Olympe de Gouges drafts
the Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizens .
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
dies in Vienna at the age of 35.
|escape of King Louis XVI. from revolutionary France is foiled at Varennes .|
|1791 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1239/40 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1783/84 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1196/97 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2334/35 (southern Buddhism); 2333/34 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1153/54 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4124/25 (October 2/3)|
|French revolution calendar||Year III of Freedom|
|Islamic calendar||1205/06 (turn of the year August 30/31)|
|Jewish calendar||5551/52 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic Calendar||1507/08 (September 11th / 12th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2101/02 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2102/03 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1847/48 (April)|
Politics and world events
France during the revolution
- January 30th: Gabriel de Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau , as a member of the Third Estate , becomes President of the French Constituent Assembly , which is responsible for drafting the country's first constitution.
- March 2nd: Guilds are abolished in France
- June 14: The French Constituent Assembly enacts the Le Chapelier law , which forbids masters , journeymen and workers from organizing themselves in leagues . Meetings on wage setting are not permitted, guilds and strikes are prohibited under threat of punishment.
- June 20th: France's King Louis XVI. sets off with his family to flee to Metz .
- June 21: King Louis XVI's attempt to escape . is foiled in Varennes ( Lorraine ).
- July 17: After a shot at the Commander-in-Chief of the French National Guard , Lafayette , his soldiers respond with counterfire in a crowd in Paris. They trigger the massacre on the Field of Mars and a mass panic . People have come to sign a Republican petition .
- JULY 18: elimination of the Feuillants from Jacobins -Klub
- August 27th: Declaration of Pillnitz , Austro - Prussian threat of intervention against revolutionary France as a result of the meeting of princes from August 25th to 27th in Pillnitz Castle
- September 3: The constitution is adopted by the Constituent Assembly
- September 7th: Declaration of the rights of women and citizens (“Declaration of the Droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne”) by Olympe de Gouges
- September 14: Constitutional oath by King Louis XVI (King is no longer above the law, but rules by it). France thus becomes a constitutional monarchy.
- September 27th: The French National Assembly proclaims the equality of all French Jews. This was also legally introduced in the European territories conquered by Napoleon .
- October 1st The Legislative National Assembly replaces the Constituent Assembly in France.
- December 14th: King Louis XVI. founds the French Rhine Army during the Revolution , which was deployed in the subsequent coalition wars.
Other events in Europe
- January 16: Karl Alexander von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth sells his Franconian margravates of Ansbach and Bayreuth to Prussia .
- May 3rd: In Poland , the four-year-old Sejm adopts the constitution of May 3rd , the first written democratic constitution in Europe.
- July 14-17 : The Priestley Riots in Birmingham against the dissenters under Joseph Priestley are only hesitantly opposed by the local administration.
- August 4th: The Svishtow Peace ends the last of the Austrian Turkish Wars .
America and the Caribbean
- March 4: The former Vermont Republic joins the United States under the name Vermont as the 14th state .
- June 10: The British Parliament decides in the Constitutional Act to divide up the province of Québec . Upper and Lower Canada will be created with effect from December 26th .
- November 4: In the Battle of the Wabash River , the US Army under Arthur St. Clair suffers its greatest defeat in battle with Indians . The leaders of the victorious multi-tribal alliance include Little Turtle and Blue Jacket .
- In the French colony of Saint-Domingue in the Caribbean, a slave revolt begins under the former slave Toussaint Louverture .
- November 23: Captain George Vancouver on the ship Discovery and Lieutenant William Robert Broughton on the ship Chatham independently discover the Snares Islands south of New Zealand on the same day .
science and technology
- March 26th: Introduction of the original meter
- APRIL 2: William Herschel discovered in the constellation Ursa Major , the later as NGC 2880 cataloged galaxy .
- May 6: Wilhelm Herschel noticed the galaxy NGC 6048 in the constellation Little Bear .
- Georg Ludwig Hartig publishes Instructions for Wood Breeding for Foresters , one of the first complete textbooks on silviculture .
- The tutor Peter Plett successfully vaccinated three children against smallpox . His report is not taken seriously at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel and is suppressed.
Joseph Anton Koch made the caricature of the art practice at the Hohen Karlsschule after Intendant Christoph Dionysius von Seeger punished him inappropriately. A few months later, Koch flees from the High Charles School and from Stuttgart and joins a circle of Jacobins in Strasbourg .
Music and theater
- January 6th: The Théâtre de Monsieur in Paris' Rue Feydeau opens.
- January 14th: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composes the piano song Sehnsucht nach dem Frühling ( Come, dear May, and do ) KV 596 based on the text by Christian Adolph Overbeck .
- MARCH 27: The first performance of the opera Les Deux Sentinels of Henri Montan Berton takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- May 7th: The Weimar Court Theater , founded by Duke Karl August , opens with the August Wilhelm Ifflands play Die Jäger under the direction of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe .
- May 24th: Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch founds the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin , the world's first mixed choir. This is the starting point of mixed choir singing and the Bach renaissance in the 19th century .
- June 17th: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composes his Ave verum .
- July 30th: The opera The Surrender of Calais by Samuel Arnold is premiered at the Little Theater in London.
- September 6th: The world premiere of the opera La clemenza di Tito ( The Mildness of Titus ) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart takes place on the occasion of the coronation of Emperor Leopold II as King of Bohemia in the Prague Estates Theater . The libretto is by Caterino Mazzolà based on a model by Pietro Metastasio .
- Between September 28th and October 7th, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote the Clarinet Concerto , KV 622 , his last completed instrumental work. The soloist Anton Stadler , to whom Mozart dedicated his work, will be at the world premiere on October 16 in Prague .
- September 30th: The world premiere of the opera Die Zauberflöte by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart based on the libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder takes place at the Freihausheater in Vienna.
- November 18: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completes his last work, the Little Masonic Cantata , KV 623, while he is bedridden. About two weeks later, on December 5th, he died at the age of 35 in his apartment in Vienna. The cause of death is still controversial today. Mozart's widow Constanze offered his pupil Joseph von Eybler to complete the Requiem , which he had begun at that time , a commissioned work for Count Franz von Walsegg .
- Joseph Haydn begins his first trip to England, which is a great success. Among other things, he composes the symphony with the bang .
- July 11th: Voltaire's bones are transferred to the Panthéon in Paris.
- August 6: Prussia's King Friedrich Wilhelm II inaugurates the not yet completely finished Brandenburg Gate in Berlin . It will be released for general traffic by him.
- March 10: Pope Pius VI. condemns the civil constitution introduced in France. In the French Revolution , new dioceses were formed on July 12, 1790 , and the clergy were made civil servants of the state and also obliged to take oaths on the constitution.
- Joseph Cilley , American politician († 1887) January 4:
- January 14: Robert B. Cranston , American politician († 1873)
- January 15: Franz Grillparzer , Austrian playwright († 1872)
- January 16: Henryk Dembiński , Polish general († 1864)
- January 19: Eduard von Peucker , Prussian infantry general († 1876)
- January 21: Carl August Gadegast , farmer and pioneer of merino sheep breeding in Germany († 1865)
- January 22nd: Paul von Haugwitz , Prussian soldier, district administrator, landowner and writer († 1856)
- January 23: Franz Joseph Hugi , Swiss geologist and alpine researcher († 1855)
- Ernst Alban , pioneer of steam engine construction († 1856) February 7th:
- February 11: Louis Visconti , French architect († 1853)
- February 12: Peter Cooper , American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist († 1883)
- February 15: Friedrich Ludwig Weidig , German teacher and pastor, protagonist of the Vormärz († 1837)
- February 16: Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp von Ammon , German professor († 1855)
- February 17: Karl Philipp Friedrich Arnsperger , Baden forest clerk († 1853)
- February 19: Arthur Anderson , English entrepreneur and politician († 1868)
- February 21: Carl Czerny , Austrian pianist and piano teacher († 1857)
- February 21: John Mercer , English chemist, inventor of the cotton refining process mercerization († 1866)
- February 27: Román Antonio Deheza , Argentine general and governor († 1872)
- Johannes Bach , German lawyer and politician († after 1849) March 3:
- March 20: Marie Ellenrieder , German painter († 1863)
- March 23: Wilhelm Joseph Imhoff , German sculptor († 1858)
- Franciszek Mirecki , Polish composer († 1862) April 1:
- David Henshaw , American politician († 1852) April 2:
- April 11: Désiré Beaulieu , French composer († 1863)
- April 19: William Orlando Butler , American politician († 1880)
- April 19: Ludwig Dankegott Cramer , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1824)
- April 23: James Buchanan , American politician and President († 1868)
- April 23: Friedrich von Olivier , German painter († 1859)
- April 25: Franz von Waldersee , Prussian general of the cavalry († 1873)
- April 27: Samuel Morse , American inventor († 1872)
- Henryk Rzewuski , Polish writer († 1866) May 3:
- Sebastian Scharnagel , German painter († 1837) May 4:
- Wilhelm Eilert Schmid , German organ builder († 1856) May 6:
- May 11: Jan Václav Voříšek , Bohemian composer († 1825)
- May 17: Silas H. Jennison , American politician († 1849)
- May 18: August Breithaupt , German mineralogist († 1873)
- May 25: Minh Mạng , second emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyễn dynasty († 1841)
- May 28: Adalbert von der Recke-Volmerstein , one of the founding fathers of Diakonie († 1878)
- May 31: John Brown Francis , American politician († 1864)
- John Nelson , American lawyer and politician († 1860) June 1:
- June 20: Thomas Edward Bowdich , British adventurer, author and zoologist († 1824)
- June 30th: Félix Savart , French doctor and physicist († 1841)
- Rudolph Bay , Danish composer († 1856) July 9:
- Friedrich Adolf Ebert , German librarian and bibliographer († 1834) July 9:
- July 18: Isaac D. Barnard , American politician († 1834)
- July 19: Balthasar Conrad Euler , German organ builder († 1874)
- July 26: Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart , Austrian composer († 1844)
- Charles Gordon-Lennox, 5th Duke of Richmond , British politician († 1860) August 3:
- Adolf Ivar Arwidsson , Finnish journalist, writer and historian († 1858) August 7th:
- Carl Weichselbaumer , German writer († 1871) August 8:
- August 10: Karl Rikli , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1843)
- August 12: Joseph von Arneth , Austrian archaeologist and numismatist († 1863)
- August 17: Ludwig Kachel (engraver) , from 1836 Baden Coin Councilor, from 1846 also president of the Baden Art Association for 20 years († 1878)
- August 19: Friedrich Schüler , lawyer and politician († 1873)
- August 28: Meredith Miles Marmaduke , American politician († 1864)
- Friedrich Bird , German medic († 1851) September 1:
- Francisco Esteban Acuña de Figueroa , Uruguayan writer († 1862) September 3:
- Giacomo Meyerbeer , German composer and conductor († 1864) September 5:
- Elisha Harris , American politician († 1861) September 8:
- George A. Simmons , American politician († 1857) September 8:
- September 14: Franz Bopp , German linguist and Sanskrit researcher († 1867)
- September 21: István Széchenyi , Hungarian state reformer and entrepreneur († 1860)
- September 22: Michael Faraday , English physicist and chemist († 1867)
- September 22nd: Paul von Prittwitz , Russian lieutenant general and senator († 1856)
- September 23: Heinrich Friedrich von Arnim-Heinrichsdorff-Werbelow , Prussian statesman († 1859)
- September 23: Johann Franz Encke , German astronomer († 1865)
- September 23: Theodor Körner , German writer († 1813)
- September 26th: Théodore Géricault , French painter († 1824)
- Sergei Timofejewitsch Aksakow , Russian writer († 1859) October 1:
- Franz von Elsholtz , German poet and writer († 1872) October 1:
- James Farrington , American politician († 1859) October 1:
- Johann Theodor Vömel , German classical philologist, Lutheran theologian and grammar school director († 1868) October 6:
- Amalie Schoppe , German writer († 1858) October 9:
- October 11: Karl Schomburg , Lord Mayor and Honorary Citizen of Kassel († 1841)
- October 18: Johann Baptist Stiglmaier , German ore caster, sculptor, painter and medalist († 1844)
- October 24: Joseph R. Underwood , American politician († 1876)
- Nicolas Charles Victor Oudinot , Duke of Reggio and son of Nicolas-Charles Oudinot († 1863) November 3:
- November 10: Robert Young Hayne , American politician († 1839)
- November 10: Elias P. Seeley , American politician († 1846)
- November 11th: Josef Munzinger , businessman, revolutionary and politician († 1855)
- November 14: Deocar Schmid : German clergyman and missionary († 1828)
- November 16: Johan Ludvig Heiberg , Danish poet and critic († 1860)
- November 20: Ferrante Aporti , Italian educator and theologian († 1858)
- November 21: Heinrich Ritter , German philosopher († 1869)
- November 21: Wladimir Fjodorowitsch Adlerberg , Russian general and minister († 1884)
- November 22nd: Carl Gottlob Häcker , German organ builder († 1860)
- November 22: Thomas Withers Chinn , American politician († 1852)
- November 22nd: John Winston Jones , American politician († 1848)
- November 27: Carlo Evasio Soliva , Italian composer of Swiss origin († 1853)
- November 27: Truman Smith , American politician († 1884)
- Lady Jane Franklin , British adventurer († 1875) December 4:
- Johann Gottlob Töpfer , German organist, composer and theoretician of organ building († 1870) December 4:
- Bernard-Pierre Magnan , French general and Marshal of France († 1865) December 7th:
- Walter Booth , American politician († 1870) December 8:
- Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner , German composer and conductor († 1856) December 8:
- December 10: Friedrich von Gärtner , German architect († 1847)
- December 10: Kensey Johns , American politician († 1857)
- December 12th: Marie-Louise von Habsburg , wife of Napoleon I († 1847)
- December 12: Peter Dumont Vroom , American politician († 1873)
- December 15: James Whitfield , American politician († 1875)
- December 17th: Samuel Amsler , Swiss engraver († 1849)
- December 24: Eugène Scribe , French playwright († 1861)
- December 26: Charles Babbage , British mathematician († 1871)
- December 28: Johanna Sebus , German lifesaver († 1809)
- December 31: Franz Wild , Austrian opera singer († 1860)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Robert Adams , Irish surgeon and cardiologist († 1875)
- Joseph L. Tillinghast , American politician († 1844)
First half of the year
- Rudolph Friedrich Schultze , German Protestant theologian (* 1738) January 8:
- January 10: Friedrich Ewald Ernst von Massow , German civil servant (* 1750)
- January 15: Wilhelm II. Roßhirt , abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Ebrach (* 1714)
- January 17th: Friedrich Konrad Lange , German-Danish Protestant clergyman and educator (* 1738)
- January 23: Johann Philipp Fabrizius , German Protestant missionary, Lutheran pastor and Bible translator (* 1711)
- January 23: Carl Heinrich von Heineken , art writer and collector, director of the Dresden Kupferstichkabinett (* 1707)
- January 24th: Etienne-Maurice Falconet , French sculptor (* 1716)
- January 27: George Bryan , American politician (* 1731)
- January 30th: Claude-Carloman de Rulhière , French historian (* 1735)
- Matthias Faller , German monastery sculptor and wood carver (* 1707) February 3:
- Nicolas-François Gillet , French sculptor and university lecturer (* 1709) February 7th:
- February 22nd: Johann Siegmund Mörl , German Protestant clergyman (* 1710)
- February 23: Friedrich Sinner , mayor of Bern (* 1713)
- February 24: Leopold von Hartmann , German civil servant and farmer (* 1734)
- Peter Ahlwardt , German theologian and philosopher (* 1710) March 1:
- John Wesley , English revival preacher and co-founder of Methodism (* 1703) March 2:
- Bernhard Friedrich Hummel , German educator (* 1725) March 4:
- Johann Georg Arnold Oelrichs , German Protestant theologian and philosopher (* 1767) March 7th:
- March 14: Christoph Carl Kress von Kressenstein , German lawyer and mayor (* 1723)
- March 14: Johann Salomo Semler , German Protestant theologian (* 1725)
- March 17: Johann August Dathe , German linguist (* 1731)
- March 21: Carl Ignaz Geiger , German lawyer, writer and radical educator (* 1756)
- March 21: Friedrich Bogislav Count von Tauentzien , Prussian general (* 1710)
- March 31: Archibald Campbell , British officer, politician and governor of Georgia, Jamaica and Madras (* 1739)
- March 31: Matthias Ogden , officer in the Continental Army during the American War of Independence (* 1754)
- Gabriel de Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau , French revolutionary (* 1749) April 2:
- Theodor de Croix , knight of the Teutonic Order and politician (* 1730) April 8:
- April 24: Benjamin Harrison V , Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia (* 1726)
- Christian Gottlob Richter , German lawyer, university professor and philologist (* 1745) May 3:
- Francis Hopkinson , delegate for New Jersey in the Continental Congress (* 1737) May 9:
- May 14: Franziska Lebrun , née Danzi, German opera singer (* 1756)
- May 17th: Jacob Wilhelm Lustig , Dutch composer, organist and music theorist (* 1706)
- Peter Viktor von Besenval , Swiss military in French service (* 1721) June 2:
- June 10: Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte , French admiral (* 1720)
- June 20: Adam Struensee , German Protestant theologian and general superintendent of Schleswig-Holstein (* 1708)
- June 22: Catherine Macaulay , English historian, suffragette and republican writer (* 1731)
- June 25: Conrad Wilhelm Graf von Ahlefeldt , German General and Minister of War (* 1707)
Second half of the year
- Søren Abildgaard , Danish biologist and illustrator (* 1718) July 2:
- William Bull , British governor of the Province of South Carolina (* 1710) July 4th:
- July 14th: Joseph Gärtner , German botanist (* 1732)
- July 24th: Ignaz von Born , mineralogist and geologist (* 1742)
- July 25: Isaac Low , New York State delegate to the Continental Congress (* 1735)
- July 27: Friedrich Wilhelm Richter , German clergyman and educator (* 1727)
- July 30: Johann Gottfried Hermann , German Lutheran theologian (* 1707)
- Johann Rudolph Anton Piderit , German Protestant theologian, clergyman and educator (* 1720) August 2:
- Agnes Sophie Reuss zu Ebersdorf , landowner in Upper and Lower Lusatia (* 1720) August 2nd:
- Louise Friederike von Württemberg , Duchess of Mecklenburg (* 1722) August 2:
- August 22: Johann David Michaelis , German theologian and orientalist (* 1717)
- August 23: Jeanne de Saint-Rémy , French nobleman and mastermind of the so-called collar affair (* 1756)
- August 23: Johann Jacob Tischbein , German painter (* 1725)
- August 25: Pietro Domenico Paradies , Italian composer (* 1707)
- August 27: Placidus Fixlmillner , Austrian astronomer and lawyer (* 1721)
- František Kočvara , Czech composer (* around 1740) September 2:
- Daniel Nettelbladt , German lawyer (* 1719) September 4:
- Gebhard Friedrich Ludolph von Angern , Prussian district administrator and landowner (* 1726) September 6:
- September 23: Carl von Gontard , German architect (* 1731)
- October 10: Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart , German poet, composer and journalist (* 1739)
- October 16: Grigory Alexandrovich Potjomkin , Russian field marshal (* 1739)
- October 22: Heinrich Friedrich Delius , German medic (* 1720)
- October 22: Jacob Vernes , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1728)
- Johann Friedrich Scheuchler , German civil servant (* around 1740) November 4:
- Christian Georg Schütz the Elder , German painter and engraver (* 1718) December 3:
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , composer from Salzburg (* 1756) December 5:
- December 10: Jakob Joseph Frank , Jewish sect leader (* 1726)
- December 14: Johann Franz Christoph Steinmetz , German Protestant theologian (* 1730)
- December 22nd: William Bryant , English fisherman and convict (* 1757)
- December 25: Claus Fasting , Norwegian editor and critic (* 1746)
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Jakob Adam , German silver worker, artisan, silversmith and goldsmith
- Giambattista Gherardo d'Arco , Italian economist (* 1739)
- Nicolaus Jantzon , German organ builder (* 1720)
- Dyre Kearney , American politician