Salvation is a central concept in some religions , which denotes their respective ultimate goal to free the individual human being, humanity and / or the world from everything negative. It is used without a uniform meaning, especially in Judaism , Christianity and Gnosticism . The term enlightenment in Buddhism is also often translated as salvation. In the philosophy of religion and religious studies , these religions are therefore often understood as religions of salvation .
The verb to redeem in the sense of liberate ( Hebrew גאל ga'al , German ' Loskauf ' , or Hebrew פדה padah , German 'release' , ancient Greek λυτρόω lytrọō ) referred in antiquity to the ransom and the subsequent release of slaves, which ended their slavery . The Greek word rhyomai ( ancient Greek ῥύομαι rhýomai ) was used to describe the preservation of people and things through powerful intervening help . Redemption in the sense of to save was expressed by the verb sozo ( ancient Greek σᾠζω sōzō ); it meant that people were torn out of an impending mortal danger, e.g. B. in war, during a sea voyage or during an illness. The associated noun is soter ( ancient Greek σωτήρ sōtær ), which denotes the savior, the savior. In Hebrew, the Savior becomes Messiah ( Hebrew משיח Maschiach , German “anointed” ; ancient Greek Χριστός Christós , German 'Christ' ), who will end all disaster. In Arabic, the savior is the Mahdi ( Arabic المهدي, DMG al-Mahdī ) who will remove malice and oppression from the world in the end times . In Sanskrit Moksha ( Sanskrit मोक्ष mokṣa m.) Is used to denote the liberation from the cycle of rebirths ( samsara ) by then attaining nirvana .
The basis for the self-understanding of the people of Israel is the following: In addition to the promise to the patriarchs and the covenant with Abraham , the memory of the people's former liberation from Egyptian bondage is fundamental. Whatever it may have been historical - Israel later understood its hour of birth as an election, salvation and redemption of the people, which is ascribed to the one God with the ineffable name " YHWH ". The meaning of this name of God, which Moses received when he was called before the burning bush , is: ehje ascher ehje ( Hebrew אהיה אשר אהיה Ex 3.14 ELB ). The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible translates: 'I am the being' ( ancient Greek ᾿Εγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν ). The verb hajah ( Hebrew היה) means first and foremost 'to be', but can also mean 'to be there, to happen, to happen'. But above all it is related to the Tetragrammaton . And since a verb in Hebrew has no clear tenses, one can translate, for example: 'I am there as I am', or: 'I am there as I will be', or - like the well-known Jewish one Translator of the Hebrew Bible , Martin Buber translates: 'I will be there as I will be.' Here God's declaration of will is promised: God's dynamic existence, presence, effectiveness. "Yahweh" means: "I will be there, present, guiding, helping, strengthening, liberating!"
It is one of the essential "qualities of YHWH " to be a saving God. Experiences of salvation shape the traditions through which the people of Israel know themselves to be constituted and preserved. Certain rescue experiences were the aforementioned miracle of the exodus and the return from "exile" .
The scheme is the creed of Judaism, the proclamation of ethical monotheism : “Hear, Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is only!” ( Deut. 6.4 EU Hebrew שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד) This sentence, which occurs regularly in the liturgy , is also the confession that the dying Jew tries to make with his last breath.
According to the Talmud ( Sefer HaMitzwot by Maimonides ) there are 613 " Mitzvot " in the Torah , which a Jew is obliged to observe. These are made up of 248 commandments and 365 prohibitions. Maimonides also compiled the 13 sets of beliefs that many Jews read along with the Ten Commandments every day.
In Eighteen prayer is - from Orthodox Jews four times a day - for the coming of a Goel, which means a "Savior" or " Messiah prayed." The Jews associate the expectation of the Messiah with the redemption of Israel from all calamities. The Greek term “Messiah” stands for the Hebrew word “Maschiach” ( Hebrew משיח), which translates as "the anointed" and originally describes the ruling king. " Christ " is the Latin equivalent of "Maschiach". Some reform churches use the term "Geullah" ( Hebrew גאלה ge'ullah , German 'redemption' ). The process of salvation is commonly referred to as Tikkun or Tikkun Olam ( Hebrew תיקון עולם 'Repair of the world' ), the improvement of the world, i.e. the improvement of God's creation through human hands, denotes and always refers to this world . The idea of the Tikkun plays an important role in Kabbalah and was further developed by Isaak Luria and his students in the 16th century and received new meanings in modern currents of Judaism.
In the Christian tradition, salvation primarily denotes an act of God for the benefit of people in need of salvation . This subject is dealt with in Christian theology by soteriology , the doctrine of salvation (or salvation) . The term is mostly mentioned there as the opposite of sinfulness and forlornness; Salvation is closely related to other central Christian concepts such as salvation, salvation, salvation , liberation, new creation, grace and reconciliation .
The doctrine of salvation, soteriology , has always been one of the most important theological fields. That God ultimately acted for the salvation of man in the person and in the work of Jesus Christ is the basic message of the New Testament . Already in the early church the question arose whether pagans first had to convert to Judaism in order to become Christians. The apostles' council in Jerusalem rejected this (see Acts 15 : 1-29 EU ). In the letters of the apostle Paul , the salvation of both Gentiles and Jews through the following of Jesus Christ is one of the central themes. Paul established salvation on the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ . For him they are the epitome of the Gospel ( 1. Cor. 15 : 1-5 EU ), according to which Jesus Christ died for our sins and was raised for the sake of our justification (cf. Rom 4:25 EU ). Paul believed that salvation would be possible for all who believe in Christ.
In the following centuries doctrines also emerged that either rejected the dependence of people on the grace of God ( Pelagianism ) or wanted to exclude certain groups of people from salvation, as in Donatism . They have been condemned several times as heresies (false doctrines), as well as the doctrine that ultimately all people without exception and regardless of whether they are believers or not, experience divine redemption and enter into heavenly communion with God ( universal reconciliation ).
In the 4th and 5th centuries Augustine developed the doctrine of original sin that was sustainable for the Western Church . According to this doctrine, every human being has been afflicted with a flaw since the fall of man from his conception, which among other things leads to separation from God in life and in death or causes a tendency to sin ( concupiscence ). According to this doctrine, man is purified from the stain of original sin through the power of baptism , which arises from the saving act of Jesus Christ on the cross, and is thereby taken into full communion with God. Augustine assumed that unbaptized children, because of their involvement with original sin, under no circumstances could they go to heaven - that is, to communion with God after death. This part of his teaching was not adopted by the Catholic Magisterium because of the misleading use of the term baptism.
During the Reformation , soteriology returned to the center of theological debates. Martin Luther proclaimed the doctrine that man is saved “only by faith” ( sola fide ) . Calvin again taught the “double predestination ”, according to which God selects one part of people for salvation and another part for damnation, without them themselves being able to contribute or do anything about it. According to this doctrine, Christ died only for the saved, but not for all people. Jansenism proclaimed a similar doctrine in the 17th century. It said that man sins because he has not received enough grace from God to withstand sin.
Today's denominational differences
Catholic and Orthodox Churches
According to the teaching of the non-reformed churches ( Catholic Church , Orthodox Church , Oriental Churches ), the Church instituted by Christ and therefore holy serves through its sacraments as an instrument of divine grace, without which man cannot do anything good in the sense of the Holy Spirit. The receipt of baptism or the implicit or explicit desire for it (“wish baptism”) is necessary for salvation. The reception of divine grace in the sacraments enables man to live in accordance with God and to attain eternal salvation. At the same time, however, it is always possible for people to turn away from God of their own free will and thereby fail to achieve salvation.
There are considerable differences between the Eastern and Western church traditions, for example in the consideration of original sin (which in the Western tradition is more associated with a blemish, in the Eastern tradition more with death) or in the question of human nature (in the West that is human nature considered deficient, the redemption as supernatural; to the east, however, the human nature is considered good, the redemption is considered restoration of the lost state of nature). In the East, the redemption of all creation through Christ also plays a more central role in spirituality than in the West. In addition, the tendency to answer the question of who can attain salvation is much more pronounced in the Catholic Church than in the Eastern Churches (see extra ecclesiam nulla salus ).
The soteriology of the non-Reformation churches generally always takes into account human freedom on the one hand, but also the omnipotence and freedom of God in the election of those who are saved on the other. A number of approaches are possible. Even within the Catholic Church a number of soteriological positions exist side by side ( Thomism , Molinism , Augustinianism ).
Churches and Communities of the Reformation
The reformers (and in their wake the traditional Protestant churches) considered baptism to be necessary for salvation. But Luther's “ sola fide ” teaching placed the personal relationship with God in the foreground for the attainment of salvation, because the Holy Scriptures interpret itself ( Latin Sacra scriptura sui ipsius interpres , “The Holy Scriptures interpret itself” ). The human part is to let God's love unfold in one's life. This new, personal focus led to the emergence of the radical Reformation Anabaptist movement - rejected and persecuted by the magistral reformers - which still exists today in the form of the Mennonites , Hutterites and Amish . Communities that emerged later, such as Baptists or Adventists, also practiced Christian baptism . Here baptism is mostly not understood as sacramental, but as an external sign of an internal conversion to God - essential for the attainment of salvation.
The individual redemption or “salvation” does not take place in the full sense of the conversion, however, but it is a “salvation in two stages”: The renewal that begins with the conversion of a person is completed with the return of Jesus .
A radicalization of this approach can be found in the doctrine of the “ inalienability of salvation ”, according to which someone who has once converted to Jesus Christ and is “ born again ” can no longer lose salvation. This teaching is one of the "five points" in Calvinism and is widespread, for example, in the Brethren movement ; the opposite position is called Arminianism .
In Islam, “salvation” refers to the future entrance into paradise , which is promised to those people who believe in the one God and his message ( Islam ). Those who do not believe in God alone are excluded. The fate of non-Muslims who believe in God is hellfire , this is the prevailing opinion among Muslims.
According to a widespread Islamic conception of the afterlife, the narrow bridge as-Sirāt leads over hellfire. The devout Muslims who did good in life run over them and step straight into Paradise. However, those Muslims who have sinned, as well as all non-Muslims, fall into hell. According to some traditions, the bridge is said to connect the Temple Mount in Jerusalem with the Mount of Olives and to include seven arches . Similar to the Christian idea of purgatory , Muslims only stay in hell for a certain time and without much pain; they will be purified of their sins until God shows him mercy and receives them into paradise. However, the unbelievers must remain in hell forever.
Many Muslims believe that people's lives are determined by Allah from the beginning. Accordingly, Allah has also set the date of death for every person beforehand. On this day he calls him to the hereafter, to the paradise garden. Two angels of death, Munkar and Nakir , accompany the deceased there. On the way, the angels question the dead about his faith. If he can give the correct answers and confess to Islam with the creed , he can "walk over a bridge that is thinner than a hair and sharper than a sword", so the tradition according to the prophet Mohammed says . The souls of the devout Muslims get to paradise on the other side of the bridge unscathed. The souls of the unbelievers fall from the bridge into the depths of hell.
God is not only the Almighty , but also the Merciful . Already in the opening sura God is called “the compassionate, the merciful”, and most suras are proclaimed “ in the name of the compassionate, the merciful ”. According to the Koran, however, the “ day of judgment ” is a “day of reckoning”. On this last day of human history, the graves open and the dead are brought to life . This judgment is introduced by the sound of trumpets and horns and by cosmic catastrophes: oceans overflowing, mountains falling, darkened sun, stars falling from the sky. Then the righteous judge appears who will open the book of life for everyone, in which all good and bad deeds are recorded. His judgment is incorruptible and accurate: no one will bear the sins of another. The good (believers) are received into eternal bliss, into paradise; but the wicked (unbelievers) go into eternal damnation, into hell. This is an either-or: there is no such thing as an intermediate state.
The long-term discussion in moderate circles about the relationship between divine omnipotence and human freedom of action was naturally initially based on statements in the Koran, which, however, do not contain a clear statement: on the one hand, divine omnipotence is emphasized in the Koran on the other hand, responsibility for human beings is emphasized Ascribed to actions for which he will one day reap divine reward in paradise or eternal punishment in hell. Both points of view, the one that emphasizes the divine omnipotence and the one that looks more at human responsibility, could prove to be legitimized by Koranic statements. The first point of view is referred to in Islamic theological literature as Jabritic , the second as Qadaritic .
The statements about God's omnipotence and man's responsibility are unconnected in the Koran and are nowhere balanced with one another. Interpreters speak of two complementary truths, both of which should be taken seriously, which are nowhere rationally reconciled and which in later Muslim theology offer material for intensive and protracted debates and an occasion for quite different solutions to the problem of God's predestination - human self-determination .
In Buddhism, the idea of enlightenment is at the center of teaching ( Dharma ). The human existence in the unredeemed state is generally viewed as suffering ( dukkha ), since all lucky experiences are not permanent but have an end. Suffering can be overcome through a certain way of life and spiritual practice. Salvation is attained by avoiding the gathering of good and bad karma . The " noble eightfold path " then gradually leads to this goal, which can be described as "blowing away" or "going out" ( nirvana ). This is then the liberation from the cycle of rebirths ( samsara ). There is no need for an external redeemer for this, but man is capable of achieving absolute liberation through himself.
The monk who lives in seclusion and asceticism is (in contrast to the layman who leads a family life ) capable of self-redemption in this life . There are three essential aspects: moral action, meditation and insight. When, in the course of such practice, the monk has extinguished any “impurity of the mind” (greed, hatred, delusion); when he has “stripped off” the “ three characteristics of existence ”, impermanence ( anicca ), suffering ( dukkha ) and impersonality ( anatta ), he enters nirvana ( Sanskrit ) or nibbana ( Pali ). This means that he is freed from the cycle of rebirths ( samsara ) and no longer needs to be reborn in one of the planes of existence assumed in Buddhist cosmology . The idea of rebirth must not be confused with the idea of transmigration of souls in Hinduism. In fact, it is not an individual soul (as a constant substance) that is carried over into the next life, but only a potential caused by deeds that manifests itself in a new existence. The more positive the potential (due to good, wholesome deeds in the previous existence), the more beneficial the subsequent existence will be. The more favorable the conditions of existence, the better the conditions for salvation.
Human existence is considered a unique opportunity for salvation, because on the one hand suffering is so prevalent that the urgency of salvation can be recognized, on the other hand there are enough amenities so that people do not sink apathetically into suffering. The possibility of contact with Buddhist teaching is considered to be particularly valuable.
The Mahayana is based on the Bodhisattva ideal, whereby the immortal cosmic Buddha is equated with the dharma . One puts one's own salvation (entering into nirvana) in the background and instead takes responsibility for the salvation of all other sentient beings.
- George C. Anawati : La notion de "péché originel" exist-t-elle dans l'Islam? In: Studia Islamica. 31, 1970, , pp. 29-40.
- Adel Theodor Khoury , Peter Hünermann (Ed.): What is redemption? The answer of the world religions. Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau a. a. 1985, ISBN 3-451-08181-4 ( Herderbücherei 1181).
- Nyanatiloka Mahathera: Basics of Buddhism. Four lectures by the Honorable Nyāṇatiloka Mahāthera. Jhana-Verlag, Uttenbühl 1995, ISBN 3-928396-11-0 .
- Claus-Dieter Osthövener: Redemption. Transformation of an idea in the 19th century. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2004, ISBN 3-16-148272-7 ( contributions to historical theology 128), (also: Halle-Wittenberg, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 2000).
- Peter Strasser : Theory of Redemption. An introduction to the philosophy of religion. Wilhelm Fink, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-7705-4238-X .
- Sabine A. Haring: Promise and Redemption. Religion and its secular substitute formations in politics and science. Passagen-Verlag, Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-85165-694-7 ( Studies on Modernism 24).
- Friedrich Hermanni , Peter Koslowski (Ed.): Endangst and redemption. Volume 1: Downfall, Eternal Life, and Completion of History in Philosophy and Theology. Wilhelm Fink, Paderborn 2009, ISBN 978-3-7705-4757-9 .
- Gustav Mensching : On the Metaphysics of the I , Gotha 1934 (religious studies classic)
- Thomas Marschler : Salvation: From what - how - what for - where? Lectures at the meeting of the Priest Council of the Archdiocese of Cologne on June 16, 2011 in Bad Honnef. heilig-rock-wallfahrt.de (PDF; 324 kB), 34 pp.
- Melanie Köhlmoos : Löser / Loskauf - 2.1.2. "Ransom" (גאל). The scientific Bible portal of the German Bible Society. In: The Bible Lexicon. German Bible Society, October 10, 2017, accessed on May 22, 2018 .
- Melanie Köhlmoos : Löser / Loskauf - 2.1.1. "Trigger" (פדה). The scientific Bible portal of the German Bible Society. In: The Bible Lexicon. German Bible Society, October 10, 2017, accessed on May 22, 2018 .
- William Mundle: Theological Dictionary of Terms of the New Testament . Ed .: Lothar Coenen. 9th edition. R. Brockhausverlag, Wuppertal 1993, ISBN 3-417-24800-0 , redemption, p. 260 : "In the Greek world, ransom was often paid for the release of slaves."
- Johannes Schneider: Theological glossary of terms for the New Testament . Ed .: Lothar Coenen. 9th edition. R. Brockhausverlag, Wuppertal 1993, ISBN 3-417-24800-0 , redemption, p. 263 : "The basic meaning of the word is to ward off, to preserve, ie to maintain the uninjured state of people and things through powerful, helping intervention or through magical and technical means."
- William Mundle: Theological Dictionary of Terms of the New Testament . Ed .: Lothar Coenen. 9th edition. R. Brockhausverlag, Wuppertal 1993, ISBN 3-417-24800-0 , redemption, p. 264 .
- Messia expectation. The messianic expectation in Judaism. In: Jewish history and culture. G.-E.-Lessing-Gymnasium Döbeln, accessed on May 5, 2018 . "The expectation of the Messiah is connected by the Jews with the redemption of Israel from all calamities."
- End-time ruler Mahdi. In: Islamlexikon. Focus ONLINE, accessed May 5, 2018 . "When malice and oppression get out of hand, the Mahdi, a man of the family of Mohammed, will appear and renew the faith."
- Heinz Mürmel: Redemption / Soteriology - IX. Buddhism . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 2, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, Sp. 1458.
- Name of God mentioned more than 6,800 times in the Hebrew Bible
- Hans Küng : Judaism . R. Piper, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-492-03496-9 , B. Center - I. The central structural elements - 1. Exodus: people and election, p. 66 + 67 .
- Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia - study edition . 5th edition. German Bible Society, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-438-05222-9 , pp. 89 .
- Called the Septuagint because, according to legend, it was compiled by 70 translators
- Septuagint (LXX) Exodus / Exodus 3:14. Reading the Bible text. In: The scientific portal of the German Bible Society. German Bible Society, accessed on May 4, 2018 .
- Wolfgang Peter: Hebrew Language. In: AnthroWiki. December 9, 2017, accessed May 4, 2018 . "In ancient Hebrew, a clear distinction between" present "," past "and" future "is not possible."
- Hans Küng : Judaism . R. Piper, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-492-03496-9 , B. Center - I. The central structural elements - 1. Exodus: people and election, p. 67 .
- Hermann Spieckermann : Redemption / Soteriology - IV. Old Testament . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 2, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, Sp. 1444.
- Jakob J. Petuchowski : The religions of mankind - Judaism . tape 27 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Berlin / Cologne 1994, ISBN 3-17-010269-9 , IV. The proclamation of the scheme and its blessings, p. 424 .
- Maimonides : Judaism: The 613 Mitzvot (Commandments). In: Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, accessed June 10, 2018 .
- Maimonides : The Thirteen Beliefs: Shloschah-'Asar' Ikarim. In: Jewish life online. haGalil - Dr. Andrea Livnat, accessed June 10, 2018 .
- The Messianic Expectation in Judaism. In: Jewish history and culture. Lessing-Gymnasium in Döbeln, accessed on April 24, 2018 .
- Harald Wagner: Redemption - III. History of dogma and theology - 1. Basics . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 9 . Herder, Freiburg - Basel - Vienna 2001, ISBN 978-3-451-22100-2 , pp. 805 .
- Joachim Gnilka : Redemption - II. Biblical-theological - In the New Testament - b) Paulus . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 9 . Herder, Freiburg - Basel - Vienna 2001, ISBN 978-3-451-22100-2 , pp. 803 .
- Joachim Gnilka : Redemption - II. Biblical-theological - In the New Testament - b) Paulus . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 9 . Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 2001, ISBN 978-3-451-22100-2 , pp. 803 : "Because faith alone justifies, this access is open to all people, not just to Jews."
- Robert Walz: Original Sin and Augustine. (No longer available online.) In: kath.de - Independent Catholic news portal. Theo Hipp, archived from the original on September 25, 2017 ; accessed on May 15, 2020 .
- Christoph Marx: What one should know about Luther and the Reformation. In: HuffPost Germany. Cherno Jobatey, October 31, 2017, accessed May 5, 2018 . “Not through good deeds, not through penance, pilgrimages, and certainly not through monetary payments, but solely through faith in God (“ sola fide ”) and thanks to God's forgiving grace (“ sola gratia ”) man is redeemed from his sins . "
- Burkhard Weitz: Calvin and predestination - Did God predetermined everything? In: Calvin.de. Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD), 2016, accessed on May 5, 2018 . “The elect will get eternal bliss, while the rejected will get eternal damnation. This is God's irrevocable counsel, which has been established from the beginning of creation. Therefore one speaks of the "doctrine of double predestination" ".
- Barbara Stollberg-Rilinger : Political Events and Developments - 1. Reformation - 1.2. The Reformation teaching: Sola Fide, Sola Gratia, Sola Scriptura. In: Introduction to the Early Modern Age. Chair of the Early Modern Era of the History Department of the Westphalian Wilhelms University of Münster, 2003, accessed on May 13, 2018 . “The individual does not achieve salvation through good works, the intercession of the saints and sacramental mediation by consecrated priests, but it is given to him by God out of pure grace (sola gratia) solely on the basis of his faith (sola fide). In place of the official church teaching authority, there is only Holy Scripture (sola scriptura), which interprets itself (sui ipsius interpres). "
- Franz Graf-Stuhlhofer : Why it is good to become a Christian: What does it bring and what it costs. Nuremberg 2013, p. 11f.
- See ( Rom 8,28 LUT , Joh 6,39 LUT ).
- Hannibal-Nur: Do non-Muslims only go to hell? In: Blog. June 23, 2012, accessed April 13, 2018 . "Even if it is the prevailing opinion among Muslims that only they can attain Paradise [...]"
- Yana Milinevsky: Remarkably Powerful Spiritual Places In Jerusalem: Mount of Olives. In: Authentic Tours. Retrieved May 6, 2018 . “ In Muslim tradition, in the end times there will be a bridge with seven arches leading from the Mount of Olives to the Temple Mount. The bridge is said to be as wide as the width of a hair: the righteous will pass over it and walk to heaven, whilst the evil ones shall fall into hell. ”(English)
- Petra Grüne: Do unbelievers go to hell? In: Still questions FAQ. Federal Agency for Civic Education, September 10, 2014, accessed on April 14, 2018 .
- Mark A. Gabriel : Jesus and Mohammed . 1st edition. Dr. Ingo Resch, Graefelfing 2006, ISBN 978-3-935197-52-6 , p. 118 : “Muhammad's teaching on the day of judgment must be understood in the context of his teaching on fate. Both of these result in great uncertainty for Muslims about what to expect after death: Allah's Messenger, the True and Truly Inspired, said: (As for your creation), each of you will be gathered in your mother's womb during the first forty days, and then he'll have a blood clot for another forty days, and then a piece of meat for another forty days. Then Allah sends an angel who writes four words: he writes his deeds, the time of his death, the way he earns a living, and whether he will be unhappy or blessed (in religion). Then the soul is breathed into the body. So a person can do things that are typical of the people of (Hell) Fire, so many that he is only a yard away from them, and then what the angel wrote prevails and he begins, To do things that are typical of the people of Paradise and come to Paradise. Likewise, a person can do things that are typical of the people of Paradise, so many that he is only a yard away from them, and then what the angel has written prevails and he begins to do things, which are typical for the people of the (hell) fire, and come into the (hell) fire. The Correct Books of Bukhari, Vol. 4, Book 55, No. 549. Narrated by Abdullah "
- What comes after death? Concepts of the afterlife of world religions. (PDF) In: What Comes After Death? Beyond conceptions of world religions. Action school lesson for the ARD theme week, 2012, accessed on April 14, 2018 .
- Hans Küng : Islam - history, present, future . 2nd Edition. Piper, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-492-24709-2 , pp. 121-122 .
- Werner Ende, Udo Steinbach with editorial assistance from Renate Laut (ed.): Islam in the present . 5th edition. CH Beck, 2005, ISBN 978-3-406-53447-8 , pp. 58 .
- Heinz Mürmel: Redemption / Soteriology - IX. Buddhism . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 2, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, Sp. 1458.
- Heinz Mürmel: Redemption / Soteriology - IX. Buddhism . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 2, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 1999, Sp. 1459.