Michael Faraday [ ˈfærədeɪ ] (born September 22, 1791 in Newington , Surrey , † August 25, 1867 in Hampton Court Green , Middlesex ) was an English naturalist who is considered one of the most important experimental physicists . Faraday's discoveries of "electromagnetic rotation" and electromagnetic induction laid the foundation for the development of the electrical industry . His vivid interpretations of the magneto-optical effect and diamagnetismby means of lines of force and fields led to the development of the theory of electromagnetism . As early as 1820 Faraday was considered the leading chemical analyst in Great Britain. He discovered a number of new hydrocarbons , including benzene and butene , and formulated the basic laws of electrolysis .
Growing up in simple circumstances and trained as a bookbinder , Faraday, who was enthusiastic about nature research, found a job as a laboratory assistant to Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution , which became his most important place of work. He carried out his pioneering electromagnetic experiments in the laboratory of the Royal Institution, and in their lecture hall he contributed to the dissemination of new scientific knowledge with his Christmas lectures. In 1833 Faraday was appointed the first Fuller Professor of Chemistry. Faraday performed about 30,000 experiments and published 450 scientific articles. He summarized the most important of his publications on electromagnetism in his Experimental Researches in Electricity (Experimental studies on electricity) together. His most popular work Chemical History of a Candle ( The Chemical History of a Candle ) was the transcript of one of his Christmas lectures.
On behalf of the British state, Faraday trained the cadets of the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich in chemistry for more than twenty years . He has worked for a wide variety of government and public agencies including the Trinity House Maritime Authority , the British Museum , the Home Office and the Board of Trade .
Faraday belonged to the supporters of a small Christian minority, the Sandemanians , in whose religious life he actively participated.
Live and act
Origin and education
Michael Faraday was on 22 September 1791 in Newington in the county of Surrey , which for today London Borough of Southwark born heard. He was the third of four children of the blacksmith James Faraday (1761-1810) and his wife Margaret (née Hastwell, 1764-1838), a farmer's daughter. Until early 1791, his parents lived with his two older siblings Elizabeth (1787-1847) and Robert (1788-1846) in the small village of Outhgill in what was then the county of Westmorland in northwest England (now Cumbria ). When the effects of the French Revolution caused trade to decline and the family faced poverty, they decided to move to the immediate vicinity of London. Faraday's father found work at the hardware store James Boyd in the West End of London . The family moved to Gilbert Street shortly thereafter and to Jacob's Well Mews about five years later. Faraday's younger sister Margaret (1802–1862) was born there.
Up to the age of twelve Faraday attended a simple day school, where he was taught the basics of reading, writing and arithmetic. In 1804 he found a job as an errand boy with the Huguenot immigrant George Riebau, who ran a bookstore on Blanford Street. One of Faraday's tasks was to bring the newspaper to Riebau's customers in the morning, pick it up again during the day and carry it to other customers. After about a year as an errand boy, Faraday signed a seven-year apprenticeship contract for a bookbinding apprenticeship at Riebau on October 7, 1805 . In accordance with the customs of the time, he moved in with his teacher and stayed with him during his training.
Faraday turned out to be a skilled, open-minded, and inquisitive apprentice. He learned the bookbinding trade quickly and carefully read many of the books that were made to be bound. These included Jane Marcet's 1806 Conversations on Chemistry , a popular introduction to chemistry , and James Tytler's contribution on electricity to the third edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica , but also the story of Ali Baba, and art reference works and journals. Riebau allowed him to carry out smaller chemical and electrical experiments.
Among the works that Faraday studied was Isaac Watts ' book The Improvement of the Mind (1741), which was aimed at readers who wanted to expand their knowledge and intellectual abilities on their own. In his remarks, the author made it important not only to passively pass on knowledge, but also to encourage his readers to actively deal with it. Watts recommended, among other things, to take notes on articles, to take transcripts of lectures and to seek the exchange of ideas with like-minded people.
With this impression, Faraday began in 1809 what he called The Philosophical Miscellany collection of notes on articles on the subjects of art and science which he had read in various newspapers and magazines. In 1810, Riebau encouraged 19-year-old Faraday to attend the scientific lectures given by goldsmith John Tatum in his home every Monday. Tatum was the founder of the City Philosophical Society , established in 1808 , the aim of which was to give craftsmen and apprentices access to scientific knowledge. A fee of one shilling had to be paid for each of the lectures , which Faraday received from his brother Robert. With this support he was able to attend about a dozen lectures from February 19, 1810 to September 26, 1811. During Tatum's lectures, Faraday took notes, which he revised, summarized and transcribed in a notebook in his free time. At Tatum he befriended the Quakers Benjamin Abbott (1793-1870) and Edward Magrath (1791? -1861) and Richard Phillips (1778-1851). He began a written exchange of views with Abbott on July 12, 1812, which lasted for many years.
Faraday, whose apprenticeship at Riebau was drawing to a close, felt little inclination to spend his life as a bookbinder. He wrote a letter to Joseph Banks , President of the Royal Society , asking for a lowly job in the Royal Society's laboratories. However, Banks did not consider it necessary to respond to his request. On October 8, 1812, one day after completing his apprenticeship, Faraday began working as a journeyman bookbinder at Henri De La Roche.
Employment as a laboratory assistant
In early 1812, Riebau showed the son of William Dance (1755-1840), one of his customers, Faraday's notebook with the transcripts of Tatum's lectures. Dance reported this to his father, who then took Faraday to Humphry Davy's last four lectures, The Elements of Chemical Philosophy, as Professor of Chemistry in March and April 1812. Davy was considered an outstanding lecturer and had earned a high reputation in the professional world for his discovery of the elements potassium , sodium and chlorine . During Davy's lectures, Faraday made numerous notes which he, revised and provided with drawings, tied into a book and sent to Davy.
At the end of October 1812, however, Davy was not in London, but together with John George Children in Tunbridge Wells repeated an experiment by Pierre Louis Dulong , who had recently discovered a new compound of chlorine and nitrogen . During the experiments, a glass tube containing the nitrogen trichloride exploded, seriously injuring Davy's left eye. Davy was immediately taken to London for treatment and found Faraday's broadcast there. In late 1812, he invited Faraday to his home in need of help organizing his notes due to his eye injury.
On February 19, 1813 there was a violent argument at the Royal Institution between laboratory assistant William Payne and instrument maker John Newmann. Three days later, Payne was fired by the managers of the Royal Institution. Davy, in need of a new assistant, suggested Faraday for the vacant post. On March 1, 1813, he began working as a laboratory assistant at the Royal Institution. His duties included the supervision and support of the lecturers and professors in the preparation and implementation of their lectures, the weekly cleaning of the models in the warehouse and the monthly dedusting of the instruments in the glass cases. He moved into the two rooms of his predecessor and was given permission to use the laboratory for his own experiments.
Journey through continental Europe
Napoleon Bonaparte had awarded Davy a gold medal for his contributions to electrochemistry , which Davy wanted to receive in Paris . Despite the ongoing Napoleonic Wars , the French government gave him permission to travel to continental Europe. Davy and his wife Jane Apreece (1780–1855) therefore planned a trip through continental Europe in 1813, which was designed for two or three years and should lead to Constantinople . He asked Faraday to accompany him as his amanuensis (secretary and research assistant). This gave him, who had never been "more than twelve miles" away from London, the opportunity to learn from Davy and to come into contact with some of the most eminent foreign naturalists.
On October 13, 1813, the five-person tour company left London. In Plymouth, she embarked for Morlaix , where she was searched and detained for about a week. She finally reached Paris on the evening of October 27th. Faraday explored the city, which impressed him very much, and visited the Musée Napoleon with Davy and the geologist Thomas Richard Underwood (1772-1835) . In the laboratory of chemist Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin , Davy and Faraday observed the production of potassium chloride , which was different from the method used in England. On the morning of November 23, André-Marie Ampère , Nicolas Clément and Charles-Bernard Desormes visited Davy in his hotel, presented him with a substance that had been discovered by Bernard Courtois two years earlier , and demonstrated some experiments that produced violet vapors. With Faraday's help, Davy carried out his own experiments, including in Eugène Chevreul's laboratory in the Jardin des Plantes . On December 11th, he realized that the substance was a new element, which he named iodine after the Greek word iodes for 'violet' . Davy's experiments delayed the planned onward journey to Italy .
On December 29, 1813, they left Paris for the Mediterranean coast , where Davy hoped to find plants containing iodine for his research. Faraday witnessed the passage of Pope Pius VII , who returned to Italy after his liberation by the Allies , in Montpellier at the beginning of February . After a month's stay, they continued on their way to Italy, accompanied by Frédéric-Joseph Bérard (1789–1828). About Nimes and Nice they crossed the Alps over the Tenda Pass . During the arduous journey from town to town, Davy Faraday explained the geological nature of the landscape and familiarized him with the ancient cultural sites.
In Genoa bad weather prevented the onward journey. Davy used the delay to conduct experiments with Domenico Viviani (1772-1840), who kept some "electric fish" in captivity, with which he wanted to check whether the discharge of these fish was sufficient to decompose water. The results of his experiments were negative. On March 13, they crossed the Gulf of Genoa by ship . One day before the British Army landed in Livorno , they passed Lucca and on March 16 came to Florence , where they visited the museum of the Accademia del Cimento , which, among other things, housed Galileo Galileo's observation instruments. Davy and Faraday continued their experiments with iodine, preparing an experiment to prove that diamonds were made of pure carbon . To do this, they used large burning glasses from the property of Grand Duke Ferdinand III. On March 27, 1814, this evidence was achieved for the first time. In the days that followed, the two repeated the experiment several times.
The arrival in Rome took place in the middle of Holy Week . As in other places, Faraday explored the city on his own. He was particularly impressed by St. Peter's Basilica and the Colosseum . At the Accademia dei Lincei , Davy and Faraday experimented with coal to answer some of the open questions from the diamond experiment. On May 5, they were guests in the house of Domenico Morichini (1773-1836). There, Faraday repeated unsuccessfully, under the guidance of the landlord, his experiment on the supposed magnetization of a needle through the violet spectral component of sunlight. Two days later they went on a two-week trip to Naples . There they climbed Vesuvius several times . Caroline Bonaparte , Queen of Naples, gave Davy a jar with antique color pigments as a gift, which Davy and Faraday later analyzed.
To escape the summer heat, the tour company set out from Rome for Switzerland on June 2nd . They reached Milan via Terni , Bologna , Mantua and Verona . Here Faraday met Alessandro Volta on June 17th . They arrived in Geneva on June 25, 1814 and spent the summer at Charles-Gaspard de la Rive's house on Lake Geneva , hunting, fishing, experimenting with iodine and working with Marc-Auguste Pictet and Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure . On September 18, 1814, they traveled via Lausanne , Vevey , Payerne , Bern , Zurich and the Rhine Falls near Schaffhausen to Munich , where they stayed for three days.
They returned to Italy via the Brenner Pass , visiting Padua and Venice . In Florence they investigated a flammable gas that escaped from the ground in Pietramala and that they identified as methane . In Rome, where they arrived on November 2, 1814 and stayed until March 1815, Faraday experienced Christmas and attended several masked balls during the Carnival. Davy and Faraday conducted further experiments with chlorine and iodine. Their original plans to travel to Constantinople came to nothing. After crossing Tyrol and Germany, they finally reached London on April 23, 1815.
Development to chemical analyst
After his return, Faraday was initially unemployed in London. At the request of William Thomas Brande , who had taken over the position of Professor of Chemistry from Davy in 1812, and with the full support of Davy, who had been elected Vice President of the Royal Institution the week before, Faraday received his old post on May 15 as Laboratory assistant again and was also responsible for the mineralogical collection.
Faraday again attended the lectures of the City Philosophical Society and became a member of the society. On January 17, 1816, he gave his first lecture on chemistry there, followed by 16 more over the next two and a half years. In order to perfect his lecturing skills, he attended the rhetoric courses held on Thursday evening at the Royal Institution by Benjamin Humphrey Smart (1786–1872) in 1818 . Together with four friends, he founded a writing circle in the summer of the same year. The members of the group, organized according to the guidelines of the City Philosophical Society, wrote essays on freely selectable or defined topics, submitted anonymously and jointly assessed in the group.
In the laboratory of the Royal Institution, Faraday often carried out experiments on Davy's behalf and in 1816 was significantly involved in his investigations, which led to the development of the "Davy lamp" used in mining . For Brande, editor of the Quarterly Journal of Science , Faraday compiled the pages titled Miscellanea from 1816 and took full responsibility for the journal in August 1816 during Brande's absence. 1816 was published in the Quarterly Journal of Science and Faraday's first scientific publication on from the Tuscany native limestone samples . By the end of 1819 he had published 37 communications and articles in the Quarterly Journal of Science , including an investigation into the escape of gases from capillary tubes and remarks about "singing flames".
In his laboratory, Faraday carried out paper analyzes for William Savage (1770–1843), the printer of the Royal Institution, examined clay samples for the ceramic manufacturer Josiah Wedgwood II (1769–1843) and carried out forensic investigations on behalf of the court. In early 1819, Faraday began together with James Stodart (1760-1823), who made surgical instruments, an extensive series of experiments that looked at the improvement of steel alloys . He first examined Wootz , a widely used starting material for steel, for its chemical composition. Numerous attempts to refine steel followed, using platinum and rhodium, among other things . The steel examinations extended over a period of about five years and were continued by Faraday alone after Stodart's death.
On December 21, 1820, Faraday's first treatise intended for publication in the Philosophical Transactions was read before the members of the Royal Society. It describes the two new chlorocarbon compounds he discovered, tetrachloroethene and hexachloroethane . At that time, Faraday was already considered the UK's leading chemical analyst . In 1821 he was appointed "Superintendent of the House" of the Royal Institution. On June 12, 1821, he married Sarah Barnard (1800–1879), the sister of his friend Eduard Barnard (1796–1867), whom he had met in the fall of 1819. Their marriage was childless.
Recognition as a naturalist
In 1821 Richard Phillips, meanwhile editor of the Annals of Philosophy , asked Faraday for an outline of all known knowledge about electricity and magnetism . Shortly before, Hans Christian Ørsted had published his observations about the deflection of a compass needle by an electric current . Faraday repeated experiments by Ørsted, André-Marie Ampère and François Arago in his laboratory . His two-part Historical Sketch of Electro-Magnetism appeared, anonymously at his request, in the Annals of Philosophy in September and October 1821 . On September 3rd, Faraday succeeded for the first time in an experiment in which a current-carrying conductor rotated around its own axis under the influence of a permanent magnet . In the same month he published his discovery in the Quarterly Journal of Science . The so-called "electromagnetic rotation" was an essential prerequisite for the development of the electric motor .
Just a few days after his discovery was published, friends of William Hyde Wollaston , including Davy, questioned the independence of Faraday's work. They accused him of stealing the idea of "electromagnetic rotation" from Wollaston and of failing to honor his authorship. Faraday's experimental evidence, however, was completely different from the solution proposed by Wollaston, which he also recognized. Since the public rumors about it did not subside, Faraday was forced to disclose the authorship of his Historical Sketch of Electro-Magnetism .
Discoveries in the field of chemistry
In 1818 Michael Faraday had described the soporific effect of the "sulfur ether" . In 1823 Faraday began to study the properties of the hydrochloride that Davy had discovered . When he heated it under pressure, he succeeded in liquefying chlorine for the first time . In 1823 and again in 1844, when he dealt with the subject again, he succeeded in liquefying ammonia , carbon dioxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxide , hydrogen chloride , hydrogen sulfide , dicyan and ethene . Faraday was the first to recognize that there was a critical temperature above which gases could no longer be liquefied, regardless of the pressure exerted . He proved that the states “solid”, “liquid” and “gaseous” could be converted into one another and did not form fixed categories.
In 1825 Faraday noticed liquid residues in cans of coal gas supplied by his brother Robert , who worked for the London Gas Company , to the Royal Institution. He analyzed the liquid and discovered a new hydrocarbon compound, which he called the "Bicarburet of Hydrogen". From Eilhard Mitscherlich this material is an aromatic hydrocarbon received, the same year the term benzene . Shortly afterwards he discovered a compound in butene that had the same ratio formula as ethene , but had completely different chemical properties. In 1826, Faraday determined the composition of naphthalene and produced two different crystalline samples of naphthalenesulfuric acid.
Chemical Manipulation appeared in April 1827 . This Faraday monograph was an introduction to practical chemistry and aimed at beginners in the field of chemical science. It encompassed all aspects of practical chemistry, beginning with the appropriate establishment of a laboratory, through the appropriate implementation of chemical experiments, through to error analysis. The first edition was followed by two further editions in 1830 and 1842.
Manufacture of optical glasses
On April 1, 1824, the Royal Society and the Board of Longitude founded a joint commission (Committee for the Improvement of Glass for Optical Purposes) . Its aim was to find recipes for the production of high-quality optical glasses that could compete with the flint glasses produced by Joseph von Fraunhofer in Germany . The investigations initially took place in the Falcon Glass Works operated by Apsley Pellatt (1763-1826) and James Green . In order to be able to monitor the conduct of the experiments more directly, a subcommittee was appointed on May 5, 1825, which consisted of John Herschel , George Dollond and Faraday. After the construction of a new furnace at the Royal Institution, the glass examinations were carried out at the Royal Institution from September 1827. To relieve Faraday, Charles Anderson, a former sergeant of the Royal Artillery , was hired on December 3, 1827 . Glass research was Faraday's main task for over five years and the subject of his first Baker lecture to the Royal Society in late 1829 . In 1830 the glass experiments were stopped for financial reasons. A report submitted in 1831 by the astronomers Henry Kater (1777-1835) and John Pond , who tested a telescope with an objective made of a glass manufactured by Faraday, attested the glass to have good achromatic properties. However, Faraday found the results of his five years of work to be inadequate.
At the instigation of his friend Richard Phillips, who had recently been admitted to the Royal Society, the application for Faraday's admission to the Society was read out for the first time on May 1, 1823. The motion was signed by 29 members and had to be read out at ten consecutive meetings. Davy, President of the Royal Society since 1820, wanted to prevent Faraday's election and tried to have the motion withdrawn. With one vote against, Faraday was admitted to the Royal Society on January 8, 1824.
From March to June 1824 Faraday acted temporarily as first secretary of Davy co-founded London club The Athenaeum . When it was proposed to him in May that he should take up the post on a permanent basis for an annual salary of 100 pounds, he turned down the offer and recommended his friend Edward Magrath for the position.
On February 7, 1825, Faraday was appointed laboratory director of the Royal Institution and began to give his first own lectures there. In February 1826 he was released from the obligation to assist Brande in his lectures. In 1827 Faraday gave chemistry lectures at the London Institution and gave the first of his many Christmas lectures . An offer to become first professor of chemistry at the newly founded University of London , he declined with a reference to his obligations at the Royal Institution. In 1828 he was honored with the Fuller Medal . Until 1831 he helped Brande with the publication of the Quarterly Journal of Science and then oversaw the first five issues of the new Journal of the Royal Institution .
Studies of electricity (1831 to 1838)
As early as 1822 Faraday noted in his notebook: "Convert magnetism into electricity". In the laboratory diary that he began in September 1820, he first noted an experiment on December 28, 1824 in which he tried to generate electricity with the help of magnetism. However, the expected electrical current did not materialize. On November 28 and 29, 1825, and on April 22, 1826, he carried out further experiments, but without achieving the desired result.
After a five-year break due to the extensive glass examinations, Faraday turned back to electromagnetic experiments for the first time on August 29, 1831 . He had his assistant Anderson make a soft iron ring with an inside diameter of six inches (about 15 centimeters). On one side of the ring he made three coils of copper wire , insulated from each other by string and calico . There were two such windings on the other side of the ring. He extended the two ends of one of the windings on one side with a long copper wire that led to a magnetic needle about three feet away. He connected one of the windings on the other side to the poles of a battery. Every time he closed the circuit , the magnetic needle moved from its rest position. When the circuit was opened, the needle moved again, only this time in the opposite direction. Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and applied a principle on which the transformers developed later were based. His experiments, which lasted until November 4th, he interrupted for a three-week vacation with his wife in Hastings and a fortnightly investigation for the Royal Mint . During his experiments, which were carried out in just eleven days, he found out that a cylindrical bar magnet , which was moved through a wire helix , induced an electrical voltage in it. Electric generators work according to this basic principle .
Faraday's report on the discovery of electromagnetic induction was presented by him to the Royal Society in late 1831. The form printed in the Philosophical Transactions did not appear until May 1832. The long delay resulted from a change in the publication conditions for new articles. By the end of 1831, a majority vote of the Committee of Papers was enough to publish an article in the Philosophical Transactions . The changed rules provided for an individual assessment of the articles. The expert opinion on Faraday's article was written by the mathematician Samuel Hunter Christie and the physician John Bostock (1773-1846).
In December 1831 Faraday wrote to his long-time French correspondent Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette , informing him of his latest discoveries. Hachette showed the letter to the secretary of the Institut de France , François Arago, who read the letter to members of the institute on December 26, 1831. Reports of Faraday's discovery appeared in the French newspapers Le Temps and Le Lycée on December 28 and 29, 1831, respectively. The London Morning Advertiser reprinted this on January 6, 1832. The press reports threatened the priority of his discovery, since the Italians Leopoldo Nobili and Vincenzo Antinori (1792–1865) had repeated some of Faraday's experiments in Florence and their results, published in the journal Antologia , appeared before Faraday's essay in the Philosophical Transactions .
Uniformity of electricity
After his discovery that magnetism can generate electricity, Faraday set himself the task of proving that regardless of how electricity is generated, it always has the same effect. On August 25, 1832, he began to work with the known sources of electricity. He compared the effects of voltaic electricity , static electricity , thermoelectricity , animal electricity and magnetic electricity . In his contribution, read on January 10th and 17th, based on his experiments, he came to the conclusion "... that electricity, from whatever source it has arisen, is identical in nature".
Basic laws of electrolysis
At the end of December 1832, Faraday asked himself whether an electric current would be able to break down a solid body - for example ice. During his experiments, he found that, unlike water, ice behaved like a non-conductor . He tested a number of substances with a low melting point and observed that a non-conductive solid body, after the transition to the liquid phase, conducted the current and chemically decomposed under the influence of the current . On May 23, 1833, he spoke to the Royal Society about a new law on electricity transmission .
These investigations led Faraday directly to his experiments on "electro-chemical decomposition", which occupied him for a year. He sifted through the existing views, especially those of Theodor Grotthuss and Davy, and came to the conclusion that the decomposition was taking place inside the liquid and that the electrical poles only played the role of limiting the liquid.
Dissatisfied with the terms available to him for describing chemical decomposition under the influence of an electric current, Faraday turned to William Whewell in early 1834 and discussed this with his doctor Whitlock Nicholl . The latter suggested to Faraday to use the terms electrode for the entry and exit surfaces of the current, electrolysis for the process itself and electrolyte for the substance concerned to describe the process of electrochemical decomposition . Whewell, who wanted to make the polar nature of the process more recognizable, coined the terms anode and cathode for the two electrodes and the terms anion , cation and ion for the particles concerned . At the beginning of the seventh series of his Experimental Researches in Electricity , which he presented to the Royal Society on January 9, 1834, Faraday proposed the new terms to describe the process of electrochemical decomposition (electrolysis). In this article he formulated the two basic laws of electrolysis :
- "The chemical force of an electric current is directly proportional to the absolute amount of electricity passed through."
- "The electro-chemical equivalents are the same as the ordinary chemical ones."
With his investigations, Faraday ruled out the influence of factors such as the concentration of the electrolytic solution or the nature and size of the electrodes on the electrolysis process. Only the amount of electricity and the chemical equivalents involved were important. It was proof that chemical and electrical forces were closely related and quantitatively related. Faraday used this connection in his further experiments to precisely measure the amount of electricity.
In mid-January 1836, Faraday built a cube 12 feet (about 3.65 meters) on a side in the lecture hall of the Royal Institution, the edges of which were formed from a light wooden frame. The side surfaces were covered with a network of copper wire and covered with paper. The cube stood on four 5.5 inch (about 14 centimeters) high glass feet to isolate it from the ground. In the investigations carried out on January 15 and 16, 1836, he connected the cube to an electrifying machine in order to charge it electrically. He then went inside the assembly with a gold leaf electrometer to detect the electricity that might have been induced in the air. However, every point in the room was found to be free of electricity.
Influence of isolators
In 1837 Faraday thought about how the electric force spread through space. The thought of the action of electrical forces at a distance , as implied by Coulomb's law , made him uncomfortable. On the other hand, he suspected that space plays a role in the transmission of forces and that there must be a dependency on the medium that fills the space. Faraday began to systematically investigate the influence of insulators and designed an experimental set-up consisting of two identical spherical capacitors. These spherical capacitors in turn consisted of two brass spheres placed one inside the other at a distance of three centimeters . The spheres were connected to one another by a brass handle coated with insulating shellac and formed a Leyden bottle . Faraday first charged one of the two capacitors, then brought it into electrical contact with the other and convinced himself with a self-made Coulomb rotary balance that both capacitors had the same charge after the charge equalization . He then filled the air space of one condenser with an insulator and repeated the experiment. His renewed measurement showed that the capacitor with the insulator carried the greater charge. He repeated the experiment with different substances. Faraday received a quantitative measure for the influence of the insulators on the capacity of the balls, which he called “specific inductive capacity”, which today corresponds to the dielectric constant . At the end of 1836, Whewell proposed the term dielectric , which Faraday also used, for a non-conductive substance that is located between two conductors . Faraday explained his experimental result with a polarization of the particles inside the insulators, in which the effect is passed on from particle to particle, and extended this idea to the transport of electricity within conductors.
Exhaustion and recovery
In early 1839, Faraday summarized his articles on his investigations into electricity, published between November 1831 and June 1838 in the Philosophical Transactions , under the title Experimental Researches in Electricity . From August to November 1839 Faraday carried out investigations into the functioning of the Voltaic column, which he published in December 1839 under the title About the source of force in the Voltaic column . In it he countered the voltaic contact theory with numerous experimental evidence.
In late 1839, Faraday suffered a severe collapse in health that he attributed to overwork and the symptoms of which were headache, dizziness and temporary memory loss. His doctor Peter Mere Latham (1789–1875) advised him to be relieved of his numerous obligations and to recover in Brighton . Faraday only worked sporadically in his laboratory for the next few years. In January and February 1840 he continued his investigations on the Voltasch column for five days. In August and September he experimented again on five days. After September 14, 1840, he wrote no entry in his laboratory diary for about twenty months until July 1, 1842. In late 1840 the managers of the Royal Institution recognized the seriousness of Faraday's illness and put him on leave until he fully recovered. He gave no lectures for almost a year. Together with his wife, their brother George Barnard (1807–1890) and his wife Emma, he went on a three-month vacation trip to Switzerland on June 30, 1841 , where he undertook extensive hikes in the Bernese Alps .
In 1840, William George Armstrong discovered that the release of water vapor under high pressure into the air generates electricity. In the summer of 1842 Faraday began to investigate the cause of this electricity. He was able to prove that it was static electricity. After completing this work in January 1843, another longer phase followed, in which he hardly experimented. It was not until May 23, 1844 that Faraday began again with attempts to convert gases into liquid and solid states, which lasted for over a year. He followed up on his experiments from 1823. He managed to convert six gases into liquids and seven, including ammonia , nitrous oxide and hydrogen sulfide , to convert them into a solid state.
During this time, Faraday seemed to have doubts as to whether he could continue to make important contributions as a naturalist. He put the 15th to 18th series of his electricity investigations together with about 30 other papers for the second volume of the Experimental Researches in Electricity , which appeared at the end of 1844.
Studies of electricity (1845 to 1855)
Magnetism and light
In June 1845 Faraday attended the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Cambridge . There he met the young William Thomson , later Lord Kelvin. At the beginning of August Faraday received a letter from Thomson in which he inquired about the influence of a translucent dielectric on polarized light . Faraday replied that he had carried out such attempts in 1833 without results and promised to turn the question again. With a bright Argand lamp , he repeated his experiments with different materials from the end of August to the beginning of September, but achieved no effect. The effect Faraday was looking for, the electro-optic Kerr effect , was not demonstrated until thirty years later by John Kerr .
On September 13, 1845, Faraday sent polarized light through the previously used materials, which he exposed to the influence of a strong magnet. The first tests with air and flint glass did not produce any results. When he used a lead borate glass produced as part of his glass experiments in the 1820s, he found a weak but noticeable rotation of the plane of polarization when passing through it when he aligned the light beam parallel to the magnetic field lines. He continued his experiments and first struck gold with another of his old glass samples before he was able to demonstrate the effect on other materials, including flint glass , crown glass , turpentine oil , halite crystal , water and ethanol . Faraday had shown that light and magnetism were two related physical phenomena. He published his results under the title On the magnetization of light and the exposure of magnetic lines of force . The magneto-optical effect found by Faraday is now known as the Faraday effect .
Faraday immediately asked himself whether the reverse effect also existed and whether light could electrify or magnetize something. However, an attempt to do so, in which he exposed a wire spool to sunlight, failed.
During a Friday evening lecture in early April 1846, Faraday expressed some speculations about "vibrational radiation", which he put down in writing two weeks later in a letter to Philosophical Magazine . In it he sketched the possibility that light could arise through transverse oscillations of lines of force. Faraday's speculation inspired James Clerk Maxwell to develop his electromagnetic theory of light, which he formulated 18 years later.
Magnetic material properties
The experiments with polarized light showed Faraday that a non-magnetic substance can be influenced by magnetism. For further experiments he borrowed a powerful electromagnet from the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich . He attached a lead borate glass sample to two silk threads and hung it between the pointed pole pieces of the electromagnet. When he closed the electrical circuit, he observed that the glass sample was moving away from the pole pieces and aligned perpendicularly to the imaginary line connecting the pole pieces. It behaved differently than magnetic materials that aligned themselves along the connecting line. Faraday quickly found a variety of materials that behaved like his glass sample, including wood, olive oil, apple, beef, and blood. He achieved the clearest effects with a bismuth bar . In analogy to the term “dielectric”, Faraday described these substances as “dimagnetic” on September 18, 1845 in his laboratory diary. Once again, Whewell helped Faraday formulate the concept. Whewell corrected the prefix in dia used by Faraday for 'through', since the effect took place through the body (“ diamagnetic ”), and suggested that all substances that did not behave in this way be called “ paramagnetic ”. In his laboratory diary, Faraday first used the term " magnetic field " in this context on November 7th . Faraday's discovery of diamagnetism led to the development of magnetochemistry , which deals with the magnetic properties of materials.
Lines of force and fields
After his discovery of the influence of a magnetic field on polarized light, Faraday came to believe that lines of force could have a real physical meaning. The unusual behavior of diamagnetic bodies was difficult to explain with conventional magnetic poles and led to a dispute between Faraday and Wilhelm Eduard Weber , who believed that he could prove that magnetism, like electricity, was polar in nature. In 1848 Faraday began new experiments to investigate the behavior of diamagnetic bodies under the influence of a magnet. He discovered that crystals orient themselves along certain preferred axes ( magnetic anisotropy ). This behavior could not be interpreted with the previously used terms of attraction or repulsion. In his research report, Faraday spoke for the first time of a magnetic field that exists between two magnetic poles and the effect of which is location-dependent.
1852 summed up his views on Faraday lines of force and fields in the article On the physical character of the lines of magnetic force (About the physical nature of the magnetic lines of force) together. In it he rejected a long-distance effect of gravitational forces and took the view of a gravitational field connected to the mass of a body .
Electricity and gravity
Faraday's interest in gravity dates back to the mid-1830s. At the end of 1836 he read a work by the Italian Ottaviano Fabrizio Mossotti , in which the latter attributed gravity to electrical forces. Faraday was initially enthusiastic about the work, had it translated into English and spoke about it in a Friday evening lecture. However, he later rejected Mossotti's explanation because he was convinced that the differences in how gravity works compared to other forces were too great. For the next several years, Faraday often speculated about how gravity might relate to other forces. In March 1849 he began to consider how a connection between gravitation and electricity could be proven experimentally. He imagined gravity as a force with two complementary components, where a body is positive when moving towards the earth and negative when moving away from it. He put forward the thesis that these two movements are associated with opposite electrical states. For his experiments, Faraday constructed a wire spool, which he connected to a galvanometer and dropped from a great height. However, he could not prove an effect in any of the measurements. Despite the negative outcome of the experiments, he described his efforts in the Baker lecture of November 28, 1850.
In February 1859 Faraday began again a series of experiments with which he hoped to prove a connection between gravity and electricity. Due to the expected minor effect, he used lead masses weighing a few hundred kilograms, which he dropped from the 50 meter high scrap tower in Lambeth . With other experiments he hoped to be able to demonstrate a change in temperature when lifting and lowering a mass. On July 9, 1859, Faraday broke off the attempts unsuccessfully. He wrote the essay Note on the Possible Relation of Gravity with Electricity or Heat , which he completed on April 16, 1860 and which was to appear as usual in the Philosophical Transactions . George Gabriel Stokes , who found that the work was not worth publishing because it had only negative results, recommended Faraday to withdraw his article, which he did immediately after receiving Stokes' letter.
Popularization of natural science and technology
Shortly after his appointment as Laboratory Director of the Royal Institution in early 1825, Faraday opened the Institute's laboratories to the meetings of the Institute's members. On three to four Friday evenings he wanted to give chemistry lectures accompanied by experiments in front of interested members. From these informal meetings, he developed the concept of regular Friday evening lectures, in which topics from natural research and technology should be presented in a way that laypeople can understand. At the first Friday evening lecture on February 3, 1826, Faraday spoke about rubber . Of the 17 lectures in the first year, he gave six on topics such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel's gas liquefier, lithography and the Thames Tunnel . Faraday believed that the lectures should be fun, entertaining, educational, and most importantly, stimulating. His lectures became very popular due to the simple manner in which he presented and were always well attended. By 1862, Faraday had given a total of 126 of these hour-long lectures. As secretary of the committee for the "Weekly Evening Meetings", Faraday made sure that the lectures were published in the Literary Gazette and in the Philosophical Magazin and thus were accessible to an even wider audience.
In addition to the Friday evening lectures, a Christmas lecture was held for the first time at the turn of the year 1825/26 , specifically aimed at young listeners. Until the beginning of the 1860s, Faraday had a major influence on the design of the Christmas lectures. From 1827 on he was responsible for a total of 19 episodes, most of which consisted of six individual lectures. 1860/61 he used his notes already 1848-49, held lecture entitled Chemical History of a Candle (The Chemical History of a Candle) . At the instigation of William Crookes , Faraday's Christmas Lecture was co-written and appeared as a six-part series of articles in Crookes Chemical News . The book version, published a short time later, is considered one of the most successful popular science books and has been translated into numerous languages.
In the public sector
In addition to his research and lecturing activities, Faraday worked for the British state in a variety of ways. In the summer of 1829 Percy Drummond († 1843), Lieutenant Governor of the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich , turned to Faraday and asked him if he was ready to succeed geologist John MacCulloch (1773-1835) the post of professor of chemistry the academy to take over. After lengthy negotiations, which were mostly about his duties and payment, Faraday accepted. Until 1852 he gave 25 lectures a year in Woolwich.
From February 4, 1836, Faraday worked as a scientific advisor for the shipping authority Trinity House , which operates , among other things, the English lighthouses . He was responsible for the chemical analysis of the materials used in the operation of the lighthouses and reviewed new lighting systems that Trinity House had proposed for use. Faraday took care of the modernization of the English lighthouses. He was modeled on the French lighthouses, in which Fresnel lenses were used to improve the light intensity . He also accompanied the first attempts to electrify them. In Blackwall, on the Thames, there were two lighthouses specially built for his research.
Faraday was involved in an investigation into two delicate accidents on behalf of the government. On April 13, 1843, an explosion destroyed the Ordnance Office- run gunpowder factory in Waltham Abbey ( Essex ), whereupon Faraday was entrusted with the cause analysis. In his report to the laboratory director of the Woolwich Military Academy, James Pattison Cockburn (1779? –1847), he listed several possible causes and gave advice on how these problems could be avoided in the future. Together with Charles Lyell and Samuel Stutchbury (1798-1859), he was commissioned by the Home Office in October 1844 to investigate the explosion in the Haswell mine in Durham , in which 95 people were killed on September 28. Lyell and Faraday realized that coal dust had played a major role in the explosion and recommended the introduction of a better ventilation system .
A significant part of Faraday's advisory activity dealt with the conservation of objects and buildings. From 1853 he advised the Select Committee on the National Gallery on the conservation of paintings. For example, he investigated the influence of gas lighting on paintings. In early 1856 Faraday was appointed to the Royal Commission, which dealt with the future of the location of the National Gallery . Commissioned by Thomas Leverton Donaldson (1795–1885), he examined for the British Museum whether the Elgin Marbles were originally painted. In 1859 he advised the Metropolitan Board of Works on the selection of a means of treating the limestones of the recently rebuilt Houses of Parliament , which decomposed under the influence of the sulphurous London air.
Faraday was a deeply religious person. His father was a member of the small Christian sect, the Sandemanians , who broke away from the Church of Scotland in the late 1720s . They based their faith and practice on a literal interpretation of the Bible. There were about a hundred Sandemanians in Greater London at the time, and about a thousand in Britain at the time. As a child, Faraday accompanied his father to Sunday sermons. Shortly after his marriage to Sarah Barnard, who was also a member of the Sandemanians and whose father served the ward as an elder ("Elder"), he took his oath on July 15, 1821 and became a member.
As a token of their great esteem, the London parish elected Faraday to be a deacon on July 1, 1832 and one of the three elders on October 15, 1840. For the next three and a half years, it was his obligation to preach the sermon every other Sunday, for which he prepared as carefully as he prepared for his lectures. On March 31, 1844, Faraday was expelled from the parish until May 5. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but are not to be found in a personal misconduct by Faraday, but rather in a controversy within the Sandemanians, since in addition to Faraday numerous other members were excluded at this time. He was not re-elected to his position as elder until October 21, 1860. By 1864 Faraday was again regularly responsible for the sermons and maintained contact with other Sandemanian congregations, such as in Chesterfield , Glasgow and Dundee , upright. His sermons consisted of a series of quotations from the Old and New Testaments , which he commented on. His religious views were a very private matter for him and he rarely spoke about them to his correspondents or in public.
The third and final volume of the Experimental Researches in Electricity , which Faraday compiled in early 1855, comprised all of his work published in the Philosophical Transactions since 1846 . In addition, he took on two articles published in Philosophical Magazine , which followed the 29th edition of Experimental Researches in Electricity and continued his characteristic section numbering. A few shorter articles completed the volume. Faraday published a total of 450 scientific articles.
Through the mediation of Prince Albert , the Faradays moved into a house in Hampton Court Green in September 1858, which belonged to Queen Victoria and was in the immediate vicinity of Hampton Court Palace . In October 1861, the seventy-year-old Faraday asked the managers of the Royal Institution to release him from the service of the institute. However, they refused his request and only relieved him of responsibility for the Christmas lectures.
On November 25, 1861, Faraday began a final series of experiments in which he examined the effects of a magnetic field on the light spectrum of a flame using a spectroscope designed by Carl August von Steinheil . He made his last entry in the laboratory diary on March 12, 1862. The experiments were unsuccessful because of the insufficiently sensitive measuring arrangement; the Zeeman effect was not discovered until 1896.
On June 20, 1862, Faraday gave his last Friday evening lecture, On Gas Furnaces, to an audience of over 800, and ended his nearly four decades of lecturing at the Royal Institution. In the spring of 1865, by a unanimous decision of the managers of the Royal Institution, he was released from all his obligations. Until May 1865 he and his advice were still available to the shipping authorities.
Faraday died on August 25, 1867 at his Hampton Court home and was buried in Highgate Cemetery five days later .
Reception and aftermath
Formation of electrodynamics
"Faraday is the father of the expanded teaching of electromagnetism and will always be."
“Faraday saw in his mind the lines of force pervading all space, where mathematicians saw distant centers of force; Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distances; Faraday sought the essence of the processes in the real effects that took place in the medium, but they were content to have found it in the remote forces of electrical fluids ... "
Faraday's concepts and his view of the unity of nature, which managed without a single mathematical formula , made a deep impression on the young James Clerk Maxwell . Maxwell set himself the task of translating Faraday's experimental findings and their description into a mathematical representation using lines of force and fields. Maxwell's first major essay on electricity On Faraday's Lines of Force (About Faraday lines of force) was published in 1856. Based on an analogy with the hydrodynamics presented Maxwell is a first theory of electromagnetism on by the vector quantities electric field strength , magnetic field strength , electric current density and magnetic flux density introduced and related to each other with the help of the vector potential . Five years later, Maxwell took into account in On Physical Lines of Force (About physical lines of force) and the medium in which the electromagnetic forces worked. He modeled the medium through elastic properties. It emerged from this that a change in an electric field over time leads to an additional displacement current. In addition, it was found that light is a transverse wave movement of the medium, which confirms Faraday's speculation about the nature of light. The further elaboration of the theory by Maxwell finally led in 1864 to the formulation of Maxwell's equations , which form the basis of electrodynamics and with which all electromagnetic discoveries made by Faraday can be explained. One of Maxwell's four equations is a mathematical description of the electromagnetic induction discovered by Faraday.
“He was characterized by an indescribable speed and liveliness. The reflection of his genius surrounded him with a very special, radiant aura. Certainly everyone felt this charm - whether profound philosopher or simple child - who enjoyed the privilege of experiencing it in their home - in the Royal Institution. "
At the end of the 19th century Faraday was perceived as the inventor of the electric motor , transformer and generator as well as the discoverer of benzene , the magneto-optical effect , diamagnetism and the creator of electromagnetic field theory . 1868 appeared John Tyndall's biography Faraday as a Discoverer (Faraday and his discoveries) . Tyndall, who succeeded Brande at the Royal Institution, mainly described Faraday's scientific discoveries. Hermann Helmholtz , who translated Tyndall's biography into German, added numerous biographical notes. Shortly thereafter, Henry Bence Jones , Secretary of the Royal Institution and Faraday's doctor, published a typical Victorian "life and letters" biography, for which he drew on Faraday's letters, his laboratory diaries and other unpublished manuscripts and used excerpts from Tyndall's biography. Bence Jones' two-volume biography is still an important source today, as some of the letters and diaries cited therein can no longer be found. These and other representations by Faraday led to a picture of a researcher who, alone and in the seclusion of his laboratory at the Royal Institution, investigated the secrets of nature.
After the end of the First World War , the established gas industry and the emerging electrical industry , whose goal was the comprehensive electrification of Great Britain and which was thus in direct competition with the gas industry, tried to use Faraday's notoriety for their respective goals in the 1920s. On the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of benzene , a committee consisting of members of the Royal Institution, the Chemical Society , the Society of Chemical Industry and the Association of British Chemical Manufacturers was formed under the chairmanship of the chemist Henry Edward Armstrong . During the celebrations in June 1925, the importance of Faraday for the modern chemical industry was highlighted and he was celebrated as the "father of the chemical industry".
At the initiative of Walter Adolph Vignoles (1874–1953), director of the Electrical Development Association , and with the assistance of William Henry Bragg , director of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory at the Royal Institution, a committee of nine was appointed in February 1928 to oversee the celebrations to mark the centenary of the discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1931. From September 23 to October 3, 1931, an exhibition in honor of Faraday and his discovery was held in the Royal Albert Hall . The focus of the exhibition was a copy of the sculpture created by John Henry Foley (1818–1874) and Thomas Brock (1847–1922) , which had been in the Royal Institution since 1876 and which Faraday showed in academic clothing with his induction ring. In the immediate vicinity of the sculpture were the simple things with which Faraday carried out his first experiments: a wire, a magnet and a drop of mercury. The sculpture formed the focal point for the exhibition stands arranged in a circle around it. On the stands closest to the sculpture, the equipment used by Faraday for the individual experiments and his associated notes were shown. The outer booths demonstrated the resulting modern technologies in the electrical industry. A 12-page brochure accompanying the exhibition, of which around 100,000 copies were distributed, was entitled Faraday: The Story of an Errand-Boy. Who Changed the World (Faraday: The Story of an Errand Boy Who Changed the World ) . The lavish exhibition from 1931 and the associated celebrations were due, on the one hand, to the efforts of the electrical industry to transform electricity into marketable products. On the other hand, they also supported the efforts of natural scientists to show how basic research can contribute to the development of new technologies.
Awards and recognition
Faraday's biographer Henry Bence Jones has a total of 95 honorary degrees and awards. The first recognition by a learned society Faraday was bestowed in 1823 by the Cambridge Philosophical Society , which accepted him as an honorary member. In 1832 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , in 1835 to the Göttingen Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of Edinburgh and in 1840 to the American Philosophical Society . At the endeavor of Jean-Baptiste André Dumas , Faraday was elected to the Académie des Sciences in 1844 as one of eight foreign members. In 1847 he was accepted as a foreign member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences . In 1857 he was elected a member of the Leopoldina . In 1864 he was honored for the last time by the Società Reale di Napoli , which led him as an associated foreign member. Also in 1864 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences .
The Royal Society awarded him the Copley Medal (1832 and 1838), the Royal Medal (1835 and 1846) and the Rumford Medal (1846). Faraday turned down the offer to become President of the Royal Society twice (1848 and 1858). In 1842 Faraday received the Prussian Order of Merit Pour le Mérite .
A specially for the laying of submarine cables built cable ship , the Faraday , was in 1874 by its builder, Carl Wilhelm Siemens named after Faraday. The Congrès international d'électriciens (International Congress of Electricians) , which met in Paris, decided on September 22, 1881 to name the unit for electrical capacity Farad in his honor . The lunar crater Faraday and the asteroid Faraday are also named after him. William Whewell honored Faraday and Davy by naming one of his "Epochs of Chemistry".
Estate and correspondence
Faraday's written estate is probably the largest left by a naturalist in the history of science. It includes his laboratory diaries, diaries, commonplace books , notes, manuscripts, letters, books and others. The estate contains records of around 30,000 experiments carried out by Faraday.
At the beginning of 1855, Faraday gave the first instructions to regulate his estate. He left his laboratory diaries, some reprints, and other personal items with the Royal Institution. After Faraday's death, the Royal Institution received additional material from his wife, Sarah. Trinity House gave her the files with his work for the agency. These are now in the Guildhall Library . She gave several pieces to friends and relatives in memory of Faraday. Part of it came into the possession of the Institution of Electrical Engineers at the end of 1915 . The manuscripts of Faraday's articles for the Philosophical Transactions became the property of the Royal Society after he submitted them for publication. Half of them were preserved. About 4800 letters of Faraday's correspondence have survived, which are in 230 archives around the world.
English first editions
- Chemical Manipulation: Being Instructions to Students in Chemistry on the Methods of Performing Experiments of Demonstration or of Research, with Accuracy and Success . 1st edition, W. Phillips, London 1827, online .
- Experimental Researches in Electricity . 3 volumes, R. Taylor & W. Francis , London 1839–1855, Volume 1 , Volume 2 , Volume 3 .
- Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics . R. Taylor & W. Francis, London 1859, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dexperimentalrese00fararich~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- A Course of Six Lectures on the Various Forces of Matter, and Their Relations To Each Other . Richard Griffin & Co., London Glasgow 1860, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dcourseofsixlectu00fararich~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle: To Which is Added a Lecture on Platinum . Harper & Brothers, New York 1861, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dcourseofsixlectu00fara~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
German first editions
- Chemical manipulation or the actually practical of the safe execution of chemical work and experiments . Verlag des Landes-Industrie-Comptoir, Weimar 1828, 1832.
- Experimental research on electricity . 3 volumes, translated by Salomon Kalischer , published by Julius Springer , Berlin 1889–1891.
- Natural history of a candle . Six lectures for young people, translated from English by Lüdicke, Robert Oppenheim, Berlin 1871.
- The different forces of matter and their relationships to one another . Six lectures for young people, translated by H. Schröder, Robert Oppenheim, Berlin .
Current German editions
Based on the edition from 1889 to 1891, translated from English by Salomon Kalischer, with an introduction by Friedrich Steinle :
- Experimental research on electricity . Volume 1, Harri Deutsch Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-8171-3292-1 .
- Experimental research on electricity . Volume 2, Harri Deutsch Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-8171-3293-X .
- Experimental research on electricity . Volume 3, Harri Deutsch Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-8171-3294-8 .
- James Arnold Crowther: The Life and Discoveries of Michael Faraday . London 1920, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dlifediscoverieso00crowrich~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- John Hall Gladstone : Michael Faraday: His Life and Work . Macmillan & Co., London 1872, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dmichaelfaraday00gladrich~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- Henry Bence Jones : The Life and Letters of Michael Faraday . 2 volumes, Longmans, Green, London 1870, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dlifelettersoffar01joneiala~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3DBand%201~PUR%3D , http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dlifelettersoffar02joneiala~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3DBand%202~PUR%3D .
- Silvanus Phillips Thompson : Michael Faraday, His Life and Work . Cassel & Co., London 1898 http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dcu31924012323014~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- John Tyndall : Faraday as a Discoverer . Longmans, Green & Co., London 1868, version http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dfaradayasdiscove00tyndrich~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D(German: Faraday and his discoveries . Translated by Hermann Helmholtz , Friedrich Vieweg and Son, Braunschweig 1870).
- Geoffrey Cantor: Michael Faraday: Sandemanian and Scientist. A Study of Science and Religion in the Nineteenth Century . Macmillan, London 1991.
- Geoffrey Cantor, David Gooding, Frank AJL James: Michael Faraday . Kumarian Press Inc., 1996, ISBN 978-1-57392-556-3 .
- James Hamilton: A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution . Random House, New York 2004, ISBN 1-4000-6016-8 .
- Alan Hirshfeld The Electric Life of Michael Faraday . Raincoast Books, 2006, ISBN 978-1-55192-945-3 .
- Frank AJL James: Michael Faraday: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford University Press, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-957431-5 .
- Jost Lemmerich : Michael Faraday 1791–1867. Explorer of electricity . CH Beck, Munich 1991.
- John Meurig Thomas: Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution: The Genius of Man and Place . Adam Hilger, Bristol 1991, ISBN 0-7503-0145-7 .
- Leslie Pearce Williams: Michael Faraday: A Biography . Chapman and Hall, London 1965.
- Frank AJL James (Ed.): The Correspondence of Michael Faraday , 6 volumes, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1991-2010.
- Volume 1: 1811-1831 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1991, ISBN 0-86341-248-3 .
- Volume 2: 1832-1840 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1993, ISBN 0-86341-249-1 .
- Volume 3: 1841-1848 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1996, ISBN 0-86341-250-5 .
- Volume 4: 1849-1855 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1999, ISBN 0-86341-251-3 .
- Volume 5: 1855-1860 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 2008, ISBN 978-0-86341-823-5 .
- Volume 6: 1860-1867 . Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 2011, ISBN 978-0-86341-957-7 .
- Georg Wilhelm August Kahlbaum, Francis Vernon Darbishire (Eds.): The Letters of Faraday and Schoenbein, 1836–1862: With Notes, Comments and References to Contemporary Letters . B. Schwabe, Bâle; Williams & Norgate , London 1899, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Dcu31924012394544~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D .
- Leslie Pearce Williams (Ed.): The Selected Correspondence of Michael Faraday . Cambridge University Press, 1971.
- Thomas Martin (Ed.) Faraday's diary: being the various philosophical notes of experimental investigation made by Michael Faraday… during the years 1820–1862 , 7 volumes, George Bell & Sons, London 1932–1936.
- Volume 1: Sept, 1820 – June 11, 1832 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1932.
- Volume 2: Aug 25, 1832-Feb 29, 1836 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1932.
- Volume 3: May 26, 1836-Nov 9, 1839 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1933.
- Volume 4: Nov 12, 1839-June 26, 1847 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1933.
- Volume 5: Sept 6, 1847-Oct 17, 1851 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1934.
- Volume 6: Nov 11, 1851-Nov 5, 1855 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1935.
- Volume 7: Nov 24, 1855-Mar 12, 1862 . G. Bell & Sons, London 1936.
On the reception of his work (selection)
- Geoffrey Cantor: The scientist as a hero: public images of Michael Faraday . In: Michael Shortland, Richard R. Yeo (Eds.): Telling lives in science: essays on scientific biography . Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-43323-1 , pp. 171-194.
- Geoffrey Cantor: Michael Faraday's religion and its relation to his science . In: Endeavor . Volume 22, Number 3, 1998, pp. 121-124, doi: 10.1016 / S0160-9327 (98) 01134-X .
- Michael Faraday . In: Michael JA Howe: Genius Explained . Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-00849-2 , pp. 84-107.
- Alan E. Jeffreys: Michael Faraday: A List of his Lectures and Published Writings . Chapman and Hall: London 1960.
- Alice Jenkins: Michael Faraday's mental exercises: An artisan essay-circle in Regency London . Liverpool University Press, Liverpool 2008, ISBN 978-1-84631-140-6 .
- David Keith Chalmers MacDonald: Faraday, Maxwell, and Kelvin . Science Study Series, Anchor Books, 1964.
- James Frederic Riley: The Hammer and the Anvil: A Background to Michael Faraday . Dalesman Publishing Co., Clapham 1954.
- J [ames] R [orie] (Ed.): Selected Exhortations Delivered to Various Churches of Christ by the Late Michael Faraday, Wm. Buchanan, John M. Baxter, and Alex Moir . John Leng and Co., Dundee 1910
- Friedrich Steinle: The "Experimental Researches in Electricity": An overview . In: Experimental Studies on Electricity . Volume 1, Harri Deutsch Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-8171-3292-1 , pp. III – XXXIII.
- Frank AJL James (Ed.): The Correspondence of Michael Faraday . Volume 1, p. XXVII.
- Michael JA Howe: Genius Explained . Pp. 92-94.
- James Hamilton: A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution . P. 10 and p. 401-404.
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 66.
- Frank AJL James: The Tales of Benjamin Abbott: A Source for the Early Life of Michael Faraday . In: The British Journal for the History of Science . Volume 25, Number 2, 1992, pp. 229-240.
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 167.
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 171.
- Frank AJL James (Ed.): The Correspondence of Michael Faraday . Volume 1, pp. XXX.
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 172.
- Frank AJL James (Ed.): The Correspondence of Michael Faraday . Volume 1, pp. XXXI.
- Silvanus Phillips Thompson: Michael Faraday, His Life and Work . P. 13.
- James Hamilton: A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution . P. 62.
- The apparatus used by Davy and Faraday (accessed March 3, 2010)
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 184.
- Alice Jenkins: Michael Faraday's mental exercises: An artisan essay-circle in Regency London . P. 1.
- John Tyndall: Faraday and His Discoveries . P. 186.
- Henry Bence Jones: The Life and Letters of Michael Faraday . Volume 1, p. 276
- James Hamilton: A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution . Pp. 151-152.
- M. Faraday: An Analysis of Wootz, or Indian Steel . In: Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and the Arts . Volume 7, 1819, pp. 288-290, online .
- J. Stodart, M. Faraday: Experiments on the Alloys of Steel Made with a View to Its Improvements . Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature and the Arts . Volume 9, 1820, pp. 319-330, reprint .
- J. Stodart, M. Faraday: On the Alloys of Steel . In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . Volume 112, 1822, pp. 253-270, doi: 10.1098 / rstl.1822.0021 .
- Robert Hadfield: A Research on Faraday's "Steel and Alloys" . In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical or Physical Character . Volume 230, 1932, pp. 221-292, doi: 10.1098 / rsta.1932.0007 .
- M. Faraday: On Two New Compounds of Chlorine and Carbon, and on a New Compound of Iodine, Carbon, and Hydrogen . In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society . Volume 111, 1821, pp. 47-74, doi: 10.1098 / rstl.1821.0007 .
- John Meurig Thomas: Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution: The Genius of Man and Place . P. 25.
- [Anonymous]: Historical Sketch of Electro-Magnetism . In: Annals of Philosophy . Neue Serie, Volume 2, 1821, pp. 195-200 and pp. 274-290 .
- Silvanus Phillips Thompson: Michael Faraday, His Life and Work . P. 51.
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- 20 pound note with Faraday
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||English physicist and chemist|
|BIRTH DATE||September 22, 1791|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Newington , Surrey|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 25, 1867|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Hampton Court Green , Middlesex|