Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart by August Friedrich Oelenhainz

Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart (born March 24, 1739 in Obersontheim , † October 10, 1791 in Stuttgart ) was a German poet , organist , composer and journalist .

He achieved historical importance in particular through his sharply formulated socially critical writings, with which he publicly denounced the absolutist rule and its decadence in the then Duchy of Württemberg .


Memorial plaque in Augsburg
The Schubart school in Geislingen an der Steige, where Schubart taught from 1763 to 1769
First print of Schubart's autobiography in 1791
The Schubart house in Aalen. Schubart spent his childhood and youth here
First print with engraved frontispiece and title copper
The Schubart House in Ludwigsburg
Memorial plaque on the Schubart school building in Geislingen an der Steige
Schubart's grave in the Hoppenlau cemetery in Stuttgart

As the son of a parish vicar and teacher, Schubart first grew up in Aalen . He was then tutor to Johann Georg Blezinger in Königsbronn , with whom he became friends. From 1763 to 1769 he lived in Geislingen an der Steige . In 1769 he was appointed organist and music director at the Württemberg court in Ludwigsburg . He became a thorn in the side of the local nobility and clergy due to his casual way of life, his lack of respect and his sharp criticism of the aristocracy and clergy. After four years, Duke Carl Eugen was forced to expel him from the country.

In Augsburg in 1774 he began to publish the magazine Teutsche Chronik (first edition on March 31st), in which polemics were mainly against the Jesuits . When the Augsburg magistrate forbade the printing of the journal after a short time , it was continued in Ulm , where Schubart went in 1775 after he had been expelled from Augsburg.

Because he denounced the sale of Württemberg regional children for England's colonial wars and ridiculed Carl Eugen's mistress Franziska von Hohenheim as " light plaster that smells and smells", he was lured to Blaubeuren two years later with the help of an informer so that he could be arrested on Württemberg territory (see: Schubartstube ). When he was brought to the Asperg mountain fortress in February 1777 and thrown into dungeon, the duke and Franziska were present, because the two offended men did not want to miss this satisfaction.

For ten years Schubart was the victim of absolutistically motivated re-education measures . He was not allowed to receive any visitors in his tower dungeon, reading and writing was forbidden to him in the first few years. Despite numerous requests from many friends all over Germany who wrote poems about him and celebrated him (such as Johann Gottfried Herder ) as a freedom hero and martyr, he was only released by Carl Eugen in May 1787 - especially in view of Prussia's interference . In addition, he was even appointed music and theater director at the Herzogshof zu Stuttgart, where he continued to publish his magazine (under new titles).

With Schubart's death in 1791, the legend is associated that he was buried alive, which is said to have shaken Hölderlin and others very much. These rumors were collected and disseminated in 1849 by David Friedrich Strauss , the first Schubart biographer. In 1995, the playwright Heiner Müller even claimed that there was a "great fear of German poets since Schubart" that they would seem to be buried dead:

"When you cleared the cemetery much later, you discovered that the coffin was completely scratched on the inside, Schubart's coffin, that's macabre to be buried dead after twelve years in prison."

- Heiner Müller : Works, Vol. 12, p. 710.

His grave is in the Hoppenlaufriedhof in Stuttgart.


In his lyrical work Schubart was connected to both the sensitivity of Klopstock and the folksong-like to pathetic representatives of Sturm und Drang . Thanks to his improvisational talent and his always open opinion, his popularity among the lower social classes rose very quickly. He even became a kind of mouthpiece for the oppressed because of his poetry accusing the rulers (such as Die Fürstengruft from 1783 or Kaplied from 1787) and through his work as a journalist. He never made a secret of his generally negative attitude towards despotic and obscurantistic behavior and thus became a model for younger poets like Schiller and Holderlin.

His treatise on the history of the human heart with the anecdote contained therein about two dissimilar brothers and the conflict with the father from 1775 served Schiller as an inspiration for The Robbers . Franz Schubert set his poem Die Forelle to music as an art song , which gained great fame when it was arranged as a trout quintet by Franz Schubert.

With his ideas for an aesthetic of music art (written during imprisonment, published posthumously in print in 1806) he created an important work in which he recorded a lot of information about the musical life of his time; including reports on various music centers and court bands.

When Schubart was in Heilbronn, he recorded his impressions:

“Since then, the impressions of Heilbronn have remained deeply rooted in my soul - of this beautiful sky that streams over its control room, towers and houses and of the good, free, cheerful, open people there who are tuned to the purest chords of joy and benevolence . If you have gold and want to live relaxed and well and beautiful in Germany, I would advise Heilbronn "

- Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart 1791

Compositional work (selection)

  • Something for piano and singing. Four-hand piano sonata. Cornetto-Verlag, Stuttgart 2009
  • Something for piano and voice, Sonata No. II. Piano Sonata. Cornetto-Verlag, Stuttgart 2006
  • Treize variations pour le clavecin ou piano-forte. (1788) ( Thirteen Variations for Harpsichord or Pianoforte ). Cornetto-Verlag, Stuttgart 2010
  • Give thanks to the Lord. Setting of the 118th Psalm. Verlag C. Hofius, Ammerbuch 2010
  • All the songs. Edited by Hartmut Schick , with a contribution to the texts by Joh. Nikolaus Schneider (= Monuments of Music in Baden-Württemberg 8), Strube Verlag, Munich 2000


Monument in Aalen around 1892
  • In Aalen there is a Schubart monument with a changeful history in front of the train station. The first monument was created in 1891 by the Württemberg court sculptor Ernst Curfeß . As a so-called metal donation by the German people during the Second World War, the bronze bust was melted down in 1942. In 1950 the artist Hugo Buchner was commissioned to make a replica of the original sculpture that was as true to the original as possible.
Today, this replica is the main component of a modern sculpture by the Ellwang sculptor Rudolf Kurz .
The “Schubart stele” with a stainless steel look from 2011 consists of a frame and a base that carries the bust from 1950.


  • Heinrich Lilienfein published the Schubart novel In Fesseln - frei in 1938 .
  • In 1864 Albert Emil Brachvogel published the four-volume historical novel Schubart and his contemporaries , (later also under the title Sturm und Drang. Christian Schubart and his contemporaries ).


  1. Cf. on this and the following Rüdiger Safranski : Goethe and Schiller. Story of a friendship. Hanser, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-446-23326-3 , p. 19 f.
  2. Goethe, asked by a middleman, was ready to intercede with the Duke for Schubart, but was prevented from contacting Schubart's wife Helene during his visit to Stuttgart.
  3. Herder gave him a place of honor in the gallery of fighters for freedom and humanity in his "Letters for the Promotion of Humanity".
  4. ^ Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart. In: Under the Sign of Enlightenment (folder accompanying the exhibition in the Haus der Stadtgeschichte, Heilbronn).
  5. ART! CITY! AALEN! Hugo Buchner / Rudolf Kurz, Schubart. ( Memento of the original from September 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /


Web links

Commons : Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart  - Collection of images, videos and audio files