) thematizes forms of worship - both sung and spoken.
- Catechetics , religious education , community education concerns the communication of Christian content also outside of the church service.
- Poimenik is a reflection on pastoral care .
- Oikodomik is the doctrine of church building .
- Diakonik or Diakoniewwissenschaft or Caritaswissenschaft deals with diakonia or Caritas, active neighborly love .
- Missiology traditionally deals with the proclamation and dissemination of the gospel (faith) gospel , today it is closely linked to ecumenics and intercultural theology .
- Church music is music from the theological point of view; within a theology course it overlaps strongly with liturgy.
- Church building is architecture under theological aspects.
- Christian archeology is actually archeology; a main focus is on excavations in Palestine.
- Christian journalism : theological journalism.
- Canon law : the area of law within theology.
- Ascetics : concerns the theology of the spiritual life, in the Catholic area especially of religious communities.
Furthermore, in practical theology with the designation “pastoral theology” there can be difficulties in understanding, since with “pastoral theology” in Protestant practical theology only the person of the ministerial officer is actually examined, while in Catholic practical theology the entire field of practical theology is examined can simply be described as the "pastoral".
Finally, it should be noted that the assignment of the individual subordinate subjects to higher-level subjects is sometimes uncertain and can also be done differently, in some cases there are also overlaps and duplications. The theological encyclopedia is supposed to guarantee the inner cohesion of the individual sub-areas, which have diverged due to the adoption of different paradigms and continue to develop from one another (at least in Protestant theology).
In the area of German theological faculties, the dual subject intercultural theology and religious studies has established itself as an independent subject in many places. This independence is also expressed in the name of the relevant specialist group within the Scientific Society for Theology (WGTh). The name of the department is "Religious Studies and Intercultural Theology".
It is of fundamental importance for German specialist history that the term “intercultural theology” was introduced in 2005 by representatives of the specialist group within the WGTh and members of the administrative board of the DGMW as an explanation of the term missiology. Since then, the term intercultural theology has been discussed as lively as it is controversial with regard to its relation to missiology, as can be seen from a number of recent publications.
Under the heading "Religious Studies and Intercultural Theology", intercultural theology has been upgraded in the framework of the Protestant theology course, which has significantly strengthened the subject. In this way, current developments are taken into account: In view of the increased need for reflection on Christian forms of intercultural and interreligious interactions as well as those of other religious formations, the subject of intercultural theology appears extremely topical, for religious communities as well as for civil society on the horizon of pluralization, internationalization, globalization and migration.
However, this positive development with regard to the perception of the content of the subject of intercultural theology in universities is also associated with the risk of losing reference to the history of missiology via the label intercultural theology, if only to the pluralism of global Christianity and its local Variants is withdrawn, but not on its cross-border interactions.
While some specialist representatives see the issue of missiology as a historical relic, others consider the topic of missionary interactions to be more topical than ever before, since various religions appear missionary and are therefore important actors in civil society issues. In a more recent definition, both intercultural theology and the phenomenon of missionary border crossing are pointedly linked: “(1) Intercultural theology reflects the cross-border missionary interactions of Christian testimony that are motivated by the universal validity of its message of salvation, (2) the interactions with the respective cultural, religious, social and other contexts and actors lead to the formation of a multitude of local variants of Christianity, (3) which are faced with the task of being aware of their togetherness, (4) normative contents of Christian teaching and practice in the tension between universality and Renegotiating particularity over and over again. "
See the main article, Catholic Theology
Catholic theology sees itself as a constructive reflection and scientific representation of the Christian faith and related subjects. Central for an elevation of the form of faith are the Bible as a fundamental book of revelation, tradition, doctrines of the tradition, especially dogmatized decisions and statements of the church's magisterium , as well as the faith of all believers. The individual sub-disciplines also have additional areas of responsibility. Dogmatics also addresses, for example, the delimitation of faith from heretical doctrines; it and other disciplines such as theological ethics are in dialogue with every form of ideological doctrine. In the concert of the sciences, the theological disciplines have specific methods, objects and tasks. Within the religious community of the church, theology serves the present and future of faith.
According to the Catholic understanding, in addition to the revealed truth of Holy Scripture, tradition also exists as a source of knowledge for theology . Oral (e.g. prayers spoken over centuries ), written (e.g. church fathers , texts from church assemblies) and practical (e.g. gestures in the liturgy that indicate the content of belief) are part of this faith tradition understand. According to the Catholic understanding, dogmas need not be taken directly from the Bible, because the church was there before the Holy Scriptures and, by virtue of its authority , has compiled certain books on the Bible. Dogmas, however, must not contradict the statements of the Holy Scriptures.
Theology is bound to the doctrinal decisions ( dogmas ) established by the Magisterium of the Church . The unofficial doctrinal decisions do not in principle go beyond what was revealed in the Bible , but they clarify the understanding of what is fundamental in the Bible. Studying theology is usually a prerequisite for admission to priestly ordination.
See the main article Evangelical Theology
Evangelical theology is based on the redemption attested in the Holy Scriptures through faith in the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ for human beings. It not only ties in with the dogmas and symbols of the Old Church , but is also shaped by the careers of the great reformers. Martin Luther , Zwingli and Johannes Calvin deserve special mention . In particular, justification by faith ( sola fide ) and by grace ( sola gratia ) is a central evangelical theme. In addition, the Reformation gave greater weight to any shortcomings in scholasticism and shifted the focus of theology to Scripture and “what Christ does”, thus moving Jesus Christ's words and deeds and the tradition of them back to the center of theology ( sola scriptura , solus Christ ) .
Protestant theology differs fundamentally from Catholic theology in that it has no overarching church teaching office that dogmatically defines the truth of the faith. Therefore, dogma in Protestant theology describes the constantly renewing substrate of the theological and church discussion process. This discussion process is understood as an ongoing interpretation of the biblical scriptures, which are the source of faith and thus the norm of theological reflection. Scientific theology is an important factor in this discussion process, but not only educational. What is taught in the Protestant church is decided by the elected church governing bodies (e.g. presbyteries , synods ) on the basis of theological reflection and prayer.
Accordingly, there are also different definitions of the concept of theology in Protestant theology:
- Theology as propositional dogmatics : This traditional model understands theological propositions as statements (propositions) about the reality of God and the world. In this model, theology is always connected with ontology , partly as a synthesis, partly in conflict. The biblical writings are understood as a revelation of divine reality, which humans can only perceive in fragments without this revelation. Only from this revealed divine reality does the world become intelligible. Therefore, most of the theological approaches to revelation can be included under this model.
- Theology as a doctrine of faith : This model of theology became known primarily through Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher . Theology does not describe the reality of the world and God in statements, but rather describes their perception in faith or in the subject of faith. Religious propositions are understood here primarily as an expression of inner religiosity (e.g. religious feeling as an a priori quantity in Schleiermacher), the constitutional conditions of which theology examines, but on which it is at the same time based. The biblical texts are also understood in this model as an expression of religiosity and receive their special function for faith solely because they are the oldest testimony to the origin of Christian religiosity and are therefore most likely to express it in an unadulterated manner.
- Theology as a rule system : This much-noticed, newer model, exemplified by the name of George Arthur Lindbeck , understands theological sentences as rule sentences. That means: Theological propositions do not simply ontologically describe reality, but are also not an expression of religious feeling, but form rules for the Christian talk of God. This understanding of theology is often based on recent developments in the philosophy of language and anchors theological reflection particularly strongly in the practice of faith. The biblical texts can be treated differently in this model. They can either be regarded as rules of faith themselves or, in turn, be subject to a regulated practice of interpretation (e.g. with Nicholas Lash , Stanley Hauerwas ). An elaborated doctrine of understanding the biblical scriptures in this model is currently a desideratum of evangelical theology.
What all these models have in common is that they determine theology primarily on the basis of dogmatic reflection. But this does not exclude the other theological disciplines. These can be understood as disciplines serving dogmatics or as their own counter-designs of theology, especially the exegetical disciplines. Exegetes therefore often see themselves as actually biblical theologians in the sense of the Reformation, since theology has to orient itself solely on the interpretation of biblical texts. It is of course ignored that the dogmatic models presented also claim to be genuine interpretations of the biblical texts.
Today the endeavor of Protestant theology can be felt to get involved in ecumenism and to overcome the confessional age in which wars are even fought for Christian motives.
Specific to Orthodox theology are the close connection between dogma and spiritual experience, the importance of the Church Fathers , especially those of the East, and the importance of Orthodox worship as a source of dogmatic tradition. Orthodox theology is less speculation than a " science of the experience of God" (Bishop Hilarion Alfejew , Mystery of Faith ). Since orthodox theology rejects ancient philosophy , especially Greece , and does not try to use its terminology, orthodox theology appears somewhat unsystematic and unstructured. In addition, because of the orthodox understanding of the church, what is called the development of dogmas in Western Christianity does not exist, so that the first ecumenical councils are always in the foreground. Only recently has the specifically social dimension of faith been taken into account in Orthodox theology.
The theology of the Eastern Church sees itself as the attempt to find within the concrete life of the Church a deeper understanding of the faith revealed once and for all to the apostles through Jesus Christ and handed down since then, the core of this tradition being the Bible. Most Orthodox theologians are not priests or monks, but lay people. Typical of Orthodox theology are: frequent references to statements in the liturgy ; the noticeable individual coloring through the individual theologian personality, but without strong "schools" formation; viewing theology as a gift of God for people filled with the Holy Spirit (who thus pass on the blessing), not so much as a science to be pursued by professional theologians; a conservative (but not fundamentalist) attitude. Important Orthodox theologians in the 20th century were e.g. B. Johannes von Kronstadt , Georgi Florowski , Alexander Schmemann , Seraphim Rose and John Zizioulas .
Free Church theologies
In most free churches , the Bible is the sole basis for theology. The theology of free churches usually results from the humanistic-Reformation approach (ad fontes) to examine and evaluate the tradition that has arisen in church history on the basis of scripture. Free Church theology is largely based on the basic framework of Reformation theology. With the multitude of different free churches, the theological positions differ in some cases considerably. Despite the striving for religious freedom of expression, confessional emphases can often be identified, which in turn lead to the formation of traditions.
Study and training
Theology is a scientific discipline that can be studied. However, this is mostly not enough to be able to work as a theologian in the church service . In addition to studying, practice-oriented pastoral training is required . Catholic theologians therefore regularly take a “pastoral year” directly after their studies to learn practical pastoral care activities. Candidates for the priesthood always complete the pastoral year before they are ordained , usually immediately before they are ordained deacons . In the case of free church universities and educational institutions, however, this pastoral part of the training is already integrated into the course.
For Protestant theologians , the vicariate is a prerequisite for ordination . The vicariate is a second phase of training in which practical activities in a parish alternate with courses in a seminary . It concludes with the Second Theological Examination held by a church examination committee . The vicariate corresponds to the chaplaincy of the Catholic priests, which immediately follows the priestly ordination and in which the state pastor's examination is to be taken.
Theology is taught as a scientific discipline in Germany, Austria and Switzerland at universities and at church (technical) universities. The individual faculties, departments and institutes are denominationally oriented. Therefore there are Protestant , Roman Catholic and Old Catholic theological faculties and church (technical) universities.
In German-speaking countries, orthodox theology can be studied at the training facility for orthodox theology at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich as an independent course with a corresponding diploma . Since 2002 there has also been the opportunity to study Orthodox theology with a focus on Coptic Orthodox theology and a BA in theology at the Theological Institute of the Kröffelbach Monastery . There is also a chair for orthodox theology at the Westphalian Wilhelms University of Münster and a chair for orthodox Christianity at the University of Erfurt .
In addition, there are a number of independent theological colleges and institutes in the non-governmental and free-church areas that offer theology courses. This includes, for example, the evangelical state-independent theological university (STH) Basel (degree: M. Th .; Possibility of doctorate). Since 2008 the Free Theological University Gießen has been the first evangelical, state-approved university in Germany (degrees: BA and MA). Both institutes are denominationally independent.
There are also institutes that are denominationally bound. These include the Lutheran Theological University of Oberursel , the Methodist Theological University of Reutlingen , the Adventist Theological University of Friedensau in Möckern-Friedensau near Magdeburg, the Theological Seminar / University of Applied Sciences of the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches / Baptists in Wustermark-Elstal near Berlin and the Mennonite training and the Bienenberg conference center in Liestal , Switzerland.
In the wider free church sector, the training of pastors and preachers mainly takes place in theological seminars . These include the the Evangelical Confederation of Free churches in Germany associated Theological Seminary in Ewersbach or Theological Seminary Berea the Federal Pentecostal Churches in Erzhausen near Darmstadt. As an independent work within the Evangelical Regional Church, the Adelshofen Theological Seminar offers a master's degree in practical theology in conjunction with the University of South Africa (degree: M. Th. ).
The universities in some cases show significantly different characteristics. Some faculties are traditionally oriented towards Lutheran or Reformed schools or are in a Pietistic tradition. Occasionally, such priorities are set by special chairs. For example, the Protestant theological faculty of the Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg has a chair for Reformed theology.
Correspondence courses in Catholic theology are correspondence courses aimed at lay Catholics and those interested , coupled with study weeks and weekends spread across the region. For some ecclesiastical pastoral professional groups, attending the course is a prerequisite. All other participants can, but do not have to, take an exam. The individual theological correspondence courses are structured differently, but usually offer a basic course, advanced course and specialization courses.
The oldest theological correspondence course of the Catholic Church in German-speaking countries, which is dedicated to the systematic-theological introduction to the Christian faith, is offered by the Institute Correspondence Course for Theological Education in Vienna (since 1950). It emerged from the Vienna Theological Course of the Archdiocese of Vienna, which was founded in 1940 and is supported by the Austrian Bishops' Conference . In the Austrian church, the course completion is a prerequisite for some non-academic pastoral professions (deacon, pastoral assistant, hospital chaplaincy). In Switzerland , the Interdiocesan Association of Theological Courses for Catholic Laity (TKL-KGK) has been offering a corresponding theological distance learning course theologiekurse.ch since 1956 . In Germany, the church-sponsored correspondence course in theology has been offered and supported by the Catholic Academy Cathedral School in Würzburg since 1970 . Especially for permanent deacons , catechists , parish officers and religion teachers , the " Würzburg distance course " is also recognized as theological training for a church profession, provided that the home diocese has previously approved the study and, if successful, one Has promised employment.
The theological correspondence courses in Vienna, Zurich and Würzburg offer an introduction to Catholic theology that is comparable in scope and objectives. The completion of the course in Vienna or Zurich is therefore recognized by "Theologie im Fernkurs" for the basic and advanced course.
In the Protestant area, a theological distance learning is offered by the church distance learning of the church province of Saxony in Magdeburg. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mecklenburg , the Pomeranian Evangelical Church , the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia , the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saxony , the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thuringia , the Evangelical Church of Anhalt and the Evangelical Church of the Union are involved in this . In addition, the Evangelical Distance Learning Office is responsible for church services at the EKD level .
Orthodox theology cannot be taken as part of distance learning in German-speaking countries. In the United States, on the other hand, the Pavel Florensky School of Theology and Ministry at Euclid University , two educational institutions of the Russian Orthodox churches abroad and the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch offer corresponding distance learning. The Open University of Finland , Avoinyliopisto, also offers distance learning in Orthodox theology in collaboration with the University of Joensuu .
In the course of the Bologna Process , most Protestant theological faculties have modularized the study of theology, despite the contradictions on the part of the students, and switched to the new degrees of Bachelor or partly Bachelor of Theology and Master or partly Master of Theology , especially for many Free church educational institutions that cooperate with universities in the Anglo-American region was already the case before. The Roman Catholic Church , however, has decided to graduate -Studiengang Catholic theology to modularize, but to leave it as a five-year full-time study, then with the academic degree Magister Theologiae closes. In the St. Lambert Study House in Lantershofen , as the central training facility for all German dioceses and religious orders, so-called “late-calling” men from the age of 25 can study Catholic theology with the aim of priesthood even without a high school diploma . Completed vocational training is required. At the training facility for Orthodox theology at the University of Munich, the intention is to follow the same path as the Roman Catholic Church and to create a Magister Theologiae as a five-year full course.
Theological preoccupation with faith is peculiar to Christianity , since theoretical reflection on faith is firmly anchored in Christian tradition. This reflection is not only an end in itself, but necessary for the religious practice of the church.
Many of the analytical systems and methods commonly used in theology are also used in the fields of linguistics , philosophy or history . This enables the scientific discourse between Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Jewish, atheistic and other religious scholars, as is common, for example, in the history of religion and in Bible exegesis . Nevertheless, every theology has its specificity in the way in which it defines its "object" ( material object ) and its methodological approach ( formal object ).
The theological study is usually divided into the following sub-disciplines:
- The exegetical disciplines
- Biblical exegesis : general methodological questions, partly also information on biblical studies. (In some faculties this coincides with chairs for the Old or New Testament.)
- Old Testament : The interpretation of the Old Testament using historical and philological methods.
- New Testament : The interpretation of the New Testament using historical and philological methods.
- Church history: Often divided into epochs: patristic and old church history, middle church history (early to late Middle Ages), modern church history (modern times and contemporary history).
- Systematic theology
- Fundamental theology : the scientific question of the justification of belief before reason. General characteristics of the belief of one's own denomination are also discussed in comparison to other worldviews. The separation of fundamental theology and dogmatics is especially common in Catholic theology. Different models exist in Protestant theology.
- Dogmatics : The scientific question about the history, shape and content of the Christian faith, as it is e.g. B. is summarized in creeds and teaching decisions.
- Ethics : The scientific question about the shape and justification of the Christian ethos . Often divided into an anthropological individual ethic and a sociological social ethic.
- Practical theology: The scientific reflection on the practice of faith and the proclamation of the faith, etc. a. with methods of empirical social sciences and psychology . Often divided into practical or pastoral theology and religious education, sometimes in addition to religious psychology. With a more practical orientation, liturgical science can also be located here (alternatively in systematic theology or in historical subjects).
Critics regard theology as a pseudoscience . or see them as unscientific.
- Mission Studies as Intercultural Theology and its Relationship to Religious Studies, paper by the Department of Religious and Mission Studies of the Society for Scientific Theology and Board of Directors of the German Society for Mission Studies, in: ZMiss (2005), 376–382.
- Klaus Hock, Introduction to Intercultural Theology, Darmstadt 2011; Volker Küster, Introduction to Intercultural Theology; Henning Wrogemann, Intercultural Theology and Hermeneutics. Basic questions, current examples, theoretical perspectives, textbook Intercultural Theology / Mission Studies, Volume 1, Gütersloh 2012
- Framework regulations for the Protestant Theology course (Pfarramt / Diplom / Magister Theologiae) , accessed at https://web.archive.org/web/20130515010210/http://www.ekd.de/theologiestudium/assets/rahmenordnung_fuer_den_studiengang_evangelische_theologie.pdf on September 8, 2011, 2-3.
- Henning Wrogemann, Interkulturelle Theologie - On the definition and subject area of the sixth subject of the theological faculty, in: Berliner Theologische Zeitschrift (32) 2015, 219–239. See H. Wrogemann, Theologie Interreligöser Demokratie, Gütersloh 2015, 413–442.
- Justification by faith alone. In: Theological Differences. Evangelische Landeskirche Baden, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- “The Justification of Man Before God” - Section: 2. What is meant by the doctrine of justification? In: Declaration of the Bishops' Conference of the VELKD. Evangelical Church in Germany, June 2, 2008, accessed December 15, 2015 .
- Martin Luther: Preface to the Epistles of James and Jude. In: The Letter of James. Zeno.org, accessed December 14, 2015 .
- Martin Luther: Selected Works . Ed .: HH Borcherdt and Georg Merz. 3. Edition. tape 6 . Chr. Raiser Verlag, Munich 1968, Preface to the Holy Scriptures - Preface to the Epistles Saint Jakobi and Jude (1522), p. 110-111 .
- Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger: Similarities of the Reformation directions. In: Reformatory teaching. Uni Münster, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- 500 years of the Reformation 2017. A basic text of the Council of the Evangelical Church in Germany, 2014. In: Justification and Freedom - Section: 2.1 On the concept of justification - key of the Reformation. Evangelical Church in Germany, archived from the original on December 22, 2015 ; accessed on December 15, 2015 .
- See press release of the Diocese of Limburg , Konradsblatt No. 13 of March 30, 2008 ( Memento of September 26, 2008 in the Internet Archive ).
- Theology ; Liberation theology ; Dialectical theology ; Theology of experience ; Erlangen theology ; Awakening theology ; Feminist theology ; Denominational theology ; Liberal theology ; Natural theology ; Moral theology ; Physical theology ; Speculative theology ; Transition theology ; Mediation theology ;
- Pantheism ; Panentheism ; Supranaturalism ; Theological rationalism ; Wolffianism ;
- Christ ; Belief ; God ; Proof of God ; Holy Spirit ; Salvation history ; Reformation ; Creation ; Trinity ; Christology ; Ecclesiology ; Grace doctrine ; Doctrine of God ; Soteriology
- Study of theology
- Lutheranism ; Neo-Lutheranism ; Evangelical Lutheran Churches ; Pietism ; Protestantism
- Mariology ; Neology ; Fideism ; Catholicism
- Orthodoxy ;
- Christian theologians ; alphabetical list of theologians ; chronological list of German theologians
- Scientific systematics and the scientific nature of theology
- see also the main article philosophy of theology
- Eve-Marie Becker , Doris Hiller (ed.): Handbook of Evangelical Theology. An encyclopedic approach . UTB 8326. Francke-Verl., Tübingen / Basel 2006, ISBN 3-8252-8326-7 (introduction to the sub- disciplines of Protestant theology and their relationship to one another)
- Patrick Becker, Thomas Gerold (Hgg): Theology at the university. Attempt to determine your position. , Lit-Verlag, Münster 2005
- Gerhard Ebeling : Study of theology. An encyclopedic orientation. JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen 1977, ISBN 3-16-139291-4 . (An introduction to the general and disciplines of Protestant theology, in particular, shaped by a certain systematic perspective.)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Graf : Why theology? in: Florian Keisinger u. a. (Ed.): Why humanities? Controversial arguments for an overdue debate , Frankfurt a. M./New York 2003, ISBN 3-593-37336-X
- Hans-Martin Gutmann, Norbert Mette: Orientation Theology. What she can do, what she wants. Reinbek near Hamburg 2000.
- Lexical and overview presentations on the concept of theology
- Oswald Bayer : Theology . Handbook of Systematic Theology Vol. 1. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1994
- Gerhard Ebeling u. a .: Art. Theology. In: The religion in history and present , 3rd edition, Vol. 6, Tübingen 1962, pp. 754–781, ISBN 3-16-145098-1
- Wolfhart Pannenberg : Philosophy of Science and Theology. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1977
- Christoph Schwöbel: Art. Theology , in: Religion in Past and Present, 4th, completely. edit again Ed., Vol. 8, Tübingen 2005, pp. 255–306, ISBN 3-16-146948-8
- Konrad Stock, Hermann Spiekermann u. a .: Art. Theologie, Christliche , in: Theologische Realenzyklopädie 33 (2002), pp. 263–343 ( above all historical overview)
- Theological reference works
- Dictionnaire de spiritualité
- Encyclopédie des sciences ecclésiastiques
- Michael Eckert , Eilert Herms , Bernd Jochen Hilberath , Eberhard Jüngel (eds.): Lexicon of theological works , Metzler, Stuttgart 2003.
- Lexicon for theology and the church
- Alf Christophersen, Stefan Jordan (Hrsg.): Lexikon Theologie. A hundred basic terms . 1st edition Reclam, Ditzingen 2004, ISBN 3-15-010545-5
- Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity
- Religion Past and Present
- Erwin Fahlbusch (Ed.): Taschenlexikon Religion and Theologie. (TRT). 5 vols. Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 1983, ISBN 3-525-50123-4
- Real Theological Encyclopedia
- Christian Danz (Ed.): Canon of theology , 45 key texts in portrait, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-20789-3 .
- Theological portals and link collections
- VirTheo - Virtual Library of Theology and Religious Studies (University Library of Tübingen)
- Münster Forum for Theology and Church - Selection of current theological publications
- theology.de - Church and Theology on the Web
- Selected bibliographies
- Study of theology
- Orthodox theology