Calendar overview 1789
Great Revolution in France begins with the storming of the Bastille .
|French National Assembly adopts the declaration of human rights .||George Washington is elected the first President of the United States .|
|1789 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1237/38 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1781/82 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1194/95 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2332/33 (southern Buddhism); 2331/32 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1151/52 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4122/23 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||
Year I of Freedom
(from July 15th )
|Islamic calendar||1203/04 (turn of the year 20/21 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5549/50 (September 20/21)|
|Coptic calendar||1505/06 (September 10/11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2099/2100 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2100/01 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1845/46 (April)|
Politics and world events
- January 24th : Louis XVI. enacts an electoral law for the election of members of parliament in accordance with the statutes.
- May 5 : The French Estates General meet in the royal residence of Versailles .
- June 17th : The deputies of the French Third Estate (98% of the population) declare themselves to the National Assembly on the proposal of the Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès .
- June 19 : The clergy joins the National Assembly with a narrow majority.
- June 20 : The Tennis Court Oath of the French Third Estate in Versailles is the first step of the French Revolution .
- June 27 : Clergy and nobility join the National Assembly by order of the King .
- July 9 : The French National Assembly calls itself the Assemblée nationale constituante and begins drafting a constitution.
- July 12 : Protesters burn down customs posts in Paris and ransack a monastery.
- July 14th : Storming of the Bastille in Paris, beginning of the French Revolution
- August 4th : August resolutions : abolition of the privileges of the nobility, clergy, cities and provinces by the National Assembly. (Abolition of feudal rule ; abolition of serfdom ; abolition of tax privileges for the nobility and clergy; equality in court ; free access to justice )
- August 26th : The French National Assembly approves the Declaration of Human Rights . The king rejects this decision.
- September 9th : Napoleon Bonaparte takes a leave of absence and travels to his homeland - to fight for Corsica's independence. In Ajaccio a Comité Patriotique is elected, a revolutionary assembly - which declares Corsica to be part of France .
- September 30th : The National Assembly has the exclusive legislative initiative. The king now only has a suspensive veto .
- October 5th : The demonstration of the Poissards moves to Versailles after a banquet at the court of Louis XVI. the French Revolution had been denigrated.
- October 6th : The procession of the Poissards , which set out the day before, storms the Palace of Versailles and forces the return of King Louis XVI. and his family to Paris .
- November 2nd : Church property is secularized in France .
- December 22 : The law will be in France , the department introduced.
Holy Roman Empire
- July 30th : Prussia restricts the Mennonites' self-government rights and triggers a wave of emigration to Russia .
- December 2nd : Duke Karl Eugen von Württemberg changes the coat of arms of his house in order to express the acquisitions of the previous years in heraldry .
Ottoman Empire / Turkish War
- October 26 : Nicolae Mavrogheni , Prince of Wallachia , flees Bucharest with his army during the Russo-Austrian Turkish War . On November 10th , the city is taken by the Austrians.
United States of America (USA)
- February 4 : George Washington is unanimously elected first President of the USA by the Election Congress . John Adams becomes Vice President .
- March 4 : The United States Constitution enters into force.
- April 30 : George Washington is sworn in on the balcony of Federal Hall in New York.
- April: Incumbent George Clinton wins New York gubernatorial election against challenger Robert Yates .
- May 12 : The Society of St. Tammany is founded in New York City ; also simply called Tammany Hall after their location .
- August: The North West Territory is admitted to the Union as an organized territory.
- September 24 : President George Washington appoints the first 13 US marshals .
- September 25 : The United States Congress passes the Bill of Rights .
- October 3 : George Washington , as US President, propagates the first Thanksgiving Day .
- November 21 : North Carolina becomes the 12th state of the United States after ratification of the constitution .
The MacKenzie expedition through North America
- June 3 : Alexander MacKenzie and his companions set off from Fort Chipewyan to look for a river connection to the Pacific Ocean .
- June 29th : Alexander MacKenzie arrives at the river in northwestern Canada that is later named after him .
- July 10 : The Scot Alexander Mackenzie and his expedition group reached the river delta of the Mackenzie River, which was later named after him . The explorer traveled the entire course of the river in search of access to the Pacific , but, to his disappointment , the current flows into the Arctic Beaufort Sea .
- April 28 : Fletcher Christian releases Captain William Bligh from the bounty on the Tongan volcanic island of Tofua .
- 14 June : Captain William Bligh of the Bounty , abandoned by mutiners , reaches Kupang on the Pacific island of Timor with 18 followers . He arrives there 48 days after the mutiny and about 5,800 kilometers in a small dinghy.
- October 10 / November 2 : At the request of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord , the Bishop of Autun, the French National Assembly decides to nationalize ecclesiastical property and convert it into so-called national goods . This means that around 10% of all real estate in France changes hands.
- December 14th : In revolutionary France , the first assignats are issued to alleviate the heavy burden of debt , initially government bonds that soon serve the function of banknotes .
science and technology
- March 26th : Wilhelm Herschel notices the galaxy NGC 4462 in the constellation Raven .
- April 12 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies cataloged as NGC 3310 , NGC 3718 and NGC 3729 while exploring the sky in the constellation Great Bear .
- April 14th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers six galaxies in the constellation Great Bear, which are now listed as NGC 3738 , NGC 3756 , NGC 3982 , NGC 5473 , NGC 5477 and NGC 5485 .
- April 17th : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxies NGC 3448 and NGC 5585 in the constellation Great Bear .
- April 24th : Wilhelm Herschel finds the galaxy NGC 5204 about 14.5 million light-years away in the constellation Great Bear .
- August 28 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers Saturn's moon Enceladus with his recently completed 40-foot reflector telescope . This is the sixth satellite discovered on the planet Saturn .
- September 17th : Wilhelm Herschel discovers Mimas as the seventh Saturn moon .
- The main work by Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier Traité élémentaire de chimie appears.
- September 24th : The chemistry professor and pharmacist Martin Heinrich Klaproth announces the discovery of the substance uranium in a speech at the Prussian Academy of Sciences .
Teaching and Research
- May 26th : Friedrich Schiller gives his inaugural lecture at the University of Jena, What does it mean and at what end do you study universal history?
- December 11 : The University of North Carolina is founded in the United States.
- January 9th : The tragedy Egmont by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe has its world premiere in Mainz.
- January 26th : The world premiere of the comic opera Der Schulz im Dorf or Der amliebte Herr Doctor by Justin Heinrich Knecht takes place in Biberach an der Riss .
- February 11 : The tragicomic opera Il pastor fido (The Faithful Shepherd) by Antonio Salieri based on a text by Lorenzo da Ponte , into which he has incorporated the overture of his work Prima la musica e poi le parole, is premiered at the Vienna Burgtheater . After only three performances, the piece will be canceled due to dramaturgical inadequacies and will be performed again on October 14 in a revised version. The role of Amarilli is cast by Adriana Ferrarese del Bene .
- March 6th : The Messiah (Handel, arr. Mozart) is premiered.
- June 17th : Her Majesty's Theater in London burns down completely as a result of arson. Fortunately, human lives are nothing to complain about.
- June 24th : On the decree of Emperor Joseph II , the Bábolna stud is founded in Hungary - it is known for the breeding of Shagya Arabs .
- July 29th : World premiere of the opera Claudine von Villa Bella by Johann Friedrich Reichardt at the Schloßtheater Berlin-Charlottenburg .
- October 16 : The opera Brenno by Johann Friedrich Reichardt is premiered at the Royal Opera in Berlin. The dramma per musica is the first German-language performance there.
- January 27 : Ludwig Suhl and his friends Christian Adolph Overbeck , Johann Julius Walbaum , Anton Diedrich Gütschow , Gottlieb Nicolaus Stolterfoth , Johann Friedrich Petersen and Nikolaus Heinrich Brehmer found the Literary Society for scientific entertainment and mutual instruction in Lübeck .
- A smallpox epidemic in Australia is estimated to kill more than 50% of the Darug and Eora , Aborigines from what is now Sydney , and an unknown number in the rest of Australia .
- January 3 : Carl Gustav Carus , German scientist and painter († 1869 )
- January 4 : John Hardy Steele , American politician († 1865 )
- January 5 : Jules Robert Auguste , French painter and sculptor († 1850 )
- January 15 : Joseph Ignatz Peter , Baden revolutionary († 1872 )
- January 26 : Józef Damse , Polish composer († 1852 )
- January 27 : Alexander von Dusch , Minister of Baden († 1876 )
- January 28 : Ernst von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , Russian general of the cavalry († 1850 )
- January 30th : Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin , German diplomat, writer and translator († 1878 )
- February 1 : Hippolyte Chelard , French composer († 1861 )
- February 2 : Carl Alexander Heideloff , German architect and preservationist († 1865 )
- February 3 : Friedrich Jakob Heller , Austrian military historian of German origin († 1866 )
- February 4 : Thaddeus Betts , American politician († 1840 )
- February 5 : Alois Hildwein , Austrian Biedermeier architect († 1828 )
- February 9 : Franz Xaver Gabelsberger , German inventor († 1849 )
- February 11 : Hermannus Bouman , Dutch Reformed theologian and Orientalist († 1864 )
- February 12 : Friedrich Theodor Schubert , Russian officer and geodesist († 1865 )
- February 15 : Friedrich Ernst Fesca , German composer († 1826 )
- February 19 : William Fairbairn , British engineer († 1874 )
- February 20 : Carl Gustav Jochmann , German publicist († 1830 )
- February 23 : Friedrich Heinrich Aschoff , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1854 )
- February 26 : Julius von den Brinken , German forester and Polish general forest master († 1846 )
- March 5 : William S. Archer , American politician († 1855 )
- March 5 : Michael Woolston Ash , American politician († 1858 )
- March 7th : Jean Vidal , French violinist and conductor († 1867 )
- March 9 : Desiré-Raoul Rochette , French archaeologist († 1854 )
- March 10 : Manuel de la Peña y Peña , Mexican President († 1850 )
- March 16 : Francis Rawdon Chesney , British explorer († 1872 )
- March 16 : Georg Simon Ohm , German physicist († 1854 )
- March 19 : Everhard von Groote , Germanist, writer and politician († 1864 )
- March 22nd : Ernst Schulze , German poet († 1817 )
- March 26 : Wilhelm Hey , German fabulous poet and songwriter († 1854 )
- April 1 : John Hopkins Clarke , American politician († 1870 )
- April 6 : Isaac Hill , American politician († 1851 )
- April 8 : Wilhelm Snell , professor of law and politician († 1851 )
- April 10 : Amalie Luise , Princess and Duchess of Arenberg († 1823 )
- April 13 : Georg Benedikt Winer , German Protestant theologian and philologist († 1858 )
- April 15 : Antal Deák , Hungarian politician († 1842 )
- April 29 : Carl Ludwig Frommel , painter, engraver, steel engraver and eraser († 1863 )
- May 1 : George Fife Angas , English businessman, parliamentarian and philanthropist († 1879 )
- May 1 : Richard Irvine Manning , American politician († 1836 )
- May 10 : Jared Sparks , American historian († 1866 )
- May 13 : Bernhardine von Wintgen , Westphalian writer and translator, († 1855 )
- May 16 : Johann Nepomuk Schelble , German conductor, singer and teacher († 1837 )
- May 16 : Michael Creizenach , German-Jewish educator and theologian († 1842 )
- May 20 : Marcellin Champagnat , priest and founder of the order of the Marist Brothers († 1840 )
- May 23 : Franz Schlik zu Bassano and Weißkirchen , Austrian general († 1862 )
- May 28 : Bernhard Severin Ingemann , Danish writer († 1862 )
- May 28 : Heinrich Weiss , Swiss politician († 1848 )
- May 30 : Peter Karl Thurwieser , Austrian meteorologist, alpinist and theologian († 1865 )
- June 13 : August Arnold , German philosopher of history and political scientist († 1860 )
- June 20 : Friedrich Wilhelm Carové , German lawyer, Germanist and philosopher († 1852 )
- June 24th : Silvio Pellico , Italian writer († 1854 )
- June 25 : Wilhelm Heinrich Ackermann , German educator († 1848 )
- June 26 : Heinrich Franz von Bombelles , Austrian diplomat, officer and educator of the later Emperor Franz Joseph I († 1850 )
- June 27 : Friedrich Silcher , German song composer († 1860 )
- June 30th : Horace Vernet , French military painter and lithographer († 1863 )
- July 1 : Francisco Javier Mina , Spanish guerrilla leader († 1817 )
- July 3 : Friedrich Overbeck , German painter, draftsman and illustrator († 1869 )
- July 5 : Miguel Barreiro , Uruguayan politician († 1848 )
- July 10 : Yanagawa Seigan , Japanese poet († 1858 )
- July 11 : Aloys Henhöfer , German theologian († 1862 )
- July 14 : Wilhelm von Studnitz , German officer and writer († 1840 )
- July 21 : Wasil Evstatiew Aprilow , Bulgarian doctor († 1847 )
- August 4th : Roch-Ambroise Auguste Bébian , first master of sign language without being disabled himself († 1839 )
- August 6 : Friedrich List , German economist and politician († 1846 )
- August 9 : Robert Nicolas-Charles Bochsa , French composer and harp virtuoso († 1856 )
- August 16 : Amos Kendall , American politician († 1869 )
- August 21 : Augustin-Louis Cauchy , French mathematician († 1857 )
- August 21 : Thomas Garrett , American abolitionist († 1871 )
- August 26 : Abbas Mirza , Persian prince and military leader († 1833 )
- August 28 : Stéphanie de Beauharnais , adopted daughter of Napoleon Bonaparte († 1860 )
- September 5th : Clarke Abel , British doctor, naturalist and botanist († 1826 )
- September 9 : William Cranch Bond , American astronomer († 1859 )
- September 15 : James Fenimore Cooper , American writer († 1851 )
- September 28 : Charles Victor Prévôst , French writer († 1856 )
- September 29 : Peter Joseph Lenné , gardener and landscape architect († 1866 )
- October 3 : Sir Henry Pottinger , British colonial administrator († 1856 )
- October 4 : Friederike Krüger , Prussian soldier († 1848 )
- October 5 : William Scoresby , British navigator and explorer († 1857 )
- October 14 : Agustín Durán , Spanish literary scholar († 1862 )
- October 16 : William Burton , American politician († 1866 )
- October 24 : Ramon Carnicer , Spanish composer of operas († 1855 )
- October 25 : Samuel Heinrich Schwabe , German astronomer († 1875 )
- October 27 : Daniel Sturgeon , American politician († 1878 )
- October 28 : Johann Gottlob Schneider , German composer and organist († 1864 )
- November 1 : Friedrich von Seherr and Thoß , German officer, civil servant and manor owner († 1857 )
- November 2 : Ether Shepley , American politician († 1877 )
- November 5 : Johannes Nefflen , Swabian writer and satirist († 1858 )
- November 11 : Pietro Tenerani , Italian sculptor († 1869 )
- November 12 : Albert Gern , German theater actor († 1869 )
- November 12 : Philipp Jakob Siebenpfeiffer , political journalist († 1845 )
- November 12 : Stephan Metz , Mayor of Mainz († 1850 )
- November 16 : Ludwig Roth von Schreckenstein , Prussian Minister of War and General of the Cavalry († 1858 )
- November 21 : George Howard , American politician († 1846 )
- December 1 : William Carr Lane , American politician († 1863 )
- December 4 : Micurà de Rü , Ladin linguist († 1847 )
- December 8 : József Hild , Hungarian architect († 1867 )
- December 14 : Johannes Jacob Hegetschweiler , Swiss physician, botanist and politician († 1839 )
- December 17 : Clement Comer Clay , American politician († 1866 )
- December 18 : Konstantin d'Aspre , Austrian general († 1850 )
- December 22nd : Alfred von Croÿ , German landlord, entrepreneur and politician († 1861 )
- December 25th : August von Goethe , son of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1830 )
- December 28 : Thomas Ewing , American politician († 1871 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Apostol Arsache , Romanian physician, economist and politician († 1869 )
- Edmund Tyrell Artis , British pioneer of paleobotany and archeology († 1847 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Johann Ernst Basilius Wiedeburg , German physicist, astronomer and mathematician (* 1733 )
- January 5 : Christian Andreas Cothenius , German doctor (* 1708 )
- January 6th : Friedrich Wilhelm von Westphalen , Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim and Paderborn (* 1727 )
- January 10 : James Mitchell Varnum , American general during the War of Independence (* 1748 )
- January 14 : Christian Gottlieb Gilling , German theologian (* 1735 )
- January 15 : Johann Baptist Wenzel Bergl , painter (* 1719 )
- January 21 : Paul Henri Thiry d'Holbach , German philosopher and collaborator in Diderot's Encyclopédie (* 1723 )
- January 23 : John Cleland , British writer (* 1709 )
- January 23 : Jafar Khan , ruler of Persia
- February 2 : Armand-Louis Couperin , French composer and organist (* 1727 )
- February 2 : Franz Huberti , German clergyman, educator and astronomer (* 1715 )
- February 13 : Ethan Allen , American freedom fighter (* 1738 )
- February 13 : Paolo Renier , 119th and penultimate Doge of Venice (* 1710 )
- February 26 : August Siegfried von Goué , German writer and Freemason (* 1743 )
- March 15 : Johann Friedrich Rehkopf , German clergyman and university professor (* 1733 )
- March 25 : Julie von Voss , wife of Friedrich Wilhelm II. (* 1766 )
- March 29 : Giovanni Cornaro , Catholic Cardinal (* 1720 )
- March 29 : Thomas Collins , American politician (* 1732 )
- March 29 : Gottlieb Benedict Zemisch , German tobacco merchant and art patron in Leipzig (* 1716 )
- April 4 : Paul von Natalis , Prussian major general (* 1720 )
- April 7th : Abdülhamid I , Ottoman Sultan (* 1725 )
- April 7th : Peter Camper , Dutch medic (* 1722 )
- May 5 : Giuseppe Baretti , Italian writer and translator (* 1719 )
- May 9 : Jean-Baptiste Vaquette , French engineer and artillery general (* 1715 )
- May 10 : Said Murad Khan Zand , ruler of Persia
- May 15 : Michael Angstenberger , Austrian hymn composer (* 1717 )
- May 19 : Giuseppe Bonito , Italian painter (* 1707 )
- May 20 : Jost Erdmann von Arnim , Prussian officer (* 1714 )
- May 25 : Andreas Dahl , Swedish botanist (* 1751 )
- May 29 : Johann Peter Miller , German Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1725 )
- June 3 : Johann Achterkirchen , lawyer and mayor of Northeim (* 1722 )
- June 4 : Johann Friedrich Hähn , German clergyman and teacher (* 1710 )
- June 12 : Jean-Étienne Liotard , Geneva pastel and enamel painter (* 1702 )
- June 14 : Johann Wilhelm Hertel , German composer (* 1727 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Johann Philipp Lorenz Withof , professor of history, eloquence and morality (* 1725 )
- July 14th : Bernard-René Jordan de Launay , French nobleman, last commandant of the Bastille in Paris (* 1740 )
- August 22 : Johann Heinrich Tischbein the Elder , painter (court painter) in Kassel (* 1722 )
- August 27 : Koikawa Harumachi , Japanese writer (* 1744 )
- September 2 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem , German Protestant theologian (* 1709 )
- September 11 : Luka Sorkočević , Croatian diplomat and composer (* 1734 )
- September 24th : Johann Nikolaus Seip , German Lutheran theologian (* 1724 )
- September 28 : Thomas Day , English writer (* 1748 )
- October 6 : Max Heinrich von Geyr , priest and canon in Cologne (* 1712 )
- October 9 : Dietrich von Ahlefeldt , Prussian civil servant (* around 1730)
- October 11 : Heinrich Gottlieb von Lindenau , Electoral Saxon Real Privy Councilor, Chamberlain and Chief Stable Master (* 1723 )
- October 16 : George Christoph von Arnim , German officer (* 1723 )
- October 27 : John Cook , American politician (* 1730 )
- November 4 : Karl Heinrich Geisler , German legal scholar (* 1742 )
- November 10 : Richard Caswell , American politician (* 1729 )
- November 22nd : Friederike Sophie Seyler , German actress (* 1738 )
- November 25 : Jan Michał Budar , Sorbian manor owner, lawyer and founder (* 1713 )
- December 4 : Étienne Jeaurat , French painter and engraver (* 1699 )
- December 7th : Johann Friedrich Glaser , German medic (* 1707 )
- December 23 : Charles-Michel de l'Epée , founder of the world's first school for pigeons (* 1712 )