The music director (MD), general music director (GMD) or chief conductor is the artistic director of an orchestra , a choir or an institution. Sometimes there is also the name of the choir director for this professional group.
The music director (lat. Director musices ) or chief conductor was originally the title of the leading civil servant musician in a city in Germany and Austria ; For example, Johann Sebastian Bach was music director in Leipzig , Georg Philipp Telemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in Hamburg , and Robert Schumann in Düsseldorf . In earlier times princes, dukes or kings bestowed this title. Nowadays it is given by local authorities, universities or church institutions.
Since the 19th century, the title has also been awarded to the heads of musical institutions such as municipal wind orchestras or choirs . Special titles are, for example, City Music Director or City Music Director, State Music Director (LMD) and University Music Director (UMD) .
In the church there is a church music director (KMD), regional church music director (LKMD), or on special churches such as the Evangelical pin Tübingen the pen music director. In some Catholic dioceses , the heads of the divisions for church music also hold the title of Diocesan Church Music Director (DKMD) or Diocesan Music Director (DMD). The General Cäcilien-Verband , umbrella organization of the Catholic church music of German dioceses, awards the title of Music Director ACV.
General Music Directors
In larger cities, the music director is often given the title of general music director , especially if he is the chief conductor responsible for the symphony orchestra and the theater or opera. The title of General Music Director was first awarded to Gaspare Spontini in Berlin in 1819 . Daniel Barenboim , for example, has been general music director of the Berlin State Opera Unter den Linden since 1992 .
In Austria on June 28, 1930, with a resolution by Federal President Wilhelm Miklas (1872–1956), musicians who enjoy an excellent reputation in the international music world, who also work as professional conductors at an Austrian art institute dedicated to the care of music, were of paramount importance at least Ten years of uninterrupted work and, as such, to show prominent artistic achievements, created the professional title of general music director .
The Association of German Professional Choir Directors (FDB) awards the title of Choir Director FDB upon application and under certain conditions when accepting new members. The title of Music Director FDB usually requires training at a music college and an outstanding concert career. The title can be withdrawn again if the performance decreases. The Federal Association of German Choir Associations awards the title of Choir Director BDC for outstanding artistic achievements upon request. An examination committee made up of seven experts decides on the application. According to the association, the title is an alternative to other musical training degrees and diplomas.
- Gerald Mertens: orchestral management. VS - Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2010, ISBN 978-3-531-16584-4 , p. 132.
- Keyword: Music director in: Brockhaus Riemann Musiklexikon, p. 7134; BRM Vol. 3, p. 177) (c) Schott Musik International.
- Theater and Art. Creation of the professional title "General Music Director". In: Wiener Zeitung , No. 156, July 9, 1930, p. 5. (Online at ANNO ). .
- Statutes of the professional association, PDF as of 2010.
- www.chorverbaende.de Retrieved October 10, 2012.