Calendar overview 1734
Danzig in the War of the Polish Succession
ends with the capture by Russian and Saxon troops .
|Christmas Oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered.||
Robert Roy MacGregor dies.
|1734 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1182/83 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1726/27 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1139/40 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2277/78 (southern Buddhism); 2276/77 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1096/97 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4067/68 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1146/47 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th June)|
|Jewish calendar||5494/95 (September 27-28)|
|Coptic calendar||1450/51 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2044/45 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2045/46 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1790/91 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Polish Succession
- May: In the Battle of Bitonto , a Spanish army defeats an Imperial Austrian force, securing the Kingdom of Sicily for the House of Bourbon .
- June 2 to July 18 : The siege of Philippsburg ends with the conquest of the city, held by Austrian units, by French troops under James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick , who is killed by a cannonball on June 12 .
- June 29th : The Battle of Parma ends with a victory of French and Sardinian troops over the Austrian army.
- July 9 : Danzig , which welcomed the Polish King Stanislaus I. Leszczyński , has to surrender in the War of the Polish Succession after several months of siege by a Russian-Saxon army under General Field Marshal Burkhard Christoph von Münnich .
- September 19 : In the War of the Polish Succession , French-Piedmontese troops withstand an attack by an Austrian army in the Battle of Guastalla near the River Po .
Holy Roman Empire
- May 25 : The 17-year-old East Frisian heir to the throne Carl Edzard marries her niece Wilhelmine Sophie on the initiative of his stepmother Sophie Karoline von Brandenburg-Kulmbach . Three weeks later, on June 12th, his father Georg Albrecht , who had been seriously ill for a long time, died , and Carl Edzard became sovereign of East Frisia without being prepared for this task. After the ongoing conflicts of recent years between the estates and the Princely House, it hardly has any respect any more. The city of Emden and other unruly estates refuse to pay homage to the new prince.
- November 10th : Margrave Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg-Schwedt marries Sophie Dorothea Marie von Prussia in Potsdam , the daughter of the soldier king Friedrich Wilhelm I and his wife Sophie Dorothea von Hannover .
- November 11th : After the death of Friedrich Wilhelm II , his Duchy of Nassau-Siegen is united with the Duchy of Nassau-Diez under Wilhelm IV .
- June 29th : The first Protestant countrymen are deported from the Austrian heartlands to Transylvania . The Viennese court chancellery euphemistically describes the deportation as " transmigration ".
- End of the year: The first issue of the French-language Cologne magazine Gazette de Cologne avec privilege de sa majesté imperiale appears.
- The last issue of the Swedish weekly Then Swänska Argus by Olof von Dalin appears.
- Lloyd's List , now the leading journal in the marine industry, appears for the first time.
- In Alesheim will Brewery Conrad founded.
- In Unna is Saline Königsborn founded.
science and technology
- April 21 : Farmer Erich Lassen discovers the shorter of the two gold horns from Gallehus . They are the most famous archaeological finds in Denmark . The longer one was found - also by chance - in 1639 .
- Ivan Kirillowitsch Kirilow publishes the Atlas of the All-Russian Empire , the first atlas engraved and printed in Russia.
Teaching and Research
- September 19 : The University of Fulda ( Alma Mater Adolphiana ) is inaugurated. The founder, Bishop Adolf von Dalberg , is elected Rector Magnificentissimus . The baroque university building was built by Andrea Gallasini in three years of construction.
- October 14 : Samuel Christian Hollmann gives the first lecture of the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, founded in 1732, in a granary . The associated university library is founded in the same year.
- Anton Wilhelm Amo is the first African in Germany to do his doctorate at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Wittenberg with his dissertation De humanae mentis apatheia .
Music and theater
Georg Friedrich Handel and the Opera of the Nobility
- January 4th : The Dramma per musica Arbace by Georg Friedrich Händel has its world premiere at the King's Theater on the Haymarket in London. The pasticcio is the adaptation of Pietro Metastasio's successful libretto Artaserse based on Leonardo Vinci's opera . Giovanni Carestini and Anna Maria Strada sing the main roles. The work is somewhat more successful than the first two pasticcis of the season. The Opera of the Nobility under Nicola Antonio Porpora responded six months later with a pastiche processing of Johann Adolf Hasse Artaserse , the second famous setting of the text by Pietro Metastasio, and thus achieved a very extraordinary success. The famous castrato Farinelli has his breakthrough in London.
- January 26th : The opera Arianna in Creta by George Frideric Handel is premiered at London's King's Theater . The libretto, whose author is unknown, is based on the literary model Arianna e Teseo by Pietro Pariati . The soprano Anna Maria Strada and the mezzo-soprano Giovanni Carestini sing the leading roles.
- March 13 : On the occasion of the wedding of Princess Anne to William IV of Orange, the serenata Il Parnasso in festa is premiered. It is Handel's last world premiere at the King's Theater . The couple's actual wedding takes place on March 25th .
- July 6th : The long-term contract between Johann Jacob Heidegger and Georg Friedrich Händel for the lease of the King's Theater on Haymarket expires. This is taken over by the Opera of the Nobility . Handel reacts quickly and turns to John Rich , who has built a new theater, the Theater Royal in Covent Garden , with the proceeds from the Beggar Opera . Rich agrees to a game plan in which his plays and pantomimes should alternate with Handel's operas.
- December 18 : Handel's first opera at the Theater Royal in Covent Garden is the Dramma per Musica Oreste , a pasticcio compiled from Handel's earlier operas . Taking advantage of the presence of the famous choreographer and dancer Marie Sallé and her company in London , the composer has furnished it with extensive ballet scenes.
Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig
- October 5th : On the occasion of the visit of the Saxon Elector and King of Poland August III. Bach's secular cantata, Praise your luck, blessed Saxony, will be premiered in Leipzig . The trumpet soloist Gottfried Reiche collapses dead on the street the next day, which is associated with the exertion at the celebrations.
- December 25th : The first cantata of the Christmas Oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach is premiered by the St. Thomas Choir in Leipzig. By January 1735, the entire work was premiered in the two main churches in Leipzig, Nikolaikirche and Thomaskirche .
- around 1734: Based on a poem by Picander, Johann Sebastian Bach composes the secular cantata Schweigt still, does not chat , also known as the “coffee cantata ”.
Other world premieres
- February 22 : The first performance of the opera The Tragedy of Chrononhotonthologos of Henry Carey takes place in London.
- March 3 : At the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg the first performance of the at pastiches Circe of Reinhard Keizer .
- April 8th : La Betulia liberata , the libretto for an azione sacra in two parts by Pietro Metastasio is premiered in the setting by Georg Reutter in the Hofburgkapelle in Vienna.
- November 4th : In the setting by Antonio Caldara , Pietro Metastasio's libretto La clemenza di Tito on the occasion of the celebration of the name day of Emperor Charles VI. First performed at the Court Theater in Vienna.
- The Shouguo Temple in Tibet is built.
First half of the year
- January 5 : Carl Friedrich Ludwig von Gaudi , Prussian civil servant († 1784 )
- January 13 : Luka Sorkočević , Croatian diplomat and composer († 1789 )
- January 16 : John A. Treutlen , American politician, governor of Georgia († 1782 )
- January 17 : François-Joseph Gossec , Walloon-French composer († 1829 )
- January 18 : Caspar Friedrich Wolff , German physiologist and anatomist († 1794 )
- January 20 : Charles Alexandre de Calonne , French statesman († 1802 )
- January 23 : Wolfgang von Kempelen , Austrian inventor, architect and civil servant († 1804 )
- January 23 : François Rozier , French botanist and agricultural scientist († 1793 )
- January 31 : Joseph Franz Anton von Auersperg , Austrian bishop, prince-bishop and cardinal († 1795 )
- February 5 : Johann Georg Gottlob Schwarz , German Protestant theologian († 1788 )
- February 10 : Maximilian Thaddäus von Egger , Austrian iron industrialist and nobleman († 1805 )
- February 12 : Johanna Melber , citizen of Frankfurt, aunt Johann Wolfgang von Goethe († 1823 )
- February 13 : Yves Joseph de Kerguelen de Trémarec , French navigator and explorer († 1797 )
- February 15 : Johann Gerhard Gruner , German lawyer and historian († 1790 )
- February 16 : Georg Philipp Dohlhoff , pharmacist and mayor of the Palatinate Colony in Magdeburg († 1794 )
- February 17 : Johann Balthasar Hundeshagen , German lawyer and historian († 1800 )
- February 20 : Franz Ignaz Beck , German composer († 1809 )
- February 20 : Allard Hulshoff , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1795 )
- February 24th : Asaf Jah II. , Prince of Hyderabad in the Deccan († 1803 )
- March 10 : Gōryū Asada , Japanese astronomer and anatomist († 1799 )
- March 19 : Thomas McKean , American politician and officer, signer of the American Declaration of Independence († 1817 )
- March 24 : Diana Beauclerk , British painter († 1808 )
- March 30 : Christian Gottlieb Bergmann , German lawyer and mayor of Zittau († 1822 )
- March 31 : Adélaïde-Louise-Pauline Hus , French actress of the Comédie-Française and courtesan († 1805 )
- April 10 : Eleonore von Grothaus , German poet († 1794 )
- April 13 : Christian Heinrich Reichel , German educator († 1807 )
- April 17 : Taksin , King of Siam († 1782 )
- April 20 : Henricus Johannes Arntzenius , Dutch legal scholar († 1797 )
- May 23 : Franz Anton Mesmer , German doctor, founder of mesmerism († 1815 )
- May 24th : Conrad Nahmmacher , German Protestant theologian and educator († 1768 )
- June 12 : Eberhard Gaupp , Swiss businessman († 1796 )
- June 14 : Gaspard Jean-Baptiste de Brunet , French general († 1793 )
- June 15 : Johann Ernst Altenburg , German composer, organist and trumpeter († 1801 )
Second half of the year
- July 15 : Maria Fortunata d'Este , Italian princess († 1803 )
- July 25 : Ueda Akinari , Japanese writer and philologist († 1809 )
- July 27 : Sophie Philippine Élisabeth Justine , French princess and princess of Navarre († 1782 )
- August 1st : Dominik Auliczek , Bohemian sculptor († 1804 )
- August 7th : Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria , Margravine of Baden († 1776 )
- August 13 : Johann Gottfried Sillig , German Protestant clergyman († 1792 )
- August 29 : David von Neumann , Prussian general († 1807 )
- August 30 : Gaetano Gandolfi , Italian painter and engraver († 1802 )
- September 1 : Louis François II. De Bourbon , Prince of Conti († 1814 )
- September 1 : August Carl Alexander von Zanthier , Hessian and Anhalt court official and economic author († 1815 )
- September 2 : Marianne Camasse , French dancer, Countess von Forbach († 1807 )
- September 3 : Joseph Wright of Derby , British painter († 1797 )
- September 17 : Jean Baptiste Leprince , French painter († 1781 )
- September 22nd : Karl Friedrich Walch , German legal scholar († 1799 )
- September 25 : Louis René Édouard de Rohan-Guéméné , French nobleman and Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg, victim of the collar affair († 1803 )
- October 3 : Carl von Imhoff , colonial officer of the British East India Company and portrait painter († 1788 )
- October 6th (baptized): Joseph Pickford , English builder and architect († 1782 )
- October 7 : Ralph Abercromby , British general († 1801 )
- October 13 : Maciej Kamieński , Polish composer († 1821 )
- October 13 : William Small , British scientist in Virginia († 1775)
- October 17 : Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov , Russian general and lover of Catherine II († 1783 )
- October 23 : Nicolas Edme Restif de la Bretonne , French writer († 1806 )
- October 24 : Anna Göldi , Swiss maid, one of the last women in Europe to be executed as a witch († 1782 )
- October 29 : Heinrich Leopold von Seherr-Thoß , German landowner († 1804 )
- November 2 : Daniel Boone , American pioneer and border guard († 1820 )
- November 11th : František Martin Pelcl , Bohemian writer, historian and philologist († 1801 )
- December 15 : George Romney , British painter († 1802 )
- December 17 : Maria I , Queen of Portugal and Brazil († 1816 )
- December 21 : Manuel do Nascimento , Portuguese poet, translator and religious († 1819 )
- December 22nd : Tommaso Conca , Italian painter († 1822 )
- December 24 : Heinrich Wilhelm von Anhalt , Prussian officer († 1801 )
- December 31 : Maria Ursula Columba de Groote , Cologne citizen and mayor's wife († 1768 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Françoise de Châlus , Duchess of Narbonne-Lara, French court lady and mistress of Louis XV. († 1821 )
- Leopold von Hartmann , German civil servant and farmer († 1791)
- Martin Lampe , long-time servant of Immanuel Kant († 1806 )
- Robert Mylne , Scottish architect and civil engineer († 1811 )
- Sakurada Jisuke I , Japanese Kabukia author († 1806 )
- Philipp Ernst Wegmann , German organ builder († 1778 )
Born around 1734
January to April
- January 6 : John Dennis , British playwright and critic (* 1657 )
- January 6th : Zacharias Konrad von Uffenbach , Frankfurt patrician, aldermen and councilor, travel writer and book collector (* 1683 )
- January 26th : Alexander Hermann von Wartensleben , officer in various services, Prussian field marshal and, as a real secret council, part of the three counts cabinet (* 1650 )
- February 7th : Johann Adam Pruner , Austrian trader, city judge and mayor of Linz (* 1672 )
- February 10 : Jean Raoux , French painter (* 1677 )
- February 11 : Christian Ulrich II , Duke of Württemberg-Wilhelminenort (* 1691 )
- February 15 : Franz Jänggl , Austrian master builder (* around 1650 )
- February 18 : Franz Woken , German pedagogue, historian, linguist and Lutheran theologian (* 1685 )
- February 19 : Johann Isaak Freitag , wood sculptor from Rheinfelden (* 1682 )
- February 26 : Marianna Benti Bulgarelli , called La Romanina , Italian opera singer (* around 1684 )
- March 1 : Roger North , English lawyer, biographer and music theorist (* 1653 )
- March 2 : Domenico Trezzini , Swiss architect in Russia (* around 1670 )
- March 2 : Friedrich Wilhelm II , Prince of Nassau-Siegen (* 1706 )
- March 3 : Claus Stallknecht , German-Danish master builder (* 1681 )
- before March 6: Luigi Antinori , Italian opera singer, tenor (* around 1697 )
- March 9 : Karlmann Pachschmidt , Austrian Benedictine and composer (* 1700 )
- March 12 : Karl Franz Joseph Haringer , Austro-Moravian painter and fresco artist (* 1686 )
- March 12 : Antonius Schultingh , Dutch legal scholar (* 1659 )
- March 16 : Andreas Silbermann , German organ builder in Alsace (* 1678 )
- March 17th : Juan de Acuña , Spanish officer and colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain (* 1658 )
- April 8 : Henriette Charlotte von Nassau-Idstein , Duchess of Saxony-Merseburg (* 1693 )
- April 14 : Stanislaus Rücker , Prussian excise director and city councilor in Berlin (* 1649 )
- April 25 : Johann Konrad Dippel , German theologian, alchemist and doctor (* 1673 )
- April 30th : Grzegorz Gerwazy Gorczycki , Polish composer (* between 1664 and 1667)
May to August
- May 3 : Melchior Thomas von Wickede , councilor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck (* 1682 )
- May 4 : Abel Renz , merchant and mayor of Tübingen (* 1665 )
- May 13 : Christian Albrecht Niemann , lawyer and mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1680 )
- May 13 : James Thornhill , British painter (* 1675 )
- May 14 : Georg Ernst Stahl , Franconian chemist and physician (* 1659 )
- May 15 : Sebastiano Ricci , Venetian painter (* 1659 )
- May 19 : George Abraham von Arnim , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1651 )
- June 11 : Georg Albrecht , Prince of East Frisia (* 1690 )
- June 12 : James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick , illegitimate son of the British King James II, military leader of the Jacobites in French and Spanish services, Marshal and peer of France and Spanish grandee (* 1670 )
- June 13 : Nicolaus Vetter , German organist and composer (* 1666 )
- June 17th : Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars , French general and Marshal of France (* 1653 )
- June 20 : Michael Friedrich von Althann , Bishop of Waitzen and Viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily (* 1680 )
- June 25 : Johann Friedrich Riederer , German poet (* 1678 )
- June 25 : Johann Andreas Thelott , Augsburg goldsmith, draftsman and engraver (* 1655 )
- June 29 : Albrecht Wolfgang von Brandenburg-Bayreuth , Margrave of Brandenburg and Imperial General (* 1689 )
- June 29 : Claudius Florimund Mercy , imperial field marshal, commanding general of the imperial province of Temescher Banat and president of the Banat provincial administration (* 1666 )
- July 3 : Carlo IV. Borromeo , Italian nobleman in the service of the Habsburgs and the Holy Roman Empire, Viceroy of Naples and plenipotentiary of Imperial Italy (* 1657 )
- July 12 : Johann Gottlieb Olearius , German legal scholar and historian (* 1684 )
- August 9 : Georg Sigismund Green the Elder , German Lutheran theologian (* 1673 )
- August 14 : August Christoph von Wackerbarth , Field Marshal General and Minister of State (* 1662 )
- August 16 : Johann Georg Zimmermann , German post commissioner (* 1680 )
- August 29 : Berndt Otto I. von Stackelberg , heir to Hallinap in the Baltic rural community of Järva-Jaani, baron, Swedish field marshal and major general (* 1662 )
September to December
- September 3 : Christian Ludwig von Brandenburg-Schwedt , Prince of Prussia and officer (* 1677 )
- September 5 : Nicolas Bernier , French composer (* 1664 )
- September 8 : Michel Sarrazin , French-Canadian doctor and naturalist (* 1659 )
- September 13th : Tobias Querfurt , German painter, etcher and iron cutter (* around 1660 )
- September 19 : Friedrich Ludwig von Württemberg-Winnental , electoral-Saxon cavalry general and imperial general field master (* 1690 )
- September 22nd : Enno Rudolph Brenneysen , Chancellor of East Frisia (* 1669 )
- September 26 : Hans Georg Steiner , cotton manufacturer and mayor of the city of Winterthur (* 1654 )
- October 6 : Gottfried Reiche , German trumpeter and composer (* 1667 )
- October 10 : Heinrich Wilhelm von Löwenfinck , German military and porcelain painter (* 1678 )
- October 10 : Johann Bernhard Orth , Mayor of Heilbronn (* 1677 )
- October 12 : Simon Heinrich Adolf , Count of Lippe (* 1694 )
- October 21 : Juan Bautista de Orendáin , Spanish politician and Prime Minister (* 1683 )
- October 27th : Thomas Friedrich Carstens , German lawyer and Council Secretary of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck (* 1666 )
- October 31 : William North, 6th Baron North , British nobleman, general and politician, leading Jacobite conspirator (* 1678 )
- November 14 : Louise de Kérouaille , Duchess of Portsmouth, one of the mistresses of Charles II of England and lady-in-waiting Henrietta Anne Stuarts, Duchess of Orléans (* 1649 )
- November 21 : Alexis Simon Belle , French painter (* 1674 )
- December 5 : Augustin Johann Thomasberger , Moravian sculptor and carver (* 1676 )
- December 5 : Joseph Vivien , French portraitist (* 1657 )
- December 8th : James Figg , English heavyweight boxer (* 1684 )
- before December 9th: Gaetano Berenstadt , German singer, Altkastrat (* 1687 )
- December 14 : Noël-Nicolas Coypel , French painter (* 1690 )
- December 22nd : Matthias Pussjäger , South Tyrolean painter (* 1654 )
- December 28 : Robert Roy MacGregor , Scottish folk hero (short form: Rob Roy ) (* 1671 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Richard Cantillon , Irish economist (* 1680 )
- Gabriel Iwanowitsch Golowkin , Russian Chancellor (* 1660 )
- Marie-Jeanne Lhéritier de Villandon , French aristocratic author (* around 1664 )
- Hilaire Verloge , Flemish gambist and composer in France (* around 1684 )