|Louis XIII get married ...||Anna of Austria .|
|Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire discover Cape Horn .|
|Johannes Kepler publishes his barrel rule .||Hasekura Tsunenaga visits Pope Paul V in Rome.|
|1615 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1063/64 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1607/08 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1020/21 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2158/59 (southern Buddhism); 2157/58 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||977/978 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3948/49 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1023/24 (turn of the year January 30/31)|
|Jewish calendar||5375/76 (23/24 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1331/32 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1925/26 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1926/27 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1671/72 (April)|
Politics and world events
- June 4th : Tokugawa Ieyasu's forces end the siege of Osaka by taking the castle . In this case, Toyotomi Hideyori killed and the line of Toyotomi Hideyoshi eradicated. Japan is thus unified and the Sengoku period is over.
- November 21 : The French King Louis XIII. marries the Habsburg Infanta Anna of Austria in the cathedral of Bordeaux . Both spouses are 14 years old at this point in time.
- November 25 : Also in Bordeaux , the ten-year-old heir to the throne Philip , son of Philip III, marries . of Spain , who as Philip II also rules Portugal , the 13-year-old French princess Élisabeth de Bourbon . The double wedding to strengthen the ties between France and Spain was arranged by Ludwig's mother Maria de 'Medici at the suggestion of her advisor Concino Concini .
- March 25 : The Jesuit priest Roque González de Santa Cruz founds the Jesuit reduction Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación de Itapúa , from which the cities of Posadas (in today's Argentina) and Encarnación (in today's Paraguay) develop.
- The Tarrantine War, which has been going on since 1607 in what is now Maine, ends with a Micmac victory over the Penobscot .
- A Portuguese army conquered the French Fort Saint Louis and the surrounding colony of France Équinoxiale in Brazil just three years after it was founded .
- After an earthquake severely damaged the walls and a bastion of Fort São Jorge da Mina , the Netherlands make another attempt to conquer the city of Elmina on the Portuguese gold coast , which, however, again fails with the help of the African population.
Voyages of discovery
- June 14 : Willem Cornelisz Schouten and Jacob Le Maire set sail with two ships from the Dutch island of Texel and discover the passage around the southern tip of South America , which they call Cape Horn .
- November: The Japanese samurai and world traveler Hasekura Tsunenaga receives an audience with Pope Paul V in Rome.
- An expedition led by Robert Bylot , in which William Baffin is also a participant, explores the Hudson Strait in search of the Northwest Passage on behalf of the Muscovy Company on board the Discovery . North of Southampton Island they come to the conclusion by observing the tides that with the Foxe Basin they have reached an enclosed body of water that cannot be part of the passage they are looking for. Instead of in Hudson Bay, the search should rather continue in the Davis Strait area.
- July 27 : Emperor Matthias appoints Lamoral von Taxis hereditary Colonel Postmaster General , who undertakes to set up a postal service on the Via Publica from Brussels via Cologne and Frankfurt to Prague.
- around 1615: The new postmaster Johann von den Birghden founds the Frankfurter Postzeitung in Frankfurt am Main , one of the very first newspapers.
science and technology
Johannes Kepler formulates the " Kepler barrel rule " for the approximate calculation of integrals in his work Nova Stereometria doliorum vinariorum ( New calculation of the contents of wine barrels ), in which he searches for verifiable methods for calculating the contents of wine barrels. One of the methods consists in approximating the curvature of the barrel by means of a parabola, since content calculations can be carried out precisely with the help of parabolas since Archimedes . Among other things, he describes a formula for calculating the capacity (more precisely the volume ) of wine barrels with irregular shapes. This formula provides exact values for the truncated pyramid (including pyramid ), sphere , elliptical paraboloid , single-shell hyperboloid and all other body layers that can be created by plane body cuts perpendicular to the body axes. Since Kepler's barrel rule gives precise results for the volume of pyramids and tetrahedra , it can also be used without errors for Prismoid . It provides good approximations for barrels and barrel-shaped bodies and not too long tree trunks.
- August 25 : In Augsburg which occurs groundbreaking ceremony for the construction of Augsburg City Hall by city architect Elias Holl .
- After the success of the first part in 1605, Miguel de Cervantes published the second part of the novel Don Quixote .
- Waman Puma , also Guaman Poma de Ayala , publishes his chronicle Primer Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno , which becomes a unique historical source about the Incas and colonial Peru.
- The Accademia dei Floridi is founded in Bologna .
Date of birth saved
- January 11th : Katharina Charlotte von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Countess Palatine of Neuburg and Duchess of Jülich-Berg († 1651 )
- January 17 : Christian Chemnitz , German Lutheran theologian († 1666 )
- January 25 : Govaert Flinck , Dutch painter († 1660 )
- February 23 : Nicolas Fouquet , French finance minister († 1680 )
- March 1 : Henry Frederick Thynne, 1st Baronet , English nobleman († 1680 )
- March 11 : Johann Weikhard von Auersperg , Austrian Minister, Prince of Auersperg, Prince of Tengen and Duke of Münsterberg († 1677 )
- March 13th : Antonio Pignatelli, under the name of Innocent XII. Pope from 1691 to 1700 († 1700 )
- March 19 : Rasmus Vinding , Danish professor († 1684 )
- April 4 : Johannes Meisner , German Lutheran theologian († 1681 )
- June 4 : Gaspard Poussin , Italian painter († 1675 )
- July 28 : Charles de Noyelle , general of the Jesuits († 1686 )
- September 12 : Sophie von Hessen-Kassel , Princess of Hessen-Kassel, by marriage to Countess von Schaumburg-Lippe († 1670 )
- September 26 : Heinrich Bach , German organist († 1692 )
- October 26 : Jean Nocret , French painter and portraitist († 1672 )
- October 27 : Christian I , Duke of Saxony-Merseburg († 1691 )
- November 4 : İbrahim , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1648 )
- November 24th : Philipp Wilhelm , Duke of Palatinate-Neuburg and Jülich-Berg, Elector Palatinate († 1690 )
- December 13 : Gottfried Suevus the Elder , Polish legal scholar († 1659 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Armand de Sillègue d'Athos d'Autevielle , French musketeer († 1645 )
- Richard Salwey , English politician († 1685 )
- Stephan Pilarick , philosopher and theologian († 1693 )
- Otto Johann Witte , German politician († 1677 )
Date of death secured
- January 8 : Samuel Selfisch , German publisher and bookseller, Mayor of Wittenberg (* 1529 )
- January 31 : Claudio Acquaviva , Superior General of the Societas Jesu (* 1543 )
- March 4 : Hans von Aachen , German painter (* 1552 )
- March 6 : Pieter Both , first Governor General of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Southeast Asia (* 1568 )
- March 10 : John Ogilvie , monk in the Jesuit order and martyr of the Catholic Church (* around 1580 )
- March 27 : Margaret of Valois , Queen of France and Navarre (* 1553 )
- June 1 : Al-Burini , Ottoman scholar and chronicler (* 1556 )
- June 24th : Simon Ulrich Pistoris , legal scholar and diplomat from Saxony (* 1570 )
- August 18 : Louis Métezeau , French architect (* 1559 or 1560 )
- August 23 : François de Joyeuse , French cardinal of the Catholic Church and cardinal dean (* 1562 )
- September 22 : Heinrich Petreus , German lawyer and humanist (* 1546 )
- September 27 : Arbella Stuart , English nobleman (* 1575 )
- November 11th : Abraham Suarinus , German Lutheran theologian (* 1563 )
- November 24th : Sethus Calvisius , composer, music theorist and cantor (* 1556 )
- December 7th : Gerard Reynst , second governor general of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Southeast Asia
- December 26th : August , administrator of the diocese of Naumburg (* 1589 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Bashabes , a Sagamore of the Kennebec , an Indian tribe of the Eastern Abenaki from the extreme northeast of the USA
- Timothy Bright , English developer of a shorthand system (* around 1551 )
- Françoise de Cezelli , French military governor and war hero (* 1558 )