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As Christology ( doctrine of Christ , of Greek χριστός , the anointed ' and λόγος logos , German , Word' , teaching ',' Reason ') is in the Christian theology , the doctrine of the person and significance of Jesus of Nazareth called. Christology is a central part of systematic theology . It wants to answer questions about his person (identity, “nature”) and his work (meaning, “relevance”) for the Christian community, the church , the individual believer and the world.

Main types

The center of Christology is the proclamation of the Messiah (Hebrew m'schiach, "the anointed") or Christ following the public appearance of Jesus of Nazareth in Palestine at the turn of the ages. Correspondingly significant is the Christology within the framework of theology, which was subsequently spread first by Paul of Tarsus and in further development by the Church Fathers .

The christological teaching development in the history of Christianity is often divided into main epochs and corresponding main types:

  • the trinitarian christology of the early church : following JnEU it started from the identity of the historical Jesus with the eternal Son of God and asked from there how the eternal God could accept human existence. So their interest was directed towards capturing God's identity in his incarnation.
  • Reformation Christology: It started with the death of Jesus and asked from there what this meant for God's nature and human salvation. Her interest was directed towards discovering the salvation of the individual precisely in the human existence and death of the Son of God as atoning death.
  • the anthropocentric Christology: She went out of general human existence and understanding conditions and interpreted the divinity of Jesus as confirmation and fulfillment of predefined true humanity. Her interest was directed towards the acceptance of the Christian religion under the conditions of enlightened historical self-confidence.

Since the dialectical theology of the 1920s, inspired by Karl Barth , modern theologians have tried to lead Christology out of the dogmatic alternatives of the past and to mediate between the poles. This resulted in a variety of new drafts with several focuses: dialogue with Judaism, ecumenism , current ecological, economic and peace-ethical human problems.

From a systematic point of view, the different christological positions of the last two thousand years can be seen as ever new solutions to the Christological trilemmas can be understood as attempts to bring the following three sentences together:

  1. Jesus Christ was human
  2. Jesus Christ is God, and
  3. God is not the same as the world.

There have been four types of solutions to this trilemma in church history :

  • Modification of the humanity of Jesus Christ: The bodily existence of the divine Christ is underestimated (as in the Christologies "from above" following the classic doctrine of two natures) or openly disputed (e.g. in docetism or in the gnosis of the 2nd century. ).
  • Modification of the divinity of Jesus Christ: Jesus of Nazareth is understood as a human being like everyone else (so since the Enlightenment in the historical-critical exegesis and especially in atheism , but already in Judaism currently for the.. Early Christianity ), or at least one of God clearly different being (e.g. in Arianism , Jesus as “God's wisdom”).
  • Modification of God's transcendence : God's distance from the world is no longer considered to be insurmountable, which means that sentences (1) and (2) of the trilemma can be logically agreed (e.g. in theological rationalism or God-is-dead theology ) .
  • Paradoxical solutions: All three sentences are retained, the logical connection is declared as indissoluble (e.g. in the christological formulas of the Council of Chalcedon or in Kierkegaard ).

New Testament

The starting point of every christological theory is the early Christian witness of the New Testament . There Jesus himself asked his disciples the following question ( Mk 8.27ff  LUT ):

"Who do people say who I am?"

Then they first name the Jewish ideas of the time: John the Baptist , who appeared as the prophet of the end times; Elijah , who was expected to return at the time ; one of the prophets. Accordingly, Jesus was not yet perceived as a possible candidate for the Messiah . To the further question:

"And you, what do you say who I am?"

follows the creed of Simon Peter :

"You are the Christ!"

“Christ” is a Greek translation of the Hebrew “Messiah”: The Christology of the New Testament originally interprets the relationship between the person of Jesus and the messianic horizon of expectations of Judaism in the lingua franca of the Roman Empire. It primarily develops the relationship between Jesus, his work and his way of life, to YHWH , the God of Israel.

The Gospels and several other books of the NT contain a wealth of titles and sovereign statements about Jesus:

How could the crucified Jew Jesus gain so many titles and be proclaimed as Savior to the whole world, so that it became a new religion? This question has occupied historical research especially since the Enlightenment . The central question is what self-image the historical Jesus had. Did he think of himself as what others saw in him? The Gospels make a distinction; in them, titles such as “Lord” or “Christ” appear almost only in the dialogues, but hardly in the reporting passages; there he is just called "Jesus".

The New Testament evidence is structured as follows:

  • Explicit Christology: Titles and statements of sovereignty that appear in Jesus' self-statements
  • evoked Christology: titles and statements of sovereignty that he evokes in his listeners and allows them to apply to himself
  • Implicit Christology: Words and actions of Jesus that express a special divine authority and could thus justify later statements of sovereignty.

With all three variants it is discussed whether and which titles Jesus himself used or created during his lifetime, and to what extent they are later statements of faith by Christians that were only formulated after the resurrection of Jesus Christ .

According to the New Testament, implicit Christology was probably the main cause of his crucifixion : Since he showed himself to be sovereign in his words and deeds over the statutes of Israel and also the Roman occupiers, he became dangerous for the continued existence of the cult and public order classified.

Jesus only speaks explicitly of himself as “Son of Man”. His own, probably historical, address to God "Father, Papa" (Aramaic family: Abba ) emphasized a particularly intimate relationship with God.

The Jewish titles “Son of David” (e.g. Mk 10.47  EU ) and “Son of God” ( Mk 1.11  EU and others) as well as the Roman designation “King of the Jews” ( Mk 15.2  EU ) are missing in self-statements Jesus; The Greek "Christ" title appears only rarely and indirectly. But Jesus does not contradict when others call him that. Only in Mark's Gospel does Jesus contradict his public designation as “Son of God” in order not to prematurely reveal his true identity to the world: This represents the theology of the “Messiah's secret” with which the evangelist Jesus' healing work ( Mk 3:11  EU ) and his death on the cross ( Mk 15.39  EU ) subsequently interpreted.

The titles “Kyrios” and “Son of God” appear mainly in the context of post-Easter vision reports and later community theology, especially in the early Christian creed formulas. The oldest creeds are:

  • Jesus is Lord (e.g. in Phil 2:11  EU ).

"Lord" (Greek Kyrios ) is the conscious transfer of the Hebrew name of God YHWH to Jesus. It relates its rule to the whole universe .

  • Jesus was / is the Son of God ( Mk 15.39  EU ; Rom 1.3  EU ): This confession is based on the idea of ​​the “election” of a certain person to be the “revelator” and “image” of God ( Mk 1.11  EU ) .

However, to what extent a second “divine person” besides the creator of the world, the “father” of Jesus, was meant is disputed in research. The Gospels already show the tension between the majesty and authority of Jesus on the one hand and his impotence and his death for humanity on the other.

The aforementioned confession of the Messiah of Peter (“You are the Christ!”) Confesses him as the ultimate unsurpassable mediator of salvation in contrast to all preliminary prophets. But such a confession did not necessarily express a “divine nature” of Jesus. This is hardly imaginable in Judaism, in whose faith traditions Jesus of Nazareth and his first followers moved: There the first of the Ten Commandments was decisive, which strictly forbids the worship of a person as God next to God. Accordingly, in the early church confessions, Jesus is not described as someone next to God, but as a hypostasis in God.

Separation from Judaism

While Judaism is still waiting for the coming of the Messiah (literally: the anointed), the Christian view is: In Jesus the Christ (literally: the anointed) appeared . The first Christology thus moved within the framework of Jewish messianology, which, however, already had a variety of forms at that time: there was a prophetic messianology that anticipated the return of Elijah , a royal messianology that expected a son of David . From Qumran we also know the expectation of a priestly Messiah from Aaron or from the tribe of Levi .

The work or the fate of the messenger or chosen could accordingly be understood more politically, more cultic or prophetic - up to the suffering Messiah, who found his model in the rejected Joseph or the suffering servant in Isaiah's visions.

Christian statements about Jesus are based on various models without an overall theological concept behind them. In the foreground are royal motifs ( Psalm 110 is the most frequently quoted OT passage in the New Testament), but also prophetic or priestly ones and the suffering statements are applied to the person and fate of Jesus.

All Christian motives have one thing in common: The promised Messiah has come in Jesus Christ, nobody comes after him. So he is not only the chosen one or the messenger, but in a sense the Messiah of all Messiahs, the seal of the prophets.

In Christian “messianology” there are also motifs that go beyond the usual Jewish messiah predications: “Son of God” is still possible in a royal context, but not common. The unity of father and son already presented in the Gospel of John , the connection with the Greek Logos philosophy, the equation in the Letter to the Hebrews of Jesus Christ with Melchizedek the Priest-King before all Jewish priesthoods and kingships - everywhere there are early evidence that one Christology developed that consciously stood apart from Jewish messianology in order to describe the special dignity of the person of Jesus Christ.

On the whole, however, this remained unsystematic and formed a hodgepodge of sovereign titles and predications (see above) that could not yet be brought to a uniform term. In the beginning, the focus was not on the systematic-theological presentation to the outside world, but on the certainty for the believer: Jesus Christ, God's Son, (my) Savior. (The so-called ICHTHYS confession).

In dealing with false teachers and the necessary external presentation, however, a more systematic elaboration soon became necessary, which, given the diversity of traditions, of course contained plenty of material for conflict.

Old church

Eternal Son of God - Real Man?

In the Jewish sphere of influence, the title “Son of God” denoted the unity of will and action of the person Jesus with God. He is the (good or obedient) “Son” because he has fully fulfilled God's will revealed in the Torah. Even his works, such as the forgiveness of sins, would have been blasphemous without God's origin .

In the course of the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire , the meaning of the title "son" shifted. In the Hellenistic influenced Mediterranean area, the question of the "nature" or the "essence" (Latin: "substantia") of the person of Jesus Christ arose.

Because if Jesus man and his suffering was an expression of voluntary humiliation ( kenosis ) of the Son of God from the sphere of God ( Phil 2: 1–11  EU ), then the idea of ​​his pre-existence emerged , that is, his eternal being with the Father even before Incarnation ( John 1 : 1–18  EU ).

The paradoxes and logical problems of thought contained in these reflections were the main themes of theology of the first Christian centuries. They led to a series of dogmatic issues that were answered authoritatively with church doctrinal decisions. The discussion about Jesus' humanity was largely carried out in parallel to the discussion about his divinity, since both aspects overlap in view of the death of Jesus:

  • How can the Eternal Son of God become mortal man without ceasing to be God?
  • How can the Son of God as a real man redeem all people?

The letter to the Hebrews put the problem in a nutshell ( Heb 2,18  EU ): "Because in what he himself suffered and was tempted, he can help those who are tried." This already touches on the close connection between the christological debate and soteriology : If Jesus' death is to have redeemed people, Jesus would have to have been completely human, with his own - human - will. This view has often been behind the rejection of theologies that emphasized the divinity of Jesus at the expense of his humanity.

Canon and development of the creed

The delimitation associated with the development of the canon also had an impact on Christology. Some books already enjoyed high authority at the beginning of the 2nd century: especially the four Gospels , the Acts of the Apostles of Luke and the Epistles of Paul . Others were still controversial, such as the Revelation of John and the Letter to the Hebrews . The extent of the New Testament collection of scriptures was clarified by around AD 400 . Associated with the canon process was the express rejection of all gnostically influenced scriptures. In these, Jesus was hardly seen as a true human being, but his immortality was emphasized. The docetists, for example, claimed that Jesus was only apparently dead .

Christology found its first conclusion at the first Council of Nicaea (325) and in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (381).

Development of the doctrine of the Trinity

This was preceded by intense debates about the interpretation of the person of Jesus Christ, especially in relation to God's being God. According to many historians, these problems arose when Christianity came into contact with Greek philosophy, particularly the logic of Aristotle , and philosophically educated Christians tried to bring their faith into a consistent system.

In the 2nd century the Hellenistic-oriented Alexandrian School was leading: It combined the Jewish and Greek spirit, adopted the logos teachings of Platonism and represented the fourfold sense of writing . From 250 onwards, the anti-speculative Antioch Orthodox School gained influence. She represented a doctrine of the Trinity , which says that one God is to be thought of as the “being-in-relationship” of three “persons”: as Creator, Redeemer and Holy Spirit . This model of thought is the logical counterpart to the dogma of incarnation : It is intended to explain how the eternal Son of God returns to God as a mortal human being and in doing so pours out his spirit over his church in order to create faith and knowledge of the true God. As a top sentence, Christianity can formulate: Jesus is God.

A doctrine of the Trinity does not yet appear in the New Testament . But it is derived from some of his beliefs, such as the pre-existence of the logos ( Jn 1,1ff  EU ). A proto-Trinitarian formula also contains the mission command according to Matthew ( Mt 28:19  EU ).

God is worshiped as this triune God in the Christian Church. This also marks the irreconcilable contrast to Judaism and later to Islam, who only think and worship God as an indivisible, eternal person in contrast to all that has been created. Because of the doctrine of the Trinity, Islam ultimately regards Christianity as a polytheism .

The Constantinian Turn

In the Roman Empire, the christological debates were closely related to the struggle of the church for recognition. A breakthrough came with the Milan Edict of Tolerance by Constantine I of 313: After centuries of persecution, Christianity was granted full freedom of religion and cult.

This Constantinian turn , however, had the consequence that the Roman emperor had a personal influence on the development of teaching within the church. He convened councils and implemented the compromise formula of homoousios (equality of essence): Jesus Christ, as God's Son, is "in essence" with God himself.

For the historical context, see also late antiquity .

The doctrine of two natures

Between 380 and 393, the Emperor Theodosius I gradually declared Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire with the Three Emperor Edict and further edicts . As a result, the unification of all Christians on a common faith became all the more necessary. The dispute about the nature of Jesus Christ continued (despite several attempts at unification) throughout late antiquity .

The first Council of Nicaea had already addressed the Trinity in 325 , but it was not dogmatically fixed until 381 in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed of the First Council of Constantinople . A preliminary conclusion of the early church theology was reached in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon . There were rejected:

  • of Arianism , though he in Christ God sees (Logo theology), but refers to him as not eternal, but as begotten of God.
  • the monophysitism , after which the divine and the human formed an undivided and mixed god-human nature (see also docetism or aphthartodocetae )
  • the Nestorians , after which the divine and the human in Jesus widely shared and unmixed are.

The result was the dogmatization of the doctrine of two natures (dyophysitism) , which says that Jesus Christ is “true God” (the second person of the trinity) and “true man” at the same time, by uniting two natures , the divine and the human. Both are in Christ “unmixed” (ἀσυγχύτως, asynchytos), “unchanged” (ἀτρέπτως, atreptos), “unseparated” (ἀδιαιρέτως, adiairetos) and “undivided” (ίωρesie des Eutyches , turn the latter two against those of Nestorius .

This dogma is the common ecumenical doctrinal basis of the churches of the West, except for the ancient oriental churches that contradicted them at the time . From then on, the main stream of christological discussion was built on this basis.

Roman Catholic Church

original sin

The dogma of original sin states that man is a sinner from birth, as such, is separated from God and cannot redeem himself on his own. This is the prerequisite that this separation can only be overcome through Jesus Christ. The event of salvation, God's incarnation and work of redemption, is the logical opposite of the original sin theory.

This applies in Catholic doctrine, but also in Lutheran orthodoxy and in evangelical directions as a distinguishing feature from other beliefs and a test of one's own right faith. However, the various Christian denominations disagree about the exact nature of this redemption and the way to achieve it.


It was not until the scholasticism that the Pauline conceptions of the life and death of Jesus became more closely related.

The first to express them in a dialectical, albeit conditioned by the legal template of the Middle Ages, was Anselm von Canterbury with his doctrine of satisfaction . In a hitherto unachievable completeness of the argument, he carried out the idea that God had to become man in order to restore the honor and insult that had been withdrawn from him by sin, in order to repay the debt as a God-man through voluntary death, which no one but himself had and to balance the conflict between divine love and divine justice and holiness.

A violent dispute broke out between the schools of Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus about this so-called satisfaction theory . Thomas followed in Anselm's footsteps and placed particular emphasis on the "excess merit" of Jesus' death. Duns Scotus, on the other hand, denied that it was sufficient and thus pioneered the doctrine of so-called acceptance .


Martin Luther

In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, Christians believed that Jesus was "true God" before he became human. The Augustinian monk Martin Luther found a new approach to Christology. In 1517 in Romans ( Rom 1,17  LUT ) he discovered righteousness solely from faith: Man cannot achieve God's righteousness through his own work, but only through the gift of grace. Luther advocated this against the indulgence trade . This triggered the Reformation and inadvertently led to a split in the church.

Luther always spoke of the Son of God with the inclusion of his true humanity: "In the mirror of the human being of Jesus I recognize the true God". Christians can only believe in the true God because the man Jesus reveals this true God by giving the grace of this God without their intervention.

Luther adopted the old church dogmas, but gave them partly different meanings by breaking away from scholastic metaphysics and the Thomistic dogma of "duplex veritas". He found the truth of God in the crucified alone, not in alleged analogies of creation, which only confirms God's revelation in Christ. He only allowed the literal sense (“ sensus litteralis ”) of the biblical word to be the basis of faith .

The Reformation tried to concretize the doctrine of two natures with the doctrine of two classes: The true God is the God who humbles himself into mortal "flesh", the true man is the one who was crucified on God's side elevated. Thus in the one person of Jesus Christ there is an “exchange” of characteristics between God and man (“ communicatio idiomatum ”).

Reformers alongside Luther

But even during Luther's lifetime there was another dogma dispute within Reformation Christianity, this time sparked primarily by the doctrine of the Lord's Supper (Zwingli) and split into three evangelical directions - Lutherans, Reformed , Free Churches (with the Anabaptists as their ideal predecessors) - led.

Protestant theology according to Luther

In Lutheranism, Jesus Christ is understood as the fulfillment and overcoming of the judging “law” that God revealed in the Old Testament. The Geneva reformer Johannes Calvin emphasized that this law is part of the covenant of Israel that Jesus Christ fulfills.

Since the 1980s, some German Protestant regional churches have emphasized that the confession of Christ is associated with a confession of Israel's irrevocable election. In this way, being a Jew is given Christological status: Jesus is a “true man” because he was born the son of a Jewish mother. As a representative of the chosen people of Israel, he gracefully included Christians in God's Israeli covenant. This is seen as the reason for universal salvation.


In the wake of the Thirty Years War , the renaissance of the Greek spirit and humanism led to the Enlightenment. Philosophy increasingly emancipated itself from the church's claim to sole representation of the truth. One began to look for the "historical Jesus" in order to be able to critically argue against the church dogmas of all denominations of his true humanity. An impetus for this was provided by the work Apology or Protective Scripture for the Reasonable Admirers of God by Hermann Samuel Reimarus , which was published in parts by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing after Reimarus' death .

While Protestantism had long unilaterally emphasized the deity of Christ in words and images, modern theologians at that time tended to advocate a Christology from below : They assumed the humanity of Jesus without always reaching the top . The emphasis on the true humanity of Jesus opened the perspective of God's philanthropy and the relevance of Jesus in the life of individuals. Christology from below starts with the man Jesus, concretizing among other things his Kingdom of God sermon as a political, this-worldly impetus for a more just world.

19th century Protestantism

Here Jesus was often seen as the embodiment of the “absolute spirit” ( Hegel , speculative idealism), the “feeling of absolute dependence” ( Schleiermacher , romantic theology of consciousness) or the “moral decision” ( Wilhelm Herrmann , neo-Kantian idealism), so that the Christian religion presented itself as the "essence" (essence) of all religions.

Church theology often no longer referred Jesus to the promises made to Israel, but to other factors that had been upgraded to revelation, such as “people”, “state”, “race”.

The separation of the promises of the Old Testament took revenge in the 20th century: Jesus could be reinterpreted as "Aryan" ( Emanuel Hirsch ).

The nationalist and racist self-abandonment of many Christians and the state conformity of the Protestant churches reached their climax during the Hitler era . Centuries-long Christian anti-Judaism made the churches largely defenseless against totalitarian ideology and genocide.

In liberal Christianity, the confession of Jesus Christ as the only access to salvation is understood to be inclusive and not exclusive, and the doctrine of original sin is rejected. This means that other beliefs are also given possible access to the truth.

Also in the Catholic doctrine of the "scattered sparks of light" ( logoi spermatikoi ) it is recognized that other religions contain and proclaim truths.

In liberal Christianity, Jesus is seen as a human being, who has turned to the weak and outcasts without his own claims to power and for that reason has been "exalted" by God ( Phil 2:11  LUT ).

Christology after 1918

The First World War also marked a deep turning point in theology: many of the liberal, pietistic and orthodox forms of Christianity had failed miserably and succumbed to nationalistic intoxication.

With his first comment on the Romans in 1919, a new theologian stepped onto the stage: Karl Barth . He broke thoroughly with the traditional anthropocentric theology of religion and advocated with unprecedented radicalism: God is GOD against all human attempts to get hold of him.

Christology after 1945

Christian faith means turning to a God who is both almighty Father and, as Son of God, a companion in destiny of human impotence - and God in both.

Some theologians emphasized the humanity of Jesus. For Dietrich Bonhoeffer , God's incarnation and the cross show a comprehensive love for the world and establish a theology of this-sidedness. His poem Christians and Gentiles shows the idea of ​​a God suffering from the world who invites people to take part. For Karl Barth , the “humanity of God” in Jesus gives consolation.

The theology after Auschwitz ensures that the presentation of Jesus' ministry, particularly the "dangerous memory" ( Jürgen Moltmann ) to the concrete Passion story, no evidence of an anti-Jewish attitude has ( "Christology without anti-Judaism").

In the field of Catholic theology, a “Christology from below” has been turning to the historical Jesus since the 1970s. She tries an interpretation as Christ first "from below", from his life, and only secondarily turns to the post-Easterly exalted Christ and categories such as the Trinity. Representatives of this direction are u. a. Walter Kasper or Hans Küng . As a pastoral theologian, Hermann Stenger expressly refers to the pastoral role of Jesus, in which all Christians participate. Poetic aspects of Christology were compiled by Alex Stock.

The Free Church theology tried the direct recycling Christological ideas on Bible texts. Franz Graf-Stuhlhofer refers to numerous similarities, particularly attested in the New Testament, between Jesus on the one hand and God the Father and Yahweh on the other.


  • Karlmann Beyschlag : Outline of the history of dogmas, Vol. II: God and man. Part 1. The Christological Dogma , 1991.
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer : Who is and who was Jesus Christ? Its history and its secret . Hamburg 1962. Text from Bonhoeffer's Christology lecture from the summer semester of 1933. Also printed in Eberhard Bethge: Collected writings by Dietrich Bonhoeffers . Volume 3, Munich 1961.
  • Franz Dünzl : History of the Christological Dogma in the Old Church, Freiburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-451-37877-5 .
  • Alois Grillmeier (ed.): Jesus the Christ in the faith of the church . 5 vols., Several improved editions. Freiburg et al. 1979 ff. (Extensive standard work on the christological question, especially in late antiquity).
  • Wichard von Heyden: Docetism and Incarnation. The emergence of two opposing models of Christology. Francke-Verlag, Tübingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-7720-8524-6 .
  • Martin Karrer : Jesus Christ in the New Testament . Floor plans for the New Testament vol. 11. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht , Göttingen 1998.
  • Walter Kasper : Jesus the Christ. Matthias Grünewald Verlag, Mainz 1974, ISBN 3-7867-0464-3 .
  • Hans Kessler: Christologie , in: Handbuch der Dogmatik, Vol. 1, Düsseldorf 1992.
  • Vladimir Latinovic: Christology and Communion. Origin and spread of Homoousian Christology . Aschendorff-Verlag, Münster 2018. ISBN 978-3-402-13358-3 .
  • John Macquarrie: Jesus Christ VI – VII . In: TRE 17, 1988, pp. 16-64.
  • Jürgen Moltmann : The crucified God . The cross of Christ as the basis and critique of Christian theology . Munich 1972, 5th edition 1987.
  • Jürgen Moltmann: The way of Jesus Christ. Christology in Messianic Dimensions , Munich 1989.
  • Bernhard Nitsche: Christology . Ferdinand Schöningh (Basic Theology), Paderborn 2012, ISBN 978-3-8252-3554-3
  • Jürgen Moltmann: Who is Christ for us today? Kaiser TB 129, Munich 1994.
  • Gerhard Ludwig Müller : Christology. The teaching of Jesus the Christ. In: Wolfgang Beinert (ed.): Faith accesses. Textbook of Catholic Dogmatics (Vol. 2). Paderborn et al. 1995, pp. 1-297.

Web links

Wiktionary: Christology  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Evangelical Lexicon for Theology and Congregation, Vol. 2, 1993, Art. Jesus Christ , p. 990.
  2. Detlev DormeyerJesus Christ. In: Michaela Bauks, Klaus Koenen, Stefan Alkier (eds.): The scientific biblical dictionary on the Internet (WiBiLex), Stuttgart 2006 ff., Accessed on October 8, 2018.
  3. See Hartmut G. Lang: Christology and Easter . Tübingen 1999, p. 3 ff.
  4. Franz Graf-Stuhlhofer : The historical Jesus in the Gospels and the recognized Lord Jesus Christ in the New Testament letters . In: Yearbook for Evangelical Theology 28 (2014) pp. 101-104.
  5. See the theological explanation of Arius in Adolf Martin Ritter (ed.): Churches and theological history in sources , Vol. 1: Old Church . Neukirchen, 6th edition 1994, p. 132 f.
  6. See Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 4. Leipzig 1906, pp. 117–119.
  7. Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Resistance and Surrender (= Works Vol. 8). Gütersloh 1998, p. 515.
  8. Klaus-Peter Lehmann: Christology without anti-Judaism .
  9. Alex Stock: Poetic Dogmatics. Christology. Paderborn. Vol. 1: Names . 1995, ISBN 3-506-78831-0 , Vol. 2: Writing and face . 1996, ISBN 3-506-78832-9 , Vol. 3: Leib und Leben . 1998, ISBN 3-506-78833-7 , Vol. 4: Figures . 2001, ISBN 3-506-78834-5 .
  10. ^ Franz Graf-Stuhlhofer: Jesus Christ - God's Son . Leun, 3rd edition 2012.