- 1688 to 1697 War of the Palatinate Succession : Initially directed only against the German Emperor, France later fights against an alliance of Great Britain, Sweden, Spain, Savoy and the Netherlands. France emerges from the struggle severely weakened, the beginning of the shift in power towards Great Britain, decisive pioneer for the War of the Spanish Succession .
- 1699 - The Turks lose Hungary and Transylvania to Austria as a result of the Great Turkish War in the Treaty of Karlowitz . Austria becomes a major European power.
- Louis XIV , King of France and Navarre
- Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Charles II , King of Spain
- Friedrich I , Elector and Duke of Brandenburg-Prussia
- Innocent XII. , Pope
- Peter I , Tsar in Russia
- Mary II , Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland
- William III. , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Higashiyama , Emperor of Japan
- Kangxi , Emperor of China