Innocent XII. , civil: Antonio Pignatelli , (born March 13, 1615 in Spinazzola , † September 27, 1700 in Rome ) was Pope from 1691 to 1700.
Pignatelli, a member of the Neapolitan aristocracy , was educated in the Jesuit college in Rome . He rose steadily in the ecclesiastical hierarchy and was promoted by several popes: Urban VIII appointed him prolegate of Urbino in 1635 , Innocent X as nuncio in Florence , Alexander VII as papal legate in Poland , Clement IX. then to the papal nuncio in Vienna . In 1681 Pope Innocent XI appointed him . the Cardinal of the titular church of San Pancrazio and Archbishop of Naples .
When Pope Alexander VIII died, there were disputes in the conclave between the Spanish Imperial and French Cardinals . On July 12, 1691 Antonio Pignatelli was elected as a compromise candidate as the new Pope.
Innocent XII began his pontificate. with various reforms. He reformed the papal bull Roman decet Pontificem the Papal States , by restricting the equipment of papal relatives with offices; in addition, he tightened the judicial punishments in Rome .
He also strove to restore discipline in the monasteries . However, it met with severe criticism , especially from the monks . In addition, he centralized the Roman authorities and courts with the establishment of the Innocentiana Curia .
In the population of the Papal States was Innocent XII. very popular, he was called the father of the poor . He owed this popularity to his social attitude, as he used part of the church money for charitable purposes. So he built the city of Cervia in a new, healthier location.
After Pope Gregory XIII. had reformed the calendar in the 16th century , the turn of the year was nevertheless celebrated on different days in large parts of Europe; In addition to January 1st, Christmas Day (December 25th) was particularly popular, here the time up to January 1st was referred to as Between the Years . Innocent XII. 1691, on the other hand, stipulated that December 31 was the last day of the year, and January 1st the first day.
He advised King Charles II of Spain to appoint the Duke of Anjou , the grandson of Louis XIV , as heir to his kingdom, but this could not prevent the War of the Spanish Succession .
- Renata Ago: Innocenzo XII. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi. Volume 3: Innocenzo VIII, Giovanni Paolo II. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2000 ( treccani.it ).
- Michael Tilly : Innocent XII. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 1303-1305.
- Publications by and about Innocent XII. in VD 17 .
- Pignatelli del Rastrello, Antonio. In: Salvador Miranda : The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. ( Florida International University website), accessed May 31, 2012.
- Entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia , Robert Appleton Company, New York 1913.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Pignatelli, Antonio|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Pope (1691–1700)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 13, 1615|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Naples|
|DATE OF DEATH||September 27, 1700|
|Place of death||Rome|