|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||86.00 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||19-82 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||66-400 to 66-414|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 95|
|License plate :||FG, FGW|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK 3 ( E 65 ): Świnoujście - Zielona Góra|
|DK 22 : Küstrin - Malbork|
|Ext. 130 : Gorzów Wlkp.– Barnówko|
|Rail route :||PKP line 203: Kostrzyn nad Odrą – Krzyż|
|PKP line 367: Zbąszynek –Gorzów Wlkp.|
|Next international airport :||Szczecin-Goleniów|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1438 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||0861011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|City President :||Jacek Wójcicki|
ul.Sikorskiego 3-4 66-400 Gorzów Wielkopolski
Gorzów Wielkopolski German Landsberg an der Warthe is a large city in the Polish Lebus Voivodeship . The city is the seat of the voivode , while the government and parliament of Lebus have their seat in Zielona Góra ( Grünberg ).,
The city is located on the Warthe River , around 80 kilometers northeast of Frankfurt (Oder) and 130 kilometers northwest of Posen . Kostrzyn nad Odrą is about 45 kilometers away. Extensive forest areas stretch north and south of the urban area.
There is evidence that the area of what would later become the Landsberg was inhabited at an early stage. After the Great Migration , the Slavs replaced the Germanic tribes who had previously lived here . In the first third of the 13th century, German settlers were recruited by Duke Leszek I to settle what would later become Neumark . With his death in 1227, the Polish central power finally fell into disrepair, which gave the Margrave Brothers the opportunity to expand beyond the Oder. In view of the increasing long-distance trade, Margrave Johann I founded Landsberg in 1257 as a new, more convenient river crossing on the Warthe, just before the previous pass near Zantoch (with steep bank), in order, like this Polish place, to take advantage of the considerable income from long-distance trade (customs, fees from market operations and the right to defeat ) to participate (based on the parallel example of Berlin as a counter-foundation to Köpenick ).
The settlers came from what is now the states of Brandenburg , Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia and therefore belonged to the Low German-speaking area . The city was given the name Neu-Landsberg (in contrast to Altlandsberg ), which it carried until the 16th century. The Marienkirche was built in the 13th century. In 1321 the city was secured with city walls and gates. In the 14th century Landsberg had developed into the economic center of its surrounding area, the city school is first mentioned in 1360. All suburbs were destroyed during the Thirty Years War . After 1648 Landsberg developed into an important trading center in trade with neighboring Poland. In the 18th century, the establishment of the cloth making trade and the wool trade ensured a further boom.
The city had a garrison of the Prussian army . In 1783 there were four squadrons in Landsberg . Including their civilians, the garrison consisted of 900 to 1,000 people. The garrison had a garrison church. In 1804 a new schoolhouse was inaugurated for the schoolchildren of the garrison members.
After the reorganization of the district structure in the Prussian state after the Congress of Vienna , Landsberg belonged to the district of the same name in the Frankfurt administrative district of the Prussian province of Brandenburg since 1818, and Mark Brandenburg since 1939 . Since 1857, Landsberg was connected to the Prussian Eastern Railway and experienced another economic boom.
The city's magistrate was very tolerant of religions. A Jewish cemetery is documented as early as 1713; Instead of the synagogue built in 1752, which had become dilapidated, the community built a new synagogue in the Byzantine style from 1853 to 1854 according to plans by the Berlin architect Carl Tietz .
Landsberg had an old-language grammar school where lessons a. a. was given in Latin , Greek and Hebrew and was connected to real classes and a preschool. A city school in Landsberg is first mentioned in a document in 1360.
In 1892 the city was spun off from the district and received the status of an urban district . However, the administration of the district remained in the city. In the 1920s, the name "Landsberg (Warthe)" caught on. Around 1900 Landsberg an der Warthe had two Protestant churches, a Catholic church and a synagogue .
During the Second World War , Gottfried Benn wrote, among other things, the novel Der Phenotyp (1943) in the " Walter Flex Barracks" . After the Red Army approached at the end of January 1945 , the authorities ordered the city, which was overcrowded with more than 50,000 people, to be evacuated on the morning of January 29 and declared it an “ open city ”. When the Red Army took Landsberg without a fight on the late evening of January 29, 1945, they encountered around 30,000 civilians. In the aftermath, medical care and food, water, electricity and gas collapsed. The residents were exposed to robbery, looting, mass rape and individual shootings. Large parts of the city center burned down as a result of arson and negligence. Most of the residents were sent to labor camps outside of the country for forced labor. The administration of the People's Republic of Poland replaced an administration made up of German anti-fascists by the Soviet military command on March 28th . They renamed the city and in June 1945 drove out the bulk of the population in a few days. The rest followed from December 1945 to May 1947, the last 50 in September 1950. The new urban population that took their place comes mainly from central Poland and mainly from the previous Greater Poland region.
In Landsberg an der Warthe, after the end of the Second World War, the Soviet special camp No. 4 was located in the former “ General von Strantz barracks”, in which thousands of people were imprisoned under very harsh conditions in 1945, many of whom died as a result of their imprisonment.
|1783||5,381||(excluding garrison members), including 293 Jews|
|1890||28,065||including 1,272 Catholics and 606 Jews|
|1900||33,598||with the garrison (a division of field artillery No. 54), of which 30,934 Protestants, 1,785 Catholics and 568 Jews|
|1910||39,339||thereof 34,019 Protestants and 4,252 Catholics|
|1925||43,303||thereof 37,550 Evangelicals, 3,681 Catholics, 64 other Christians and 496 Jews|
|1933||45,928||thereof 40,190 Protestants, 3,876 Catholics, 19 other Christians and 435 Jews|
|1939||46,559||thereof 40,466 Evangelicals, 3,942 Catholics, 478 other Christians and 97 Jews|
- Number of inhabitants before and after 1945 in graphical representation
Baczyna, Chróścik, Chwalęcice, Górczyn, Janice, Karnin, Małyszyn, Nowy Dwór, Piaski, Siedlice, Staszica, Śródmieście, Wieprzyce, Zakanale, Zawarcie, Destinationsiec.
Chemik, Dolinki, Europejskie, Parkowe, Piaski, Przylesie, Sady, Słoneczne, Staszica, Tartaczne, Ułańskie, Ustronie, Zacisze, Zielona Dolina.
After Gorzów, parts of Wieprzyce (Wepritz) (in 1962), Chróścik (Neuendorf) , parts of Karnin (Kernein) , Siedlice (Seidlitz) and Zieliec (Roßwiese) (both 1977), Małyszyn (Merzdorf) (1979) and were incorporated Parts of Chwalęcice (Heinersdorf) .
At this time, the construction of large new prefabricated areas began, in the largest of which, Górczyn in the north of Gorzów, today almost 40,000 people live.
The Polish name Gorzów Wielkopolski, which was introduced in modern times, literally translates into German as Greater Poland, mountains .
The origin of the Polish name Gorzów is not clear and can be related to gorzenie (fire) or góra (mountain), such as B. in Gorzów Śląski (German: Landsberg in Oberschlesien). Wielkopolski , on the other hand, means “Greater Poland” or “in Greater Poland”. After the name Gorzów nad Wartą (Gorzów an der Warthe) was initially chosen after the Second World War , the city has been officially called Gorzów Wielkopolski since May 19, 1946 . Formally, the name extension " Wielkopolska " was related to the division of Gorzów into the Poznan Voivodeship on September 25, 1945. A referendum held in the city in 2000 confirmed this name.
- St. Mary's Cathedral from the late 13th century, since 1972 the bishopric of the Grünberg-Landsberg diocese
- Konkordienkirche from 1776, also known as the White Church because of its exterior color, redesigned after the Second World War and expanded as part of a monastery
- Historical storage building on the opposite side of the Warta, today a museum
- Pauckschbrunnen on the market square from 1897
- Schrödersche Villa, built in 1903 for the cable manufacturer Gustav Schröder, today the State Museum of the Lebus Voivodeship, park with a dendrological educational trail
- Martin Luther Church in the bridge suburb, today Catholic. Christkönigkirche, built in 1929/30 according to plans by the architect Curt Steinberg
- Volksschwimmbad Bergstrasse in expressionistic forms, donated by Max Bahr in 1930
- Śfinster statue from 2004 in memory of a well-known tramp who died in 1998
- Bank promenade on the Warta
- Home of the march composer Carl Teike with a memorial plaque
- Elevated viaduct , built from 1905 to 1914
Inner-city traffic in Gorzów has been served by electric trams since July 29, 1899. A large part fully coated in World War II replacement of the tram by trolley buses was reversed after the transition of the city on Poland, see tram Gorzow Wielkopolski .
Thanks to the cooperation between Niederbarnimer Eisenbahn and the Polish Przewozy Regionalne , tickets on the route between Berlin-Lichtenberg and Gorzów Wielkopolski have been valid across borders since 2008 . In addition to this line, the former Royal Prussian Eastern Railway , there is also the Gorzów Wielkopolski – Zbąszynek railway via Skwierzyna , and the Gorzów Wielkopolski – Rudnica (–Sulęcin) and the Gorzów Wielkopolski – Myślibórz railway began here .
Since December 11, 2016, a daily train on the German regional train line RB 26 has been running from Berlin via Küstrin (Kostrzyn) to Gorzów Wielkopolski. He drives from Gorzów Wielkopolski to Berlin in the morning and back in the evening.
In Christa Wolf's novel » Childhood Pattern « , published in 1976, Landsberg is the scene of the birth, childhood and adolescence of the German girl Nelly Jordan during the Nazi regime, who fled with her parents to a Mecklenburg village during the Second World War and in the 1970s visits the place of youth as an adult. The fictional character Nelly Jordan shows autobiographical traits of the poet Christa Wolf, who visited her hometown Landsberg in the first half of the 1970s.
A parking lot on the federal highway 3 in the Westerwald has been named Landsberg an der Warthe since 1964 to commemorate the expulsion after World War II . The initiative for this came from Hans-Christoph Seebohm .
In the Edward Jancarz Stadium , the local speedway club Stal Gorzów Wielkopolski holds its league races in the Polish Speedway Extra League and has won multiple Polish championships. In addition, the Speedway World Championship Grand Prix of Poland has been held several times in this pure speedway arena with a capacity of 17,000 spectators.
sons and daughters of the town
Born before 1900
- Egomet Arnold Brahtz (1838--1918), city elder, master bricklayer, landscape designer
- Gottfried Ludolf Graßmann (1738–1798), German Evangelical Lutheran clergyman and agricultural writer
- Carl Wilhelm Frölich (1759–1828), writer
- Friedrich Wilhelm von der Groeben (1774–1839), Prussian general
- Karl von Strantz (1783–1865), Prussian general
- Eduard Nehse (1793 - after 1855), meteorologist, explorer of the Brocken in the Harz Mountains
- Gottfried Bernhardy (1800–1875), philologist
- Julius Gottlieb Wilhelm Adolf von Zastrow (1802–1884), Prussian general
- Eduard Boas (1815-1853), writer
- Otto von Flotow (1822–1900), Prussian general
- Hermann Ende (1829–1907), architect and university professor in Berlin
- Otto Girndt (1835–1911), writer and librettist
- Max Bahr (1848–1930), social reformer, member of the Reichstag for the DDP
- Ernst Henseler (1852–1940), painter and draftsman
- Arthur Moritz Schoenflies (1853–1928), mathematician
- Carl Sellmer , also Karl (1855 – unknown), painter
- Adalbert Kelm (1856–1939), architect, construction officer in the German Navy
- Otto Antrick (1858–1924), SPD politician, member of the Reichstag
- Robert Warthmüller (1859–1895), history and landscape painter
- Martin Paul Müller (1872–1936), graphic artist and landscape painter
- Paul Schulze-Berghof (1873–1947), writer
- Georg Axhausen (1877–1960), doctor, co-founder of the field of oral surgery
- Arnold Kreklow (1879–1966 or later), SS-Obersturmbannführer and civil servant during the National Socialist era
- Ernst Karding (1879-1964), football player, civil servant and bank director
- Marie Juchacz (1879–1956), women's rights activist, founder of the workers' welfare organization
- Victor Klemperer (1881–1960), writer and literary scholar
- Hans Pieper (1882–1946), architect, preservationist and construction officer
- Willy Schaeffers (1884–1962), cabaret artist and actor
- Eckhard Unger (1884–1966), ancient orientalist
- Ernst Schwarz (1886–1958), KPD politician, member of the Reichstag
- Hans Baumann (1888–1967), engineer, railroad worker, editor and university professor
- Witold Rother (1888–1962), Admiral
- Elisabeth Röhl (1888–1930), SPD politician, member of the Weimar National Assembly
- Wilhelm Erich Krüger (1889–1953), politician (SPD), member of the Prussian state parliament
- Karl Bohnenstengel (1890–1965), KPD politician, member of the Reichstag
- Ulrich Buchholz (1893–1974), German general
- Alice Bendix (1894–1943), welfare worker
- Arthur Rackwitz (1895–1980), Protestant pastor, religious socialist
Born after 1900
- Kurt Scharf (1902–1990), Bishop of Berlin and Chairman of the Council of the Evangelical Church in Germany
- Erich Kühn (1903–1965), killed on the Berlin Wall
- Friedel Hensch (1906–1990), pop singer
- Walther Kuhla (1907–?), District Administrator of the District of Aachen
- Hans Zoschke (1910–1944), resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Rudolf Braunburg (1924–1996), writer and flight captain
- Roger G. Newton , b. Gerhard Neuweg (1924–2018), American theoretical physicist
- Ralf Zimmermann von Siefart (1925–2018), manager of the fertilizer industry
- Otfried Wlotzke (1926–2018), lawyer and ministerial director
- Siegfried Dyck (1926–2017), hydrologist and university professor
- Rudolf Daber (* 1929), chairman of the Society for Geological Sciences of the GDR
- Christa Wolf (1929–2011), writer
- Gottfried Kiesow (1931–2011), chairman of the German Foundation for Monument Protection
- Hans Wuttig (* 1932), painter
- Horst Pinnow (* 1936), actor and voice actor
- Friedrich Dieckmann (* 1937), writer
- Friedrich-Wilhelm von Hase (* 1937), classical archaeologist
- Christian Andree (* 1938), medical historian, Rudolf Virchow expert
- Horst Neumann (* 1938), GDR diplomat
- Udo Edelmann (1938–2019), sculptor, glass designer and designer
- Klaus Lemke (* 1940), film director
- Gunter Fritsch (* 1942), politician of the SPD, 2004–2014 President of the Brandenburg State Parliament
- Irmel Droese (* 1943), artist
- Carl Friedrich Gethmann (* 1944), philosopher
- Michael Schneider (* 1944), historian
- Marek Zieliński (* 1952), politician
- Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (* 1959), politician
- Marek Jurek (* 1960), politician and historian
- Maria Gontowicz-Szałas (* 1965), judoka
- Paweł Szałamacha (* 1969), politician
- Adam Bałdych (* 1986), jazz musician
- Bartłomiej Bołądź (* 1994), volleyball player
- Karol Drzewiecki (* 1995), tennis player
- Sebastian Walukiewicz (* 2000), football player
Personalities who have worked in the city
- Saul Ascher (1767–1822), writer, translator and bookseller, attended high school in Landsberg
- Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), theologian and philosopher, was a preacher at the Konkordienkirche from 1794 to 1796
- Theodor Enslin (1787–1851), bookseller, bibliographer and publisher; From October 18, 1824 until it was sold on April 1, 1827, he had a book and music store in Richtstrasse 164 as a branch of his Berlin business.
- Wilhelm Meydam (1821–1907), Lord Mayor and Honorary Citizen of Landsberg an der Warthe, Member of the Provincial Parliament
- Carl Teike (1864–1922), march composer (old comrades)
- Otto Gerloff (1876–1956), Lord Mayor of Landsberg an der Warthe from 1917 to 1941
- Georg Segler (1906–1978), agricultural scientist, agricultural machine designer
At the head of the city administration is a city president who is directly elected by the population. Since 2014 this is Jacek Wójcicki.
In the 2018 election, Wójcicki again ran his own election committee as city president. The vote brought the following result:
- Jacek Wójcicki (Election Committee Jacek Wójcicki) 65.2% of the vote
- Sebastian Pieńkowski ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 15.2% of the vote
- Marta Bejnar-Bejnarowicz (“We love Gorzów” election committee) 10.2% of the vote
- Robert Surowiec ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 8.5% of the vote
- Remaining 0.9% of the vote
Wójcicki was thus re-elected in the first ballot.
The city council consists of 25 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Election Committee Jacek Wójcicki 31.8% of the vote, 10 seats
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 26.3% of the vote, 7 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 23.7% of the vote, 5 seats
- Election Committee “We love Gorzów” 14.4% of the vote, 3 seats
- “Gorzów Supporters” election committee 3.8% of the vote, no seat
Gorzów Wielkopolski lists seven twin cities :
- Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany), since 1975
- Cava de 'Tirreni (Italy), since 1992
- Herford (Germany), since 1995
- Teramo (Italy), since 1996
- Eberswalde (Germany), since 2001
- Jönköping (Sweden), since 2001
- Sumy (Ukraine), since 2006
- W. Riehl, J. Scheu (Hrsg.): Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg with the Margraviate Nieder-Lausitz in their history and in their present existence . Berlin 1861, pp. 464-469.
- A. Engelien and Fr. Henning: History of the city of Landsberg an der Warthe from the oldest times to the present with a lithographed view of the city from 1650 . Landsberg ad W. 1857, books.google.de
- Karl Friedrich von Beneckendorff : Small economic trips . Volume 1. Züllichau 1785, pp. 433–451.
- Dariusz Aleksander Rymar: State Archives Landsberg an der Warthe - guide through the holdings up to 1945. = Archiwum Państwowe w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim - przewodnik po zasobie do roku 1945. Oldenbourg, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-57725-9 ( publications of the Federal Institute for the culture and history of Germans in Eastern Europe , 25).
- Hans Beske, Ernst Handke (ed.): Landsberg an der Warthe 1257. 1945. 1978 (= series of publications of the Federal Working Group Landsberg, Warthe, Stadt und Land, volumes I – III). Gieseking, Bielefeld 1976–1980
Volume I: City and Country in the Change of Times , ISBN 3-7694-0702-4 , 1976
Volume II: From Culture and Society in the Mirror of the Centuries ISBN 3-7694-0706-7 , 1978
Volume III : Agriculture and Industry. Craft. Traffic. Administration. ISBN 3-7694-0702-4 , 1980
- Landsperg in the Topographia Electoratus Brandenburgici et Ducatus Pomeraniae ( Matthäus Merian )
- Official website of the city (multilingual)
- Website about the city of the Berlin Senate Department for Culture and Europe
- Family research in the Kr. Landsberg / W. in the Neumark
- Trams in Landsberg
- Bibliography on the history of Gorzów Wielkopolski at LitDok East Central Europe / Herder Institute (Marburg)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Georg Wilhelm von Raumer (ed.): The Neumark Brandenburg in 1337 or Margrave Ludwig's the Elder Neumärkisches Landbuch from this time . Nicolai'sche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1837, p. 28, No. 8) .
- Karl Friedrich von Beneckendorff : Small economic trips . Volume 1, Züllichau 1785, pp. 433-451.
- Gottlieb Benjamin Gerlach: Inauguration speech. Held on August 3rd, when the school building donated to the Garrison in Landberg an der Warthe was inaugurated . Berlin 1804 ( e-copy ).
- Riehl and Scheu (1861), p. 467.
- Kaempf: Program of the grammar school with real classes in Landsberg a. W., with school news from Easter 1872 to Easter 1873 . Landsberg ad W. 1873, p. 24 ff.
- Newspaper for higher education in Germany . Volume 1, Leipzig 1872, pp. 259-260.
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 12, Leipzig / Vienna 1908, p. 120.
- Gottfried Benn: Letters to FW Oelze: 1932–1945 , p. 367.
- Holm Kirsten: The Soviet special camp No. 4 Landsberg, Warthe. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-952-X . P. 18 ff.
- Holm Kirsten: The Soviet Special Camp No. 4 Landsberg / Warthe , p. 27.
- Holm Kirsten: The Soviet special camp No. 4 Landsberg, Warthe. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-952-X .
- A. Engelien and Fr. Henning (1857), p. 162.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. landsberg_w.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Landsberger Kommunalanzeiger, November 2000. ( Memento from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; Polish)
- Heike Amos: The SED's policy of expellees from 1945 to 1990 . Oldenbourg, Munich 2009, p. 239 ff. (Restricted preview) .
- Warta in the Westerwald
- People Landsberg on Christian Heilmann's genealogy page .
- Result on the website of the electoral commission, accessed on August 4, 2020.
- Result on the website of the electoral commission, accessed on August 4, 2020.
- Gorzów - Miasta partnerskie. Retrieved February 21, 2016 .