Christian Daniel Rauch

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Christian Daniel Rauch Signature Christian Daniel Rauch.PNG
Christian Daniel Rauch, photograph by Franz Hanfstaengl around 1855
Christian Daniel Rauch, lithograph by GH Friedlein, around 1850

Christian Daniel Rauch (born January 2, 1777 in Arolsen , † December 3, 1857 in Dresden ) was a German sculptor of German classicism . He was a student of Johann Gottfried Schadow and belongs to the Berlin sculpture school . Important Rauch memorials are the artist's birthplace and the Christian Daniel Rauch Museum , both in Arolsen.


Beginnings and apprenticeship

Christian Daniel Rauch was born on January 2nd, 1777 in Arolsen, Waldeck. There he was baptized on Epiphany. He was the second youngest of six siblings. Two siblings had died at the time of his birth, two more followed them when Rauch was two and twenty years old, respectively. His father Johann Georg Rauch was born in Flechtdorf in 1729 . This was first a soldier before he then worked as a valet for the Prince of Waldeck . Rauch's mother came from Mengeringhausen and died at the age of 77.

The family lived in relatively simple circumstances, which everyone can still get an idea of ​​today in the restored Rauch's birthplace (small half-timbered house in Rauchstrasse, Bad Arolsen, in the princely brewery garden). The educated father had his sons taught at the Arolsen Citizens' School, which used to be paid for. They also received private lessons in Latin and French. The linguistic knowledge as well as the good company at court would be very useful to him later.

When Rauch was thirteen years old, he began his apprenticeship with the sculptor Friedrich Valentin in Helsen . Five years later, Rauch left Valentin because there were no more orders. From 1795 to 1797 he was assistant to the sculptor and academy professor Johann Christian Ruhl in Kassel , for whom he participated in the decoration of the Wilhelmshöhe Palace . At the Kassel Landgravial Academy, where Ruhl also taught, he modeled in clay.

At the Prussian court

After the father's death in 1796, the eleven years older brother Friedrich, who was court gardener and then valet to the Prussian king in Sanssouci Palace in Potsdam , looked after the family. When his brother died in 1797, the twenty-year-old Christian Daniel had to take care of his mother and younger brother Ludwig. In the same year he took his brother's position and became valet to Friedrich Wilhelm II. He also studied art history and antiquity at the Berlin Art Academy .

Self-portrait from 1828 (plaster, tinted)

After the imminent death of the Prussian king, he switched to the royal service of the young Queen Luise , whom he accompanied on her travels. At the art academy, he made friends with many artists, including Karl Wichmann and Karl Kretschmar . The first sculptural works were created; he modeled some reliefs after sketches by Gottfried Schadow and in 1803 became Schadow's official assistant. Schadow had already become the head of the royal sculpture workshop at the age of 24 and recognized Rauch's talent. Attempts Rauch to be released from courtly service failed because of the refusal of the queen. Rauch worked late into the night, reading works by Goethe and Schiller and modeling instead of playing cards like his friends.

In 1804 and 1812 Rauch became the father of two daughters, Agnes and Doris, but without marrying their mother Wilhelmine Schulze (1783–1855). But he confessed to his daughters (as he did later to his six grandchildren), raised them in his household and managed to get them to bear his family name.

If not with him, the children lived in the lodging house of his cousin Mundhenk's family in Bad Pyrmont at Altenauplatz 1. Since it was “impossible” for the famous artist, the mother of the children (who was “... still quite young, pretty in shape, but was very ugly in the head ”) to marry, the children, with the help of the Mundhenk family, were kept there or with foster parents in Holzhausen. Even later, as a now famous artist at the Prussian court , Christian Daniel Rauch visited Bad Pyrmont several times (1797, 1819, 1823) and stayed in "Haus Mundhenk".

Study time in Rome

On influential advocacy, Friedrich Wilhelm III granted him . with cabinet order of July 29, 1804 for six years a scholarship of 125 thalers and 12 groschen a year for a study visit to Italy . At the age of 27 he began the trip to Rome as the companion of the young Count Karl Sandretzky . Their journey took them through Germany, Switzerland, France and Italy. Soon after his arrival he was introduced to Wilhelm von Humboldt , the Prussian ambassador to the Vatican . They became friends, and Humboldt established further contacts with artists and scholars. In Rome Rauch also met the classicist sculptors Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen . After Humboldt's departure, he lived in the artist hostel Casa Buti . In 1809 Rauch's scholarship was increased to 400 thalers a year.

Rauch lived alternately in Rome and Carrara, here at times in a living and working community with Christian Friedrich Tieck . Rauch experienced the decline of Prussia and the war of liberation from a distance with great sympathy. He was threatened with exile even in Italy and had to buy his way out between Carrara and Rome.

Berlin workshop

From 1815, Rauch had an apartment in the royal palace in Berlin. But it wasn't until 1819 that he settled permanently in the capital. First he had to fight a fierce battle for a workshop that met the requirements. The situation only eased when the so-called “warehouse” on Klosterstrasse was made available to him. He closed his workshop in Carrara and had Tieck come to Berlin with four of the most skilful Italian marble workers.

The warehouse (his "home") became the place of origin of the Berlin sculpture school . Rauch himself was constantly active, did not allow himself any rest until old age after a simple meal, and going to the workshop was a consolation for him even on dreary days. At times Rauch was one of the busiest sculptors in all of Europe.

The grave of Christian Daniel Rauch with a tomb , adorned by a tondo depicting Rauch and crowned by a bronze , in the cemetery of the Dorotheenstädtische and Friedrichswerder communities in Berlin

Honors and end of life

In the second half of his life, Rauch went on several trips to attend the inauguration of his monuments, to buy antique sculptures or to accept invitations. So he made trips to Venice and Naples, where he met the Prussian ambassador Basilius von Ramdohr and Prince Heinrich of Prussia . He traveled to many European cities and visited churches, castles, museums as well as the workshops and studios of his colleagues. In 1830 he made the fourth and in 1855 a last trip to Italy.

Rauch was accepted into learned societies, academies and artistic circles, and was honored with numerous awards and medals. In 1832 he was accepted as a foreign member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts . In addition, since May 31, 1842, he was a member of the Prussian order Pour le Mérite for science and the arts. He received the largest public honor after the unveiling of the Friedrich monument in Berlin. He received a plaque donated by the Royal Academy of Arts in honor of him. The front shows the equestrian monument on the inside, surrounded by the most important works of Rauch, the back shows his profile. In 1851 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Philosophical Faculty of the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin .

Rauch's productivity lasted until the end of his life. In his 81st year he created one of his most mature works, the statue of the patron of agriculture, Albrecht Daniel Thaer . It was only in the last few months that he fell ill and went to Dresden for treatment. He died there on December 3, 1857, at seven in the morning after being unconscious for 48 hours. He found his final resting place in a grave of honor of the city of Berlin in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery . The grave is located in the CAL department, G2.

The way of working

Dürer monument on Albrecht-Dürer-Platz in Nuremberg , bronze statue, based on a model by Christian Daniel Rauch, bronze cast by Jakob Daniel Burgschmiet in 1849

Before Rauch made his sketches for a portrait statue, he obtained all available portraits and the available literature about the person. The sketches that were then made were presented to the client, mostly princes, but later also civic associations and cities, who often requested changes. After their consent, a small plaster model was first made, then a half-size auxiliary model. The models were made naked in order to avoid anatomical errors. He hung lengths of fabric around these models to align the folds. Since Rauch was very economical, he sometimes used this material for the coats of his grandchildren. He also dealt in detail with the location that was intended for the erection of the monument. For example, he requested plans, sketches of the surrounding buildings and soil profiles or chose from several places. Only then could the correct size be determined and a final one submitted to the preliminary cost estimate.

The statue was made in clay. So that the colossus, which often weighed several hundred pounds, could be given support, a strong iron framework was erected beforehand as a skeleton and the clay was layered around it. It took months to create the clay model. The clay had to be kept moist at all times so that it would not crack. A plaster copy was made of the clay model with great care and care. Such plaster models, which were easy to model and exactly resembled the later execution in marble or bronze, were occasionally publicly exhibited by Rauch in his workshop for a fee; the proceeds went to the orphanage or other social institutions.

If the statue was to be made in marble, you first had to work roughly from the outside, then carefully with a chisel, rasp and file, towards the image. Rauch left this work largely to his staff and students; he himself only put on the last hand. Otherwise the almost unbelievable number of sculptures could not have been created. With the help of his students and apprentices, he created around 50 statues, 150 busts and 90 reliefs in his life.

Rauch as a teacher and sponsor

Numerous sculptors and other artists were students of Rauch; Among them are Friedrich Drake , who made the Viktoria of the Berlin Victory Column , Ernst Rietschel , who created the Goethe and Schiller monument in Weimar , Albert Wolff , Bernhard Afinger , August Kiss and Theodor Kalide . When very young applicants asked to join his workshop, Rauch usually recommended that they do an apprenticeship with a stonemason for four to five years in order to thoroughly learn the technique of this craft and only then to devote themselves to the art of sculpture.

Throughout his life, Rauch took a great interest in all phenomena in art and the applied arts. He helped sculptors by providing them with hewn material. He advised princes and wealthy people on marble purchases from Italy and Greece. He also made sure that the Berlin foundry was staffed with good molders and foundries. On several occasions, specialists were sent to Petersburg and Paris on his initiative.

Central plants

The grave monument for Queen Luise

Grave monument for Queen Luise

In the autumn of 1810, Rauch was (after the intercession of Wilhelm von Humboldt) by the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. commissioned to create a reclining figure of the deceased Queen Luise for her sarcophagus in the Charlottenburg mausoleum . He made the plaster version in 1811 and 1812 under the eyes of the king. The work was made more difficult by the fact that Rauch had the marble work carried out in Rome, but the king wanted to see the statue made in Berlin and it was difficult to wrest the concession for Rome .

In 1812 Rauch sent the plaster model to Rome. Rauch decided to lay out the statue and sarcophagus in Carrara and to finish them in Rome. After the completion of the tomb, it was loaded for seafaring to Hamburg . Rauch learned from the newspaper that the ship had been hijacked, and it wasn't until five months later that the news came that the grave monument had arrived on another ship in Cuxhaven . Even before the king's return from the Congress of Vienna, Rauch was able to rid it of the salt water damage and set it up in the newly built mausoleum in the Charlottenburg Palace Park .

Tomb of General von Scharnhorst in the Invalidenfriedhof Berlin. Partial view (the lion itself is from Theodor Kalide)

Statues of princes and generals

Blücher monument (1826) in Berlin, Unter den Linden

During his restless work with spatulas, chisels and files, Rauch was repeatedly confronted with major problems. A statue of Tsar Alexander I of Russia, which Rauch had planned for 1817, he was not able to complete until three years later, as the marble twice turned out to be cracked and unusable. He also devoted the greatest care to the monuments of Scharnhorst and Bülow. It was with these statues and the base reliefs that Rauch first came up with the question of clothing. Since he felt the classical Greek works as the pinnacle of plastic art, he dressed the statues he created in classical garments. He stuck to this point of view all his life. Thirty years later, he refused to design the heroes of the minds Schiller and Goethe as a group for Weimar other than in the “ideal” costume. Because the most famous of the donors of the double monument , King Ludwig of Bavaria, insisted on his heroic view, Rauch renounced the commission, which was then given to his pupil Rietschel.

Because of his sculptural elementary school, antiquity, and because of the material to be used, the stone and the ore, Rauch was not prepared to depict a movement that came from emotion. Pathetic, effective things were far from him. Despite all the real similarities in facial features and shape, he tries to give his creatures a general validity striving towards the ideal, without, however, hiding an inner movement in them. His striving for unity and harmony earned him the accusation of impetus and lack of grace in the second half of the century.

As the culmination of his artistic career, the government contract can probably for the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great in 1836 call (1851 reveals), with whom he seemed finally to drain his teacher Schadow the rank ( This My Janzer fame "is: have said - to - berlinernd and humorous in smoke uffjegangn ").

In addition to many statues of princes and generals, he also made bronze and marble busts of Goethe and Dürer as well as individual busts for the Walhalla memorial in Regensburg (including Anton Raphael Mengs and Gerhard von Scharnhorst ).

"Faith, love, hope"

Faith, love, hope

A special feature of Rauch's work is the marble group of statues " Faith, Love, Hope ", which stood next to and in front of the altar in the Arolser town church and found a new place in a wall niche after the church renovation (1957/1958).

The reason for the design of the statue "Glaube" was a request made in 1821 and repeated ten years later for a sculpture for the local church. Rauch therefore gave his boy Camillo (the figure of the orphan boy from the Francke monument in Halle was taken over) a bowl in his hands, which he pleadingly holds in front of him. This is the name for boys from noble Roman families who were active in god worship and sacrifice negotiations. He decided to donate a larger group to the church. He compared the boy with the Bible, who embodies “faith”, the figure with the warming flame as “love”. The installation of the sculptures was discussed during a visit by Rauch to Arolsen, the first in 23 years. In 1845 Rauch designed the figure of "Hope", but it was not until 1852 that it was installed in the church and seen for the first time at the Christmas service of that year.

In 1852, Rauch offered plaster casts of the four cardinal virtues of wisdom, temperance, justice and strength to the town church as a gift. However, the church authorities did not respond because the allegories appeared problematic from a theological point of view. Rauch was deeply annoyed and in 1856 gave the four depictions to the Prince of Waldeck, who had them installed in the stairwell of the castle.

Work overview (selection)

The Niebuhr couple - marble relief in the old cemetery in Bonn
Francke memorial
Wreath- throwing
Victoria (1838–45), Alte Nationalgalerie (Berlin)
Victoria statue at the Schwerin Orangery

Smoke in Arolsen

The Christian Daniel Rauch Museum and the Rauch memorial are located in Arolsen .

A former museum memorial for Christian Daniel Rauch was located in Berlin until it was destroyed during the Second World War . Today's Christian Daniel Rauch Museum , which opened in October 2002, is a branch of the museum in Bad Arolsen . A selection of sculptures by Rauch and his contemporaries can be seen on permanent loan from the Alte Nationalgalerie Berlin . In the Rauch memorial in the artist's birthplace, mainly memorabilia are shown.

Bad Arolsen: bust monument in front of the house where he was born

Smoke foundation

After his mother's death in 1810, the house where the sculptor was born came into the possession of her sister's because Rauch had renounced his inheritance. Through her, the house was passed on to her son-in-law. After his death in 1856, the city of Arolsen acquired the property with the two buildings for 1,204 thalers. They wanted to create a shelter for old and destitute people. The artist was so pleased that he donated a large amount of money for this old people's home. This amount formed the basis of the smoke foundation's assets. It took another three years for the idea to become a reality. In 1950 the foundation was dissolved because the income was no longer sufficient to continue the establishment.

Rauch memorial (birthplace)

on a postage stamp from Berlin, 1957

The Rauch memorial is located in the birth house of Christian Daniel Rauch (Rauchstrasse 6). The visitors should get an insight into the living culture of the 19th century and information about the Rauch family.

Here you can see the family tree of Christian Daniel Rauch as well as a certificate written in Latin with an original seal of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV and many other objects and busts made of plaster, for example Rauch as a young and old man. Next to the birth house were the pig and goat sheds and the toilet. Behind the house you can still find a garden with wild hops and a rose from 1855.

Christian Daniel Rauch Museum

Rauch's artistic estate is owned by the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin. She ran a smoke museum . Hans Mackowsky was the curator . It was located in Klosterstrasse in 1912 and in the orangery wing of Charlottenburg Palace from the early 1930s . The museum holdings were relocated in the Second World War before the orangery was destroyed.

For the Christian Daniel Rauch Museum in Arolsen, the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation put together a rich selection from the holdings of the National Gallery, which has been on permanent loan since 2002 in the Marstall building of the Bad Arolser Palace, as well as films about his life and his Working with bronze, marble and plaster is complemented.

Rauch bust by Karl Begas (1900)

Bust of Christian Daniel Rauch by Karl Begas (1900)

A bust in honor of Christian Daniel Rauch can be found as a "side bust" to the central statue of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV in monument group 31 on Siegesallee in Berlin. It was carried out in 1900 by Karl Begas .


  • Lionel from DonopRauch, Christian Daniel . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 28, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1889, pp. 765-778.
  • Jutta von Simson:  Rauch, Christian Daniel. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 195-197 ( digitized version ).
  • A. Hagen: About the sculptor Rauch. A public lecture on the best of the Kant monument to be erected on January 16. In: New Prussian Provincial Papers . Other series, Volume 7, Issue 3, Königsberg 1855, pp. 196-224.
  • Hans Mackowsky : Christian Daniel Rauch 1777–1857 . Cassirer publishing house, Berlin 1916.
  • Helmut Weber, Günter Jedicke (eds.): Christian Daniel Rauch. Anniversary publication for the 200th birthday of the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch . Published on behalf of the city of Arolsen and the Waldeckisches Historisches Verein. Arolsen 1977, DNB 780519019 .
  • Günter Jedicke (Ed.): Christian Daniel Rauch . (= Museum booklets Waldeck-Frankenberg 15). Arolsen 1994.
  • Elke Riemer-Buddecke: Christian Daniel Rauch. Life and work. In: Christian-Rauch-Schule Bad Arolsen (ed.): From the citizen school to the grammar school - 150 years of higher education in Arolsen . Bad Arolsen 2002, ISBN 3-87077-091-0 .
  • Jutta von Simson: Christian Daniel Rauch. Oeuvre catalog. (= Sculptor of the 19th century). Gebr. Mann Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7861-1778-0 .
  • Jutta von Simson: Christian Daniel Rauch. (= Prussian heads). Verlag Stapp, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-87776-181-3 .

Web links

Commons : Christian Daniel Rauch  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Jutta von Simson: Christian Daniel Rauch. (= Prussian heads). 1997.
  2. ^ Friedrich and Karl Eggers: Christian Daniel Rauch. Volume 1, Verlag C. Dunker, Berlin 1873, p. 212.
  3. The Order Pour le Merite for Science and the Arts. The members of the order. Volume I: 1842-1881. Gebr. Mann-Verlag, Berlin 1975.
  4. ^ Rauch, Christian. In: L. Forrer: Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. Volume V, Spink & Son, London 1912, p. 35 f. (English)
  5. ↑ List of monuments in Saxony-Anhalt, District Börde (I), Volume 15.1, prepared by Sabine Meisel, Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg, ISBN 978-3-86568-119-5 , pp. 110–111.
  6. Dieter Lange: The mausoleum in the mountain garden. In: Günther Kokkelink , Harold Hammer-Schenk (ed.): Laves and Hannover. Lower Saxon architecture in the nineteenth century. Ed. Libri Artis Schäfer, 1989, ISBN 3-88746-236-X , pp. 186-188. (revised new edition of the publication Vom Schloss zum Bahnhof ... )
  7. Helmut Knocke , Hugo Thielen : Mausoleum. In: Hanover Art and Culture Lexicon . P. 92.
  8. See Peter-Klaus Schuster: Rauch in Arolsen. Speech for the opening of the Christian Daniel Rauch Museum in Bad Arolsen. In: Yearbook Prussian Cultural Heritage. Volume 39, Mann, Berlin 2002, pp. 69-79.