Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (born November 21, 1768 in Breslau , Silesia , † February 12, 1834 in Berlin ) was a German Protestant theologian , classical philologist , philosopher , publicist , state theorist , church politician and educator . In several of these fields of activity he is considered to be one of the most important authors of his time, in some of them one of the classics of the discipline in general; the same applies to sociology , for example . He translated Plato's works into German and is considered the founder of modern hermeneutics .
Schleiermacher was the grandson of the Zionite Daniel Schleyermacher . He grew up in a parsonage as the son of the Reformed field preacher Gottlieb Schleiermacher (a younger half-sister married Ernst Moritz Arndt in 1817 ) and was educated from 1783 in the pedagogy of the Moravian Brothers University in Niesky . From 1785 he attended her seminar in Barby , which he left again in 1787 after he had begun to distance himself from the dogmatic-positive form of religiosity from 1786.
After the external break with the Herrnhutern and against the will of his father, he then studied Protestant theology at the University of Halle , where he was brought into contact with Wolff's philosophy by the philosopher Johann August Eberhard . His controversial preoccupation with Immanuel Kant also begins here. From 1790–1793 he worked as a private tutor in the family of Count Friedrich Alexander zu Dohna at Schlobitten Castle in East Prussia. From this time on there was a close friendship with his son Alexander Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten , later Prussian interior minister and statesman. In 1794 Schleiermacher became assistant preacher in Landsberg / Warthe . From 1796 he was a preacher at the Charité in Berlin , where he met Friedrich Schlegel and especially frequented literary salons run by women . In 1802 he had to give up this position and went to Stolp as court preacher .
Even in Berlin, he was - by the two Schlegel and Henriette Herz in the romantic drawn circles - with his speeches on Religion (1799), and the monologues (1800) as a writer occurred. In the course of his friendship with Friedrich Schlegel , he wrote the confidante letters about Lucinde (1801, for the novel Schlegel of the same name ) and created a five-volume translation of Plato's works , which made epochs especially with the introductions to the dialogues . It shaped the Plato interpretation, which exclusively placed the dialogues at the center of the Plato interpretation (cf. the discussion about Plato's unwritten teaching ). The essays on the scientific treatment of the concept of virtue, the concept of duty, the concept of what is permitted, the difference between natural and moral law and the concept of the highest good followed on from his basic lines of a critique of moral doctrine up to now (1803) .
In 1804 Schleiermacher was able to take up a position as associate professor of theology and philosophy at the University of Halle ; In 1806 he became a full professor there. While he was working in Halle, he lived on Grosse Märkerstrasse, known as Scholars-Strasse . Because of the war-related temporary closure of the University of Halle after the battle of Jena and Auerstedt, he went to Berlin in 1807, where from 1809 he worked as an important and influential preacher at the Trinity Church and lived in one of the two parsonages. In the same year he and his wife joined Carl Friedrich Zelter's Sing-Akademie zu Berlin , which began to develop into a spiritual and cultural center of Berlin and to which he belonged until his death. Under the influence of Freiherr vom Stein and Wilhelm von Humboldt , he campaigned for the establishment of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , at which he also taught as a full professor of theology from 1810 until the end of his life. During these years he published Die Weihnachtsfeier, a conversation in 1806 , in 1807 the critical work on the so-called first letter of Paul to Timothy and in 1808 Occasional Thoughts on Universities in the German sense . Schleiermacher was a member of numerous intellectual associations, such as the German table society and the lawless society No. 1 (or the "casual society"), of which he was chairman from 1829-1834.
On May 18, 1809, Friedrich Schleiermacher and Henriette von Willich (1788–1840), b. from Mühlenfels. His twenty-one year old bride was the widow of his friend Pastor Ehrenfried von Willich . In addition to the two children she brought into the marriage with Schleiermacher, there were four children together. The marriage, however, suffered from the great diversity of the partners and Henriette's tendency towards the occult . Schleiermacher's daughter Hildegard married the parliamentarian Maximilian von Schwerin-Putzar .
Schleiermacher was one of the most important intellectual figures during the first and brilliant period of the Berlin University in the diversity of his activities, which extended in the most varied of directions. The abundance of thoughts and their brilliant form, above all the union of religiosity with the sharpest dialectics and the freest, non-traditional criticism, brought him enthusiastic students. His lectures not only encompassed the entire scope of theological science (with the exception of the Old Testament subject), but since 1811 he has also presented a dialectic which he grasped as a unity of logic and metaphysics .
It was then that his Brief Description of Theological Studies (1811) appeared. In the dogmatic work The Christian Faith according to the principles of the Protestant Church in context of 1821/22 Schleiermacher undertook the attempt to reconcile the traditional theology with the inwardness and freedom of the subject and to fill the religion with the feeling of absolute ("par excellence") Dependency. The work Die christliche Sitte (1843) , published from the estate, was created as a side piece to the doctrine of the faith .
When the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences , of which Schleiermacher had been a member since 1810, elected him secretary of the philosophy department in 1814, he let the ministry release him from his teaching duties, as he had to experience growing disfavor from the government and for a time Long stood in danger of being investigated or deposed for alleged demagogy. The Bavarian Academy of Sciences appointed him in 1805 as a corresponding external member of the philological-philosophical class.
He enriched the writings of the Prussian Academy with a large number of speeches and treatises, especially on individual difficult points in the history of ancient philosophy. He had already shown his participation in general church life and a clear insight into the needs of the same in the two unpredictable reports published anonymously in 1804 in matters of the Protestant church system in relation to the Prussian state , in which he expressly referred to the disadvantages of the separation of the Protestant churches pointed out. When in 1817 the union between the Protestant churches of Prussia came about at a synod he presided ( Evangelical Church in the Royal Prussian Lands ), and the tenders for the formation of a presbyteral and synodal constitution had appeared, he sought the work with advice and Act, albeit without success, to promote. Just as little was he able to do anything in the fight against the agendas caused by the king . In 1824, under the name Pacificus Sincerus , he wrote a Theological Concern about the liturgical law of Protestant rulers , which re-stimulated the old dispute over the legal principles in the relationship between church and state . As a preacher, Schleiermacher exerted a significant influence on the educated part of the audience.
Schleiermacher found his final resting place in Dreifaltigkeitskirchhof II on Bergmannstrasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg (field B). The design of the tomb comes from Ludwig Ferdinand Hesse . A bust of Schleiermacher, which adorns the tombstone, was made by Fritz Schaper based on a design by Christian Daniel Rauch from 1829. The grave is preserved as an honorary grave for the State of Berlin .
The Enlightenment had brought the Christian religion into distress over the 18th century. The historicity had become disreputable, the official church closeness to the state was seen as a sign of dependence. And the remnants of religiosity also got caught between two fronts: On the one hand, there was rationalism , represented primarily by the school of Christian Wolff , who deduced thinking and acting from a system of generally applicable truths . On the other hand, the criticism of Immanuel Kant led to a moral philosophy that depended solely on people, placed them in the center and thus seemed to mock the atrocities committed in the name of humanity.
At the end of the 18th century, (late) rationalism also seemed to have passed its zenith. The Christian counter-movement found its starting point in supranaturalism . Pietism , which never disappeared , took off again. The revival movement , which led to the denominational neo-Lutheranism , gradually gained in profile. During this time Schleiermacher took a stand, tried to convey the positions of rationalism and supranaturalism, of culture and religion in the broader sense, and to get beyond them. His theological draft made him the “church father of the 19th century”, who “belongs to the forefront of a theology of the most recent times [...] and no one next to him” ( Barth ), in him the “antithesis of romantic versus enlightened education” came to be full validity ”(R. Haym), for many it was“ the hour of birth […] [of their] higher life ”( Claus Harms ). On the other hand, one spoke in a derogatory sense of “ mediation theology ”, “emotional theology” and “ cultural Protestantism ”.
About religion (1799)
Schleiermacher's first approach to such a theology was found in On Religion in 1799 . Speeches to the educated among their despisers . (According to Wilhelm Dilthey , the first approaches came from conversations with Henriette Herz , which had already taken place in the spring of 1798. In February 1799, the second speech was completed). The anonymously published work was intended to be both an apology and a pamphlet . In it Schleiermacher wanted to show the necessity of religious reflection based on the situation of the educated: The rational thinker should be shown the central meaning of Christianity precisely in his reason.
One of Schleiermacher's fundamental assertions was therefore that religiosity is just as much a part of human beings as (deductive) thinking and (moral) action, and thus both are to be regarded as equal. According to Schleiermacher, the subject-object split between the perceiving and the perceived of religion should be overcome precisely through religion; in this overcoming religion should first make itself visible as such (and prove it as tertium ).
Because religion, which for Schleiermacher was “a sense and taste for the infinite”, overcame this split in the perception that he understood as a fusion of subject (religious man) and object (divine infinity). "The characteristic is therefore twofold", as Martin Kähler later formulated: "It is a becoming one with our objects within us [...] and further: It relates to the objects as carriers of the effect of the universe." ( History of the Protestant Dogmatics , 55).
Schleiermacher's piety as the subjective expression of religion, which was later brusquely rejected by many theologians, has its forerunners in J. J. Hess with his work Vom Reich Gottes. An attempt on the plan of divine institutions and revelations (2nd edition 1781) and Johann Albrecht Bengel and is rooted in German Romanticism and its image of man, as it is with Johann Gottfried von Herder , Johann Georg Hamann , finally Schelling , Jakob Friedrich Fries , Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette found. So, when religion is passed off as a private matter, it is not egocentric arrogance or stale privatization that is addressed here, but rather the individualism shaped in Romanticism, which distinguished itself from a functionally understood image of man of the late Enlightenment and, especially in the rediscovery of the emotional world, mechanistic images of man like them found themselves in Descartes , contrary.
In religion, however, according to Schleiermacher, intuition and feeling, receptive and spontaneous act of consciousness, what is affecting and what is affected should coincide again. Both poles are overcome in religion, because “[...] Intuition without feeling is nothing and can neither have the right origin nor the right force, feeling without intuition is nothing either: both are only something if and because they are originally Are one and undivided ”( Reden , 73).
Brief description of the theological studies
In his brief description of theological studies for the purpose of introductory lectures (1811; second, substantially revised edition 1830) - Hans-Joachim Birkner spoke of a "theological reform program" - Schleiermacher carried out the division of the "positive science" related to church leadership Theology in three sub-disciplines: Philosophical Theology, Historical Theology and Practical Theology. Schleiermacher founded the latter for the first time as a scientific discipline that now went beyond the collection of pastoral rules of wisdom and offered the “theory of practice”.
The Doctrine of Faith
In the Doctrine of Faith , which appeared in two volumes in 1821/22 (second, substantially revised edition 1830/1831), Schleiermacher then presented a representation of the Christian faith. In the introduction to this work, he anchors the concept of religion in a theory of immediate self-confidence or feeling. Religion is the feeling of absolute dependence. Man is always aware of partial freedom and partial dependence in all thinking and acting, but it is precisely this partial dependence in all consciousness of freedom that ultimately leads to a feeling of complete dependence. Schleiermacher's theory of religion is hotly contested in the theological discussion.
In contrast, the central position that Schleiermacher gives to the concept of religion within the theological description of Christian piety is now widely recognized. Because both the concept of God and the concept of revelation , which carried the theological system in the old Protestant orthodoxy , had been subjected to sharp criticism during the Enlightenment. These essential doctrines of Christianity can therefore no longer be justified by reference to the revelation of God in Holy Scripture . Schleiermacher tries to solve this problem through two elements of the theory of the philosophy of religion : namely, by adopting the concept of religion and by defining the essence of Christianity.
Schleiermacher's works were often received controversially. In particular, his apologetics of religious feeling in the speeches , his defense of the scandalous novel Lucinde and his dogmatic innovations attracted a lot of ridicule. His “Significant Name” was often used. This is how August Wilhelm Schlegel titled his verses:
"Making a veil of naked truth is the office of clever theologians, and veil-makers are masters of dogmatics as a whole when it comes to such adept matters."
For the “Schleiermacher Festival” in 1868 a caricature “What is now understood by Schleier-Maker in Berlin” was published, which shows the veiling of reason with the garb of Orthodoxy. In 1799, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling did not save on “resistance” v. a. against the speeches , but also the tenor of a philosophy of religion based on Fichte , Goethe and Spinoza and their popularization in general:
"It is true that when you spoke of it so defiantly, I was puzzled for a while, read as if I could understand something, therefore speaking as a fragment."
Schleiermacherstraße was named after him in the district of Berlin-Kreuzberg in 1875; an area in which the streets were named after the founding professors of Berlin University.
On the occasion of its 250th birthday, Deutsche Post AG issued a postage stamp with a face value of 70 euro cents. The stamp shows a picture of Schleiermacher and the quote There is always something good to be done that is worthy of human beings . The design of the postage stamp comes from the graphic artist Armin Lindauer from Mannheim. The first day of issue was November 2, 2018.
In Niesky, where Schleiermacher was educated from 1783 to 1785, the grammar school is named after him today.
- Hermeneutics and Criticism. Reimer, Berlin 1838. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
- All works. Berlin 1834–64 (Section I: On Theology, 11 volumes, 1835–1864, two planned volumes have not been published; Section II: Sermons, 10 volumes, 1834–1856; Section III: On Philosophy, 9 volumes, 1835–1862) (complete in google books, including the dialectic , ed. Jonas from 1839)
- Selected works. ed. by Otto Braun and Johannes Bauer. 4 volumes. (= Philosophical Library 136-139). Leipzig 1910–1913. (reprinted later: Aalen 1981)
- Critical complete edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1980 ff. (Department I: Writings and Drafts, 15 volumes in 18 parts, 1980–2005; Department II: Lectures, so far 5 volumes in 6 parts, 1998 ff .; Department III: Sermons, 11 volumes so far; Department IV: Translations, so far one volume, 2016; Department V: Letters and Biographical Documents, 11 volumes so far, 1985 ff.)
- Monologues. Meiner, Hamburg 1978, ISBN 3-7873-0441-X .
- About religion. Edited by Andreas Arndt . Meiner, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-7873-1690-6 .
- About religion. Synoptic study edition of the text versions 1799, 1806 and 1821. Ed. Niklaus Peter, Frank Bestebreurtje and Anna Büsching, Theological Publishers Zurich, Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-290-17626-6 .
- Ethics (1812/13). Edited by Hans-Joachim Birkner . Meiner, Hamburg 1990, ISBN 3-7873-0971-3 .
- Dialectic (1811). Edited by Andreas Arndt. Meiner, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-7873-0670-6 .
- Dialectic (1814/15). Edited by Andreas Arndt. Meiner, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-7873-0721-4 .
- The Christmas party. A conversation. Manesse, Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7175-8155-4 .
- Hermeneutics and Criticism: with an appendix of Schleiermacher's texts on the philosophy of language. (= Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch Wissenschaft. 211). Edited by M. Frank. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 3-518-27811-8 .
- Fragments of infinite humanity, fragments, aphorisms and notations from the early romantic years. Edited by Kurt Nowak. Union Verlag Berlin , 1984.
- Pedagogy. The theory of education from 1820/21 in a postscript. de Gruyter, Berlin 2008 (de Gruyter texts).
- Aesthetics (1832/33). Concept of art . Edited by Holden Kelm. Meiner, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-7873-3137-6 .
- Karl August Auberlen : Schleiermacher: a character image. Bahnmaier, Basel 1859. urn : nbn: de: gbv: 9-g-4880825 (digitized in the digital library Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- CW Christian: Friedrich Schleiermacher. Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass. 1991.
- Keith W. Clements : Friedrich Schleiermacher, pioneer of modern theology. Collins, London / San Francisco, CA 1987.
- Wilhelm Dilthey : Schleiermacher's life. 2 volumes. ed. M. Redeker. Berlin 1966.
- Hermann Fischer : Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher. CH Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-45974-9 ( at Google Books ).
- Friedrich Wilhelm Kantzenbach : Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher: in personal reports and image documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1967.
- Heinrich Meisner: Schleiermacher's apprenticeship years . Published by Hermann Mulert . Published by Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin / Leipzig 1934.
- Kurt Nowak : Schleiermacher: Life, Work and Effect. (= UTB for science. 2215). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-55448-6 , urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb00045779-5 (standard work)
- Martin Redeker: Friedrich Schleiermacher. Life and Work (1768–1834). Berlin 1968.
- Wilhelm Dilthey : Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 31, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1890, pp. 422-457.
- Gunter Scholtz: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 54-57 ( version ). In:
- Ulrich Schwab: Friedrich Schleiermacher. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 9, Bautz, Herzberg 1995, ISBN 3-88309-058-1 , Sp. 253-270.
- Stephen Sykes : Friedrich Schleiermacher. John Knox Press, Richmond 1971.
- Stephanie Bermges: The Limits of Upbringing. An investigation into Friedrich Schleiermacher's romantic educational concept . (= Studies on School Pedagogy. Volume 34). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-631-60421-2
- Christian Berner: La Philosophie de Schleiermacher: Herméneutique, dialectique, éthique. Paris 1995.
- Hans-Joachim Birkner: Schleiermacher studies. (= Schleiermacher archive. Volume 16). Berlin / New York 1996.
- Otto Friedrich Bollnow : A few remarks on Schleiermacher's pedagogy . (PDF; 144 kB) In: Journal for Pedagogy. 32/5 1986, pp. 719-741.
- Jens Brachmann: Friedrich Schleiermacher. An educational portrait . Weinheim / Basel 2002.
- Matthias Blum: "I would be an enemy of Jews?" On anti-Judaism in Friedrich Schleiermacher's theology and pedagogy . Böhlau, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-412-20600-0 .
- Richard Crouter: Friedrich Schleiermacher Between Enlightenment and Romanticism . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2005, ISBN 0-521-01201-5 .
- Andrew C. Dole: Schleiermacher on religion and the natural order . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-534117-1 .
- Michael Eckert: God - Faith and Knowledge. Friedrich Schleiermacher's philosophical theology . de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1987.
- Christiane Ehrhardt: Religion, Education and Upbringing at Schleiermacher. Göttingen 2005, ISBN 978-3-89971-256-8 .
- Christof Ellsiepen: View of the Universe and Scientia Intuitiva. The Spinozist foundations of Schleiermacher's early theory of religion . Berlin / New York 2006.
- Albrecht Geck : Schleiermacher as a church politician. The disputes over the reform of the church constitution in Prussia (1799–1823) . Luther Verlag, Bielefeld 1997, ISBN 978-3-7858-0370-7 .
- Simon Gerber: Schleiermacher's Church History . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2015, ISBN 978-3-16-154079-0 .
- Brian A. Gerrish: A Prince of the Church. Schleiermacher and the Beginnings of Modern Theology. London / Philadelphia 1984.
- Wilhelm Gräb: A Herrnhuter - higher order. The spirituality of Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768–1834) . In: Peter Zimmerling (Hrsg.): Handbook Evangelical Spirituality , Volume 1: History . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-525-56719-7 , pp. 529-548.
- Elisabeth Hartlieb: Gender difference in Friedrich Schleiermacher's thinking (= Theological Library Töpelmann 136). de Gruyter Berlin / New York 2006.
- Kai Horstmann: Between natural and moral law. Fundamental ethics according to Schleiermacher in conversation with Konrad Lorenz and Karl-Otto Apel . Aachen 1999.
- Herbert Kessler: The idea of the German university based on the basic scripts of Schelling, Fichte, Schleiermacher, Steffens and von Humboldt. In: German Convent. Volume 10, 1959, pp. 128-139.
- Tobias Kirchhof: Schleiermacher's death. Process and Motives, Succession and Memory. Leipzig / Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-933816-22-X .
- Steffen Kleint: About Schleiermacher's pedagogy. Theorizing in the field of tension between criticism and affirmation. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-58221-3 .
- Julia A. Lamm: The Living God: Schleiermacher's Theological Appropriation of Spinoza . University Park, Pennsylvania 1996.
- Thomas Lehnerer : The art theory of Friedrich Schleiermacher . Stuttgart 1987.
- Ingrid Lohmann: Curriculum and general education in Prussia. A case study on Schleiermacher's curriculum theory. Frankfurt am Main / Bern / New York 1984.
- Günter Meckenstock : Deterministic ethics and critical theology. The early Schleiermacher's conflict with Kant and Spinoza 1789–1794 . Berlin / New York 1988.
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Marquardt : Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (Theology in Civil Society I). Bonn 2012, ISBN 978-3-9806216-5-6 .
- Rudolf Odebrecht: Schleiermacher's system of aesthetics . Berlin 1932.
- Andreas Reich: Friedrich Schleiermacher as pastor at the Trinity Church in Berlin 1809–1834. (= Schleiermacher archive. Volume 12). Berlin / New York 1992.
- Sarah Schmidt: The construction of the finite. Schleiermacher's philosophy of the finite. Berlin / New York 2005.
- Bernhard Schmidt: song - church music - sermon in the festival service of Friedrich Schleiermacher. To reconstruct his liturgical practice . Berlin / New York 2002.
- Gunter Scholtz: Schleiermacher's philosophy . Darmstadt 1984.
- Markus Schröder: The critical identity of modern Christianity. Schleiermacher's determination of the essence of the Christian religion . Tubingen 1996.
- Johannes Schurr: Schleiermacher's theory of education. Pedagogical publisher Schwann, Düsseldorf 1975.
- Denis Thouard: Schleiermacher: Communauté, individualité, communication . Paris 2007.
- Roger Töpelmann: Romantic friendship and piety: letters from the publisher Georg A. Reimer to Friedrich Schleiermacher. Weidmann, Hildesheim 1999. ISBN 3-7657-1410-0
- Falk Wagner : Schleiermacher's dialectic. A critical interpretation . Gütersloh 1974.
- Holger Werries: All action is action of the church. Schleiermacher's ecclesiology as Christology. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2012, ISBN 978-3-374-03091-0 .
- Ehrenfried von Willich : From Schleiermacher's house. His stepson's childhood memories. Berlin 1909.
- Matthias Wolfes : Public and civil society. Friedrich Schleiermacher's Political Effectiveness Two volumes. Berlin / New York 2004.
- Antoine Berman : L'épreuve de l'étranger. Culture et traduction dans l'Allemagne romantique: Herder, Goethe, Schlegel, Novalis, Humboldt, Schleiermacher, Hölderlin . Gallimard, Paris 1984, ISBN 2-07-070076-3 .
- Kurt-Victor Selge (Ed.): International Schleiermacher Congress Berlin 1984. Two volumes. Berlin / New York 1985.
- Ulrich Barth, Claus-Dieter Osthövener (Hrsg.): 200 years "Talking about religion". Files from the 1st International Congress of the Schleiermacher Society Halle, 14. – 17. March 1999. (= Schleiermacher Archive. 19). Berlin / New York 2000.
- Christianity - State - Culture. Files of the congress of the International Schleiermacher Society in Berlin, March 2006. Edited by Andreas Arndt , Ulrich Barth and Wilhelm Gräb. (= Schleiermacher archive. 22). De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2008.
- Andreas Arndt (ed.): Science and sociability: Friedrich Schleiermacher in Berlin 1796–1802. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-020349-3 .
- Andreas Kubik, Michael Murrmann-Kahl (Ed.): The complexity of the theological study today. A debate on the horizon of Schleiermacher's encyclopedia. (= Contributions to rational theology. Volume 21). Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2013, ISBN 978-3-631-64790-5 .
See also the literature overview by Ulrich Barth: Schleiermacher literature in the last third of the 20th century. In: Theologische Rundschau. 66, 2001, pp. 408-461.
- Literature by and about Friedrich Schleiermacher in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Friedrich Schleiermacher in the German Digital Library
- Edited letters from and to Friedrich Schleiermacher in the web service correspSearch of the BBAW
- Entry on Friedrich Schleiermacher in the Catalogus Professorum Halensis
- Friedrich Schleiermacher in the Internet Archive
- Works by Friedrich Schleiermacher in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Project website of the academy project “Schleiermacher in Berlin 1808–1834. Correspondence, daily calendar, lectures. " (Beta version, online since April 7, 2016)
- To recognize, not to learn is the purpose of the university . A fictional conversation from: Research & Teaching October 2008.
- Michael Forster: Schleiermacher . In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , 2002 (English, including references)
- Sang-Youn Han: Schleiermacher's concept of religion and the philosophy of the young Heidegger . Diss. Ruhr University Bochum, Faculty of Philosophy, Education and Journalism, 2005,
- Sigurd Hebenstreit: Friedrich Schleiermacher. Biographical introduction with an emphasis on working as a pedagogue
- Jan Rohls: Schleiermacher and the scientific culture of Christianity . HU Berlin, Hefte 160 2009, ISBN 978-3-86004-241-0 , pp. 3–58.
- Wesley Wildman: Schleiermacher. Summaries of "The Christian Faith" according to George Cross , introductory presentation and other information
- Classical study: HL Stoltenberg: Friedrich Schleiermacher as a sociologist. In: Journal for the entire political science. 88/1 1930, pp. 71-113 (digitized version ) . On this and other important research work on Schleiermacher's concepts of state theory and sociology: Kurt Nowak: Schleiermacher: Life, Work and Effect . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, 512-520. Nowak himself does not finally decide “whether one wants to see Schleiermacher as a sociological classic or not” (519).
- Copper engraving by Johann Heinrich Lips .
- Bernd Horlemann, Hans-Jürgen Mende (Ed.): Berlin 1994. Pocket calendar. Edition Luisenstadt Berlin, No. 01280; Pages between February 13th and 14th: Schleiermacher's domicile
- Hinrich Lichtenstein : On the history of the Sing-Akademie in Berlin. Along with a message about the festival on the fiftieth anniversary of your foundation. Verlag von Trautwein & Co., 1843, p. 36.
- Friedrich Schleiermacher: Brief description of the theological studies for the purpose of introductory lectures . Berlin 1811. urn : nbn: de: gbv: 9-g-4883651 Digitized in the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania digital library
- The Royal Academy of Sciences ... in Munich. Organization and members of the same . Carl Wolf, Munich 1829, p. 71 ( available from Google Books ).
- Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin tombs. Haude & Spener, Berlin 2006, p. 94. Further information ( Memento from September 27, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Berlin Wasps, November 8, 1868.
- Significant name. In: August Wilhelm von Schlegel's entire works, ed. v. Eduard Böcking , Volume 2, Leipzig 1846, p. 233; also online: zeno.org
- In the satirical magazine Berliner Wespen of November 8, 1868; Illustration in Ursula E. Koch : The Devil in Berlin. From the March Revolution to Bismarck's dismissal; illustrated political joke sheets of a metropolis 1848–1890, Cologne: Informationspresse Leske 1991, 196.
- Epicurean Creed Heinz Widerporstens. 1799, printed a. a. in: Walter Jaeschke (ed.): The dispute about the divine things: texts and comments. Meiner 1999, p. 22 ff., Edition-lgc.de
- Schleiermacherstrasse. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near Kaupert )
- Friedrich Schleiermacher in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
- Niesky High School - About Schleiermacher. Retrieved February 4, 2020 .
- Cf. Sebastian Manhart: Collective review on: Blum, Matthias: "I would be an enemy of Jews?" On anti-Judaism in Friedrich Schleiermacher's theology and pedagogy. Cologne 2010 / Bermges, Stephanie: The limits of education. An investigation into Friedrich Schleiermacher's romantic educational concept. Frankfurt am Main 2010 . In: H-Soz-u-Kult. March 2, 2011, accessed March 2, 2011.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German Protestant theologian, philosopher and educator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 21, 1768|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Wroclaw , Silesia|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 12, 1834|
|Place of death||Berlin|