|Jost Amman and Hans Sachs appears.||Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra discovers the wake atoll and lands on the Solomon Islands .|
|Eighty Years War begins with the Battle of Heiligerlee .|
|1568 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1016/17 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2111/12 (southern Buddhism); 2110/11 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||930/931 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3901/02 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||975/976 (turn of the year 25/26 June)|
|Jewish calendar||5328/29 (September 22/23)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1878/79 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1879/80 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1624/25 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Eighty Years War
- February 16 : The Congregation of the Roman and General Inquisition in a decree condemns all three million or so Dutch people to death for heresy and only exempts a few named persons. Ten days later, the Spanish King Philip II confirmed the Inquisition's decree and ordered the executions to begin.
- April 2 to 4 : In a secret diplomatic conference at Freudenberg Castle , a delegation from the nobles of Gelderland is promised military support in the fight against Spain by William I of Orange .
- May 23 : In the Battle of Heiligerlee , the first battle of the Eighty Years War , the rebellious Dutch Geusen , led by Ludwig and Adolf von Nassau , two brothers of William I of Orange-Nassau , defeat the army of the governor of the Spaniards in Groningen , Johann von Ligne , Count of Arenberg . However, the rebels fail to take the city of Groningen .
- June 5th : Counts Lamoral de Egmond and Philippe de Montmorency are beheaded in the market square in Brussels . The Spanish governor Alba had them brought before the Council of Troubles , which sentenced the accused to death for high treason . The executions helped trigger the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain .
- July 21 : Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba , who pursued the rebels under Ludwig von Nassau to East Friesland, defeated them in the Battle of Jemgum . All prisoners are then executed and the area is burned for three days.
- February 17 : In Adrianople peace is concluded between Emperor Maximilian II and Ottoman Sultan Selim II in the Turkish war that has been waged since the summer of 1566 . The contract is for a period of eight years, but is subsequently extended three times for the same period until the third Austrian Turkish War breaks out in 1593.
- March 23rd : With the Peace of Longjumeau, Catherine de Medici attempts to end the hostilities that began with the Second Huguenot War . But after six months the next religious war breaks out in France .
Scotland / England
- May: The Scottish Queen Maria Stuart manages to escape from Loch Leven Castle , where she was imprisoned by the rebellious Scottish nobility the previous year .
- May 19 : With the knowledge of Queen Elizabeth I of England , Maria Stuart is arrested and imprisoned in Carlisle .
- 4th July : Karin Månsdotter and King Erik XIV, who have been secretly married for almost a year, officially marry in Stockholm . The next day the queen is crowned.
- September 29th : The Swedish ruler Erik XIV is overthrown by the aristocratic opposition under the leadership of his half-brothers Johann and Karl . His half-brother Johann III. is recognized as the new Swedish king.
Other events in Europe
- August 21 : Jean de la Valette , Grand Master of the Order of Malta in Malta , dies. His successor Pierre de Monte continues the construction of the fortress town of Valetta , which began in 1566 . Gerolamo Cassar takes over the construction of the city from Francesco Laparelli .
Voyages of discovery
- January 16 : In search of Terra Australis , the Spaniard Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra is the first European to sight the island of Nui , which is now part of Tuvalu .
- February 7th : Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra is the first European to see the Pacific island of Santa Isabel, which he named . He baptized the surrounding archipelago the Solomon Islands , today they are part of the Solomon Islands . A few days later, he lands on the island, where the team stays until August 7th and explores the surrounding islands such as Choiseul , Makira , Guadalcanal and Malaita .
- October 4th : Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra discovers the remote atoll Wake in the Pacific.
science and technology
- The cartographer Gottfried Mascop creates a map of the dioceses of Münster and Osnabrück.
The German draftsman, copper etcher and engraver, form cutter, painter and book author Jost Amman gives a detailed description of all classes on earth, high and low, spiritual and secular, all arts, crafts and trades ... ( Book of the class , with verses by Hans Sachs ) out.
- The so-called town hall between the cities , located between the old town and the new town of Warburg , is built.
- Wedding between Duke Wilhelm V of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine
- January 13th : The Transylvanian state parliament under King Johann Sigismund , under the decisive influence of the reformer Franz David , issues the Edict of Torda , which equates Catholics , Lutherans , Reformed and Unitarians .
- The Weseler Konvent , a gathering of leading church people from Dutch refugee communities, takes place in the Hanseatic city of Wesel at the beginning of the year . The resolutions made there are still formative for the church order of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands and result in the introduction of presbyterial-synodal structures in all German regional churches.
Date of birth saved
- January 15 : Johannes Hartmann , German polymath († 1631 )
- January 20 : Daniel Cramer , German Lutheran theologian, chronicler and author († 1637 )
- January 20 : Ventura Salimbeni , Italian painter and engraver († 1613 )
- February: Giuseppe Cesari , called Cavalier d'Arpino , Italian painter († 1640 )
- March 9 : Aloisius von Gonzaga , one of the saints who died at a young age († 1591 )
- March 30th : Sir Henry Wotton , English diplomat, poet and art connoisseur († 1639 )
- April 5 : Maffeo Barberini, as Urban VIII Pope († 1644 )
- June 6 : Sophie von Brandenburg , Electress of Saxony († 1622 )
- June 25 : Gunilla Bielke , Queen of Sweden († 1597 )
- July 25 : Georg Ridinger , actually Georg von Ridinger, German architect and builder († 1617 )
- August 15 : Zdeněk Vojtěch von Lobkowicz , Bohemian nobleman († 1628 )
- August 26 : Antonie von Lothringen , Duchess of Jülich-Kleve-Berg († 1610 )
- September 3 : Adriano Banchieri , Italian monk and composer († 1634 )
- September 5 : Tommaso Campanella , Italian philosopher († 1639 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Cornelis de Jode , Dutch cartographer († 1600 )
- Aleixo de Abreu , Portuguese doctor († 1630 )
- Jakob Adam , German preacher († 1618 )
- Nicolas Ager , French botanist († 1634 )
- August I. , Bishop of Ratzeburg († 1636 )
- Jan Brueghel the Elder , Flemish painter († 1625 )
- Arngrímur Jónsson , Icelandic scholar († 1648 )
Born around 1568
First half of the year
- January 11 : Balthasar , Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein (* 1520 )
- January 15 : Miklós Oláh , Hungarian archbishop, writer, politician and theologian (* 1493 )
- February 25 : Philipp Georg Schenk zu Schweinsberg , Prince Abbot of Fulda (* around 1510 )
- March 11 : Alexandru Lăpușneanu , Voivode of the Principality of Moldova (* after 1500 )
- March 12 : Cyriacus Lindemann , German educator (* 1516 )
- March 20 : Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach , first Duke of Prussia (* 1490 )
- March 20 : Anna Maria , Duchess of Prussia (* 1532 )
- May 6 : Bernardo Salviati , Cardinal of the Catholic Church (* 1508 )
- May 13 : Sophia of Pomerania , Queen of Denmark and Norway (* 1498 )
- May 23 : Johann von Ligne , Count of Arenberg (* around 1525 )
- May 23 : Adolf von Nassau , brother of Wilhelm I of Orange (* 1540 )
- June 5th : Lamoral von Egmond , governor of Flanders and Artois, army of high glory from Purmerend, Purmerland and Ilpendam, Baron von Fiennes, lord of Hoogwoud and Aartswoud, Sotteghem, Armentières and Auxy, executed as a Dutch freedom fighter (* 1522 )
- June 5 : Philippe de Montmorency, Count von Hoorn , Dutch admiral and freedom fighter, executed (* 1526 )
- June 11th : Heinrich the Younger , Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1489 )
- June 26 : Thomas Young , Archbishop of York (* 1507 )
Second half of the year
- July 6th : Johannes Oporinus , Swiss humanist, printer, publisher, secretary and teacher (* 1507 )
- July 7th : William Turner , English naturalist (* around 1510 )
- July 24th : Don Carlos , Infanta of Spain from the House of Austria and Prince of Asturias (* 1545 )
- August 15 : Stanislaus Kostka , saint of the Catholic Church (* 1550 )
- August 21 : Jean de la Valette , 49th Grand Master of the Order of Malta and founder of La Valetta (* 1494 )
- September 26 : Leonor de Cisnere , Spanish evangelical martyr (* around 1535 )
- October 3 : Elisabeth of Valois , Queen of Spain (* 1545 )
- October 19 : Johann Aurifaber , German theologian (* 1517 )
- October 28th : Ashikaga Yoshihide , Japanese Shogun (* 1538 )
- November 6th : Anna , Princess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Duchess of Pomerania (* 1502 )
- December 4 : Johann Schneidewein , German lawyer (* 1519 )
- December 23 : Friedrich IV. Von Wied , Archbishop of Cologne (* 1518 )
- December 24th : Heinrich V. von Plauen , Burgrave of Meißen and Lord of Plauen (* 1533 )
- December 28 : Christoph , Duke of Württemberg (* 1515 )
- December 30th : Roger Ascham , English educator (* 1515 )