|Area :||35.69 km²|
|Geographic location :||52 ° 36 ′ N , 15 ° 30 ′ E|
|Residents :||9671 (June 30, 2019)|
|Postal code :||66-440|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 95|
|License plate :||FMI|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Berlin - Poznan|
|Wroclaw - Szczecin|
|Rail route :||Zielona Góra - Gorzów Wielkopolski|
|Next international airport :||Poznań-Ławica|
Skwierzyna [ skfjɛˈʒɨna ] ( German Schwerin an der Warthe ) is a town in the powiat Międzyrzecki of the Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland . It is the seat of the town-and-country municipality of the same name with 12,178 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2019).
The name of the city is mentioned in the following forms: Squeryn , Skwerin , Skwierzim , Zwerin 1312, Nowa Squerin 1313, Zweryn 1315, Swyryn 1390, Skwirzyna 1458, Skwyrzyna 1493, 1645 Schweren. In 1889 the spellings Skwirzyna , Skwierzyna and Skwierzna still appear. The German name is Schwerin an der Warthe . The state capital of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania also bears the name Schwerin .
The city is located at the mouth of the Obra River in the Warta in the north of the Lubusz Voivodeship. To the west of it rises the 107 meter high Galgenberg. It is directly connected to Szczecin and the Silesian industrial area via the north-south main road, trunk road 3 . The large neighboring cities of Landsberg and Grünberg are 25 and 80 kilometers away, respectively. There is also a rail link to both cities. The next border crossing to Germany is 63 kilometers at Küstrin .
The city was founded in 1295. Although Schwerin a. d. Warthe had belonged to the Kingdom of Poland for over five centuries , the majority of the population was always German-speaking, especially if you include the numerous Jews represented in the village. The settlement of the place at the mouth of the Obram was carried out by the Cistercian monks of the Paradies monastery , 30 kilometers to the south. The Polish King Przemysław II granted it German town charter in 1306, which was specified in 1406 by King Władyslaw II Jagiełło with the Magdeburg town charter. The city also owes its economic rise to Jagiełło, who built the trade route from Kraków to Stettin in 1390 . Since the road ran through Schwerin, which was right on the border with Brandenburg , a customs post was built here, which brought the city to a brisk commercial activity.
After the second partition of Poland in 1793 Schwerin came under Prussian rule and was now part of the new administrative unit of South Prussia. When Napoleon conquered Europe at the beginning of the 19th century, he created the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 , whereby Schwerin was again in a Polish state. This state of affairs only lasted until 1815. The Congress of Vienna granted Prussia, among other things, the province of Posen , which included Schwerin. With the Prussian administrative reform of 1818 it was incorporated into the Birnbaum district. In 1887 the western part of the Birnbaum district was separated and transformed into a new district of Schwerin (Warthe) in the province of Posen, named after the city .
In 1910 Schwerin was connected to the Landsberg – Birnbaum railway line, thus creating the conditions for industry to develop. So the city became a regional center for wood processing and textile production. When large parts of the province of Posen came back to Poland with the Versailles Treaty of 1919, Schwerin was added to the newly formed Prussian province Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia and became the district town of the district of Schwerin (Warthe). After the Grenzmark was dissolved in 1938, the district became part of the Province of Brandenburg . When the last census in the Third Reich was carried out in 1939, the place had 7,072 inhabitants. Schwerin has been a garrison town since 1937.
The city was initially largely spared from the Second World War . However, in October 1939, the Nazi dictatorship set up the Einsatzgruppen prison camp in Schwerin an der Warthe . a. served as a place of detention for forced laborers. Only when the Red Army marched into the city in January 1945 was more than 60% destroyed. After the end of the war, Schwerin was placed under Polish administration. The city was renamed Skwierzyna . Poles were settled. Unless the German population had fled, they were subsequently expelled .
|1800||2658||including 738 Jews, the rest mainly Protestants|
|1827||5123||including 1,543 Jews|
|1867||6567||on December 3rd|
|1871||6368||German residents, including 3850 Protestants, 1800 Catholics, 700 Jews; According to other data, 6368 inhabitants (on December 1), of which 3903 Protestants, 1824 Catholics, one other Christian, 640 Jews|
|1905||6768||mostly evangelicals; according to other sources 7265 inhabitants|
The town itself and seven villages with school administration offices belong to the town-and-country municipality (gmina miejsko-wiejska) Skwierzyna.
The Paderborn district has been the sponsorship group of Skwierzyna since 1985 .
- St. Nicholas Church from the 15th century
- Town hall from 1841 with neo-Gothic and classical elements
- Granary from the beginning of the 19th century
- Statue of King Jagiełło
Mayor of the city
- 1814–1835, Jan Chrzanowski
- 1835-1844, Brase
- 1844–1855, Clausius
- 1855–1867, Waetzmann
- 1868–1898, Hugo Müller
- 1899–1911, Hugo Scholz
- 1911–1922, Erich Rogge
- 1923-1931, Ernat Wolff
- 1931–1932, Julius Malig
- 1932-1935, Arnold Reinsberg
- 1935–1945, Heinrich Bornmmann
- February - May 1945, Stanisław Runge
- May - September 1945, Józef Skrzypczak
- September - November 1945, Władysław Śliwa
- December 1945 - November 1946, Michał Kulpa
- February - June 1947, Henryk Fujdak
- September 1947 - February 1951, Wincenty Okupny
- June 1990 - June 1994, Ryszard Szczepaniak
- since June 1994, Arkadiusz Piotrowski
Born in Schwerin an der Warthe
- The city's most famous son is the musician Johann Gottfried Piefke (1815–1884), who composed, among other things, the March Prussian Gloria .
- Gustav Boese , painter (1878–1943)
- Wolfram Neumann (* 1943), orthopedist and university professor in Magdeburg
- Erich Ziegel (1876–1950), actor, director and theater director
- Gustav Wegener (1908–1944), resistance fighter against National Socialism.
- Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 449-451.
- A virtual walk through Skwierzyna in 360 °
- TK25 sheet 3359 Schwerin a. d. Warthe - edition 1934
- ↑ a b http://dir.icm.edu.pl/pl/Slownik_geograficzny/Tom_X/748 Filip Sulimierski, Władysław Walewski (ed.): Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich. T. 10, page 748 ff., Warsaw 1889
- ↑ Blaeu's Atlas, Germania, east. Frankfurt / Oder Landsperg, Schweren, Crossen, Schwibußen, Grünberg
- ↑ https://www.bundesarchiv.de/zwangsarbeit/haftstaetten/index.php?action=2.2&tab=7&id=100001126 Federal Archives , Foundation “Remembrance, Responsibility and Future” , places of detention in the Nazi state, entry: Einsatzgruppen-Straflager Schwerin an der Warthe, accessed on January 17, 2020
- ^ A b c Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 449-451.
- ^ A b Royal Statistical Office: The municipalities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population. Edited and compiled from the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. Part IV: The Province of Posen , Berlin 1874, pp. 84–85, item 4 ( E-Copy, pp. 91-92 ).
- ^ Gustav Neumann : The German Empire in geographical, statistical and topographical relation . Volume 2, GFO Müller, Berlin 1874, p. 143, item 1 .
- ↑ a b c d Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Schwerin_warthe.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 18, Leipzig / Vienna 1909, pp. 204-205, point 2 .
- ↑ Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon , 5th edition, Volume 2, Leipzig 1911, pp. 672-673, item 2 .
- ↑ gemeindeververzeichnis.de
- ^ Member of the Corps Marchia Breslau . KKL 1910, 31 , 86