Calendar overview 1777
|American War of Independence|
|Battle of Princeton , George Washington's troops remained victorious over British forces.|
John Burgoyne tries to split the American units
with the Saratoga campaign .
Horatio Gates , however,
in the Battle of Saratoga .
|1777 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1225/26 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1769/70 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1182/83 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2320/21 (southern Buddhism); 2319/20 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1139/40 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4110/11 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1155/56 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1190/91 (February 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5537/38 (October 1-2)|
|Coptic calendar||1493/94 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2087/88 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2088/89 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1833/34 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
American War of Independence
- January 2 : The Second Battle of Trenton ends with a victory for the American Continental Army over British troops.
- January 3 : George Washington's troops remain victorious over British forces in the Battle of Princeton .
- June 13 : The French Marquis de Lafayette arrives north of Charleston in South Carolina and offers the Continental Army his unpaid service in the American War of Independence .
- June 14 : The Continental Congress decides to use the Stars and Stripes as the flag of the United States .
- June: The British Saratoga campaign under General John Burgoyne begins.
- 5 / 6 July : The British Army takes under General Burgoyne in the Battle of Ticonderoga , the Fort of the same name one after the US General Arthur St. Clair was forced to retreat with the defenders.
- July 7th : The Battle of Hubbardton ends with a British victory over the rearguard of American forces withdrawing from Fort Ticonderoga
- July 8 : Britain wins the Battle of Fort Ann after the Americans withdrew on the false assumption that the British would be reinforced by Indian units.
- July 31 : By special resolution of the Continental Congress , the Marquis de Lafayette is appointed Major General of the Continental Army.
- August 4th : The British siege of Fort Stanwix under Barry St. Leger begins.
- August 6 : In the Battle of Oriskany , in which the Americans want to relieve the besieged Fort Stanwix , an American militia unit under General Nicholas Herkimer is ambushed and largely wiped out by pro-British loyalists under Barry St. Leger . On the British side, a large contingent of Indians under Joseph Brant and John Butler take part in the attack.
- August 16 : At the Battle of Bennington , the American militia defeat units of the English troops, including soldiers from Hesse .
- August 25 : After 21 days of siege, the American defenders of Fort Stanwix under Peter Gansevoort make a sortie and decisively defeat the British. Stanwix is the only American fort that the British never managed to capture during the entire war.
- September 11 : The British under General William Howe defeat the colonists under George Washington in the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania in the American Revolutionary War . You can advance on Philadelphia .
- September 19 to October 17 : Battle of Saratoga
- September 19 : Battle of Freemans Farm , Borgoynes British victorious with heavy losses
- September 26th : In the American War of Independence , the British take the city of Philadelphia under General William Howe .
- October 4th : Battle of Germantown , British victory
- October 6th : Battle of Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery , British victory
- October 7th : Battle of Bemis Heights , American victory
- October 17th : The British Saratoga campaign ends with the surrender of General John Burgoyne on behalf of the British Army , the captured British soldiers are subsequently renamed the Convention Army .
- June: In the gubernatorial election in New York is George Clinton also elected both governor as vice governor. As a result, Clinton formally resigns as Lieutenant Governor and runner-up Pierre Van Cortlandt takes office.
- July 8 : In Vermont is slavery by constitutional amendment ( constitutional amendment abolished).
- November 29 : Mexican farmers found in Alta California the place El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe , the first settlement in California , which is not clear from a mission or a military post.
Holy Roman Empire
- December 30th : With the death of Maximilian III. Joseph and the associated extinction of the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach family inherited the Electorate of Bavaria from the Wittelsbach line Pfalz-Sulzbach , Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz . However, Austria lays claim to Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate and a little later triggers the War of the Bavarian Succession .
Portugal / Spain
- In Portugal , after the death of Joseph I on February 24, his daughter Maria I ascends the throne and dismisses the country's long-standing head of government, the Margrave of Pombal .
- October 1 : The castle of La Granja de San Ildefonso is the first Treaty of San Ildefonso between Spain and Portugal signed. It regulates territorial claims over the Sacramento colony in the La Plata region in today's Uruguay , but also over the islands of Annobón and Fernando Póo in the Gulf of Guinea and other territories on the Niger coast and the inlets of the Ogooués in exchange for a Spanish retreat from the south Brazil .
- December 24th : James Cook discovers an island he calls Christmas Island on his third voyage to the South Seas .
- January 30th : The original version of the sensitive Singspiel Lila by Johann Wolfgang Goethe is premiered on the occasion of the 20th birthday of the Duchess Luise von Sachsen-Weimar at the Weimar Liebhabertheater.
- The Mannheim National Theater opens at the suggestion of Elector Karl Theodor . The first "German National Show Stage" under the direction of Theobald Hilarius Marchand begins in spring.
- June 19 : The first performance of the opera Polly of Samuel Arnold will take place on Little Theater in London.
- August 3 : The comic opera Il mondo della luna ( The World on the Moon ) by Joseph Haydn is premiered at Esterházy Palace in Eisenstadt. According to some sources, Carlo Goldoni wrote the libretto . According to other sources, a stranger merely edited a libretto that Carlo Goldoni wrote for the composer Baldassare Galuppi .
- August 22nd : World premiere of April Day by Samuel Arnold at the Little Theater in London
- September 8th : World premiere of the opera Medonte, Rè di Epiro by Giuseppe Sarti at the Teatro della Pergola in Florence
- 23 September : The world premiere of the opera Armide by Christoph Willibald Gluck based on the libretto by Philippe Quinault based on Torquato Tasso takes place at the Académie Royale de musique in Paris.
- October 18 : Friedrich II , Landgrave of Hessen-Cassel , removes the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture de Cassel from the Collegium Carolinum .
- 23 January : The poet and regime critic Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart is arrested in a room in the Blaubeuren monastery on the orders of the Württemberg Duke Carl Eugen . Schubart is on the Hohenasperg ten years the object of a re-education .
- January 2 : Christian Daniel Rauch , German sculptor († 1857 )
- January 3 : Elisa Bonaparte , sister of Napoleon Bonaparte († 1820 )
- January 7th : Lorenzo Bartolini , Italian sculptor († 1850 )
- January 7th : Heinrich Schmelen , Namibian founder of the Bethanien mission station in South West Africa († 1848 )
- January 12 : Stepan Dawydow , Russian composer († 1825 )
- January 14 : William Martin Leake , English archaeologist († 1860 )
- January 15 : Christian Krohg (State Councilor) , Norwegian lawyer and politician († 1828 )
- January 21 : Johann Heinrich Fuhr , German businessman († 1840 )
- January 22 : Joseph Hume , British politician († 1855 )
- January 25 : Karoline Jagemann , German actress († 1848 )
- February 3 : John Cheyne , Scottish doctor († 1836 )
- February 7 : Severin Løvenskiold , Norwegian governor († 1856 )
- February 9 : Louise Brachmann , German writer († 1822 )
- February 12 : Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué , German romantic poet († 1843 )
- February 21 : Johann Heinrich Leberecht Pistorius , German businessman and farmer († 1858 )
- February 23 : Gottfried Fleischmann , German physician and university professor († 1850 )
- March 4 : John Mattocks , American politician († 1847 )
- March 5 : Outerbridge Horsey , American politician († 1842 )
- March 8 : David Christoph Huber , Swiss clergyman († 1836 )
- March 10 : Johann Baptist Moralt , German musician and composer († 1825 )
- March 16 : Gottlieb Kiessling , German teacher and classical philologist († 1848 )
- March 17 : Roger B. Taney , American lawyer and politician, Chief Justice of the United States from 1835 to 1864 († 1864 )
- March 19 : José María Bustamante , Mexican composer († 1861 )
- March 21 : Georg von Rukavina , Austrian general († 1849 )
- March 23 : Karl Ludwig von Ficquelmont , Austrian general and statesman († 1857 )
- April 1 : Michel Théodore Leclercq , French writer († 1851 )
- April 7 : Josef Karl Amrhyn , Swiss mayor († 1848 )
- April 12 : Henry Clay , US Secretary of State († 1852 )
- April 16 : John Alexander , American politician († 1848 )
- April 16 : Henry Kater , British physicist and astronomer († 1835 )
- April 18 : Ludwig Berger , German composer, piano teacher († 1839 )
- April 18 : Ignác Ruzitska , Hungarian composer († 1833 )
- April 19 : Count Karl Wilhelm von Toll , Russian-Baltic German general († 1842 )
- April 21 : Johann Günther Friedrich Cannabich , German geographer, pastor and educator († 1859 )
- April 24 : Karl August von Schütz , German civil servant († 1837 )
- April 30th : Carl Friedrich Gauß , German mathematician, astronomer, geodesist and physicist († 1855 )
- May 4 : Louis Jacques Thénard , French chemist († 1857 )
- May 6 : Friedrich Krafft , German politician († 1857 )
- May 11 : Vincenz Eduard Milde , Austrian Archbishop of Vienna († 1853 )
- May 13 : Friedrich August Bevilaqua , Saxon Lieutenant General († 1845 )
- May 15 : Johann Christoph Hasse , German pharmacist († 1840 )
- May 18 : Auguste Charlotte von Kielmannsegge , German agent of Napoleon († 1863 )
- May 22 : Luis María de Borbón y Vallabriga , Spanish Infant , Cardinal and Archbishop of Toledo († 1823 )
- May 23 : Friedrich Wilken , German orientalist, university professor and librarian († 1840 )
- May 27 : August Ernst Rauschenbusch , German educator and Lutheran clergyman († 1840 )
- May 29 : Friedrich August Ludwig von der Marwitz , Prussian general and politician († 1837 )
- June 5 : Catherine Josephine Duchesnois , French actress († 1835 )
- June 5 : Oluf de Schouboe , Norwegian lawyer and minister († 1844 )
- June 21 : Gottlob Georg von Barth , German architect († 1848 )
- June 22nd : Andreas Alois Ankwicz von Skarbek-Poslawice , Archbishop of Lemberg and Prague († 1838 )
- June 23 : Frederick Bates , American politician († 1825 )
- June 24th : John Ross , Scottish polar explorer († 1856 )
- July 9 : Paavo Ruotsalainen , Finnish revival preacher († 1852 )
- July 15 : Jean Jacques Pelet , French general († 1858 )
- July 23 : Philipp Otto Runge , German Romantic painter († 1810 )
- July 30 : Karl von Grolman , Prussian General and Chief of the General Staff († 1843 )
- July 30th : Johann Friedrich Röhr , Saxon theologian († 1848 )
- August 3 : Peter Motzfeldt , Norwegian State Councilor and politician. († 1854 )
- August 11 : Giuseppe Bossi , Italian painter and scholar († 1815 )
- August 13 : Martin Stephan , German-American clergyman († 1846 )
- August 13 : Georg Friedrich Wiesand , German lawyer and politician († 1842 )
- August 14 : Hans Christian Ørsted , Danish physicist and chemist († 1851 )
- August 15 : Isaak Altmann , landscape gardener from Bremen († 1837 )
- August 19 : Karl Wilhelm Salice-Contessa , German novelist and comedy poet († 1825 )
- August 19 : Francis I , Sicilian and Neapolitan king († 1830 )
- August 24 : Peter von der Pahlen , Russian general († 1864 )
- August 31 : Ernst August Friedrich Klingemann , German romantic writer († 1831 )
- August 31 : Jean Pierre Joseph d'Arcet , French chemist († 1844 )
- September 1 : Johann Friedrich Christian Werneburg , German mathematician and physicist († 1851 )
- September 7th : Heinrich Stölzel , German musician († 1844 )
- September 11 : Felix Grundy , American politician († 1840 )
- September 12 : Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville , French zoologist and anatomist († 1850 )
- September 16 : Nathan Mayer Rothschild , German banker († 1836 )
- September 17 : Johann Heinrich Kopp , German doctor and naturalist († 1858 )
- October 2 : Karl Georg von Loebell , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1841 )
- October 4 : Francisco de la Lastra , Chilean Director Supremo (1814) († 1852 )
- October 5 : Baron Guillaume Dupuytren , French medic and surgeon († 1835 )
- October 9 : Anton Joseph Emanuel Kraus , Austrian diplomat and civil servant († 1860 )
- October 10 : Heinrich von Kleist , German poet and writer († 1811 )
- October 12 : Hans Heinrich Wilhelm Arendt , author and publisher († around 1840 )
- October 20 : William Hawkins , American politician († 1819 )
- November 1 : Per Krafft the Younger , Swedish painter († 1863 )
- November 3 : Laval Nugent von Westmeath , Austrian field marshal († 1862 )
- November 5 : Nathan Sanford , American politician († 1838 )
- November 8 : Désirée Clary , Queen of Sweden († 1860 )
- November 12 : Enewold Christian Alsen , German lawyer († 1833 )
- November 14 : Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst , German zoologist († 1857 )
- November 15 : Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege , German miner, geologist and geographer († 1855 )
- November 27 : Heinrich Christian von Ulmenstein , German lawyer and civil servant († 1840 )
- November 28 : August Kestner , German diplomat and art collector († 1853 )
- November 30 : Elard Johannes Kulenkamp , German lawyer († 1851 )
- December 3 : Heinrich Escher , Swiss businessman and politician († 1840 )
- December 4 : Julie Récamier , French salon lady († 1849 )
- December 15 : Agostino Aglio , Italian painter, engraver and lithographer († 1857 )
- December 23 : Alexander I , Russian tsar († 1825 )
- December 24 : Franz Joseph Weinzierl , German Roman Catholic clergyman († 1829 )
- December 26 : Ludwig II , Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1848 )
- December 27 : Karl Bertuch , German journalist and writer († 1815 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Karl Wilhelm Ammon , German writer († 1842 )
- Carlos Anaya , Uruguayan politician († 1862 )
- Justo Abaunza y Muñoz de Avilés , Niceraguan politician († 1873 )
- Carlo Armellini , Italian politician and lawyer († 1863 )
- William Bellinger Bulloch , American politician († 1852 )
- Heinrich Braendlin , Swiss politician and businessman († 1848 )
- Jakob Anton Müller , Swiss politician († 1848 )
- Gavrila Ratschinsky , Russian composer († 1843 )
- John Thurston , English pool table manufacturer, inventor and author († 1850 )
- Jesse B. Thomas , American politician († 1853 )
First half of the year
- February 7 : Gotthilf Traugott Zachariae , German Protestant theologian (* 1729 )
- February 9 : Seth Pomeroy , British and American general (* 1706 )
- February 22nd : Archibald Bulloch , American politician, governor of Georgia (* 1730 )
- February 24th : Joseph I , King of Portugal from the House of Braganza (* 1714 )
- March 1 : Georg Christoph Wagenseil , Austrian composer (* 1715 )
- March 7th : Sebastian Sailer , German Premonstratensian, preacher and writer (* 1714 )
- March 29 : Johann Heinrich Pott , German chemist and pharmacist (* 1692 )
- April 2 : Maxim Sosontowitsch Berezovsky , Russian composer (* 1745 )
- April 22nd : Christiana Büsching , German poet (* 1728 )
- April 30th : Francisco Cajigal de la Vega , Spanish officer, colonial administrator, governor of Cuba and viceroy of New Spain (* 1691 )
- May 2 : Johann Joachim Gottlob am Ende , German theologian and teacher (* 1704 )
- May 19 : Button Gwinnett , American politician, governor of Georgia (* 1735 )
- June 8 : Cornelia Schlosser , German letter writer and sister of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (* 1750 )
- June 10th : Johann Gerhard Hasenkamp , German pedagogue (high school teacher) (* 1736 )
- June 16 : Jean-Baptiste Louis Gresset , French poet (* 1709 )
- June 16 : Johann Gottlieb Immermann , German Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1707 )
- June 17th : Ferdinand Tietz , German sculptor (* 1708 )
- June 22nd : Johann Joseph Christian , German sculptor and wood carver (* 1706 )
Second half of the year
- July 12 : Johan Arckenholtz , Finnish librarian, political pamphleteer and historian (* 1695 )
- July 13 : Guillaume Coustou d. J. , French sculptor (* 1716 )
- July 21 : Jane McCrea , loyalist during the American Revolutionary War (* 1752 )
- July 27 : William Hayes , English organist and composer (* 1708 )
- August 14 : Otto Magnus von Schwerin , Prussian general (* 1701 )
- August 16 : Nicholas Herkimer , American militia general (* 1715 )
- August 18 : Johann Christian Erxleben , German scholar (* 1744 )
- August 23 : Charles-Joseph Natoire , French painter (* 1700 )
- September 1 : Johann Ernst Bach , German composer (* 1722 )
- September 4th : Johannes Caprez , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1701 )
- September 10 : Wilhelm Graf zu Schaumburg-Lippe , military leader in the Seven Years' War (* 1724 )
- September 22nd : John Bartram , American botanist (* 1699 )
- October 6 : Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin , French enlightener and salonnière (* 1699 )
- October 13 : Dismas Hataš , Bohemian composer (* 1724 )
- October 21 : Samuel Foote , English actor and playwright (* 1720 )
- November 6th : Jean Marteilhe , French evangelical witness and galley slave (* around 1684 )
- November 7th : Jacques Mathon de La Cour , French mathematician and mechanic (* 1712 )
- November 17th : Anna Charlotte Amalie of Nassau-Dietz-Oranien , Hereditary Princess of Baden-Durlach (* 1710 )
- December 9 : Charles Knowles , British admiral (* 1704 )
- December 12th : Albrecht von Haller , Swiss medic and poet (* 1708 )
- December 21 : Anton Cajetan Adlgasser , German composer (* 1729 )
- December 23 : Johann Heinrich Waser , Swiss deacon, translator, writer and enlightener (* 1713)
- December 30th : Maximilian III. Joseph , Elector of Bavaria (* 1727 )