The teaching post is held by persons who have committed or have been obliged to teach at public, private or church educational institutions.
In Germany, the teaching post is granted by the respective federal states, in Switzerland by the cantons or the federal government. In Austria the teaching post is only awarded at the federal level. In none of these countries is it necessary to be a civil servant for teaching at public schools, so that employment contracts for employees in the public service are also possible. The use of the term in connection with faculty in general is therefore primarily for historical reasons.
Access and training
The teaching post itself is as old as the public school system, but was exercised by people with very different qualifications before Wilhelm von Humboldt carried out reforms in the education system in Prussia in 1810 and created the profession of high school teacher with scientific state examinations for teachers . This development soon spread to other countries with the introduction of secondary schools . Today, not only teachers at grammar schools, but also teachers from secondary and primary levels take a state examination to complete their studies at a university or, in the meantime, a bachelor's / master's degree.
Within the framework of the Bologna Process , qualifications as teaching staff from other countries of the European Union are generally recognized in Germany and Austria. However, training to become a teacher within the framework of Bachelor and Master courses ( Bachelor or Master of Education ) is viewed as inadequate.
An ecclesiastical authorization ( vocatio or missio canonica ) is required for the teaching post of Protestant or Catholic religious teaching .