Mumtaz Mahal's death,
the Taj Mahal is built for them .
Gustav II Adolf defeats Tilly
in the Battle of Breitenfeld .
Catholic League conquers Magdeburg and razes the city
to the ground in the so-called Magdeburg Wedding .
|1631 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1079/80 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1623/24 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1036/37 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2174/75 (southern Buddhism); 2173/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||993/994 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3964/65 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1009/10 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1040/41 (July 29/30)|
|Jewish calendar||5391/92 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1347/48 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1941/42 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1942/43 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1687/88 (April)|
Politics and world events
Thirty Years' War
- January 23 : France and Sweden sign the Bärwalde Treaty . France supports King Gustav Adolf of Sweden with aid money in the fight against the Catholic League .
- February 26th : The Leipzig Convention meets. On the initiative of the Saxon Elector Johann Georg I , the Protestant imperial estates are to debate the conditions for ending the war in the empire .
- April 3 : Gustav Adolf of Sweden conquers the city of Frankfurt on the Oder . The imperial garrison under Ernesto Montecuccoli flees over the Oder bridge , with many of those fleeing drowning. There follows a night of horror in which the city is looted .
- April 21 : The Protestant signatories of the manifesto of the Leipzig Convention were raised in the Thirty Years' War against Emperor Ferdinand II. He closes with the Catholic Estates the wishes of the Protestant side negotiations on a withdrawal of the Edict of Restitution what the conflict escalate leaves .
- 21 / April 23 : After Tilly has contracted 30,000 men with guns in front of Magdeburg in March, the Swedish officer ordered Dietrich von Falkenberg the suburbs Neustadt and Sudenburg to clear not to hold more. The Trutz Pappenheim , Magdeburger Succurs and Trutz Tilly ski jumps to the south-east of the city subsequently fell to the imperial family.
- May 20 : Magdeburg is conquered and destroyed by imperial troops under Count von Tilly and Gottfried Heinrich zu Pappenheim . Around 20,000 people, around a third of the population, are killed. The event is given the euphemistic name Magdeburg Wedding . Most of the survivors have to leave the city because the destruction has robbed them of their livelihoods. Epidemics that occur as a result claim further deaths.
- May 30th : Maximilian I concludes the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau with France .
- July 28th : The imperial rulers under Heinrich von Holk offer bitter resistance to the Swedes near Wolmirstedt .
- August 7th : The battle of Werben follows the bombardment of the city by troops of the Catholic League under their general Count von Tilly . The Swedes, under the command of King Gustav II Adolf, win the battle.
- September 7th : Defeat of imperial troops under Don Baltasar von Marradas against Swedish troops under Hans Georg von Arnim near Breslau.
- September 14th : Tilly conquers the Pleißenburg fortress in Leipzig .
- September 17th : The armies of the Swedes and Electorates of Saxony under Gustav II Adolf defeat the general Johann t'Serclaes von Tilly , who heads the Catholic League , in the battle of Breitenfeld . The Swedes allegedly used peloton fire for the first time in this battle.
- October 18 : The Swedes under King Gustav II Adolf conquer Würzburg and its Marienberg fortress .
- November 15 : Prague is taken by troops from the Electorate of Saxony under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg .
- December 7th : Saxon troops under Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg defeat an imperial army under the command of Rudolf von Tiefenbach near the Bohemian city of Nimburg .
- December 15 : Wallenstein becomes again imperial commander in chief
- December 18 : Gustav II Adolf crosses the Rhine near Erfelden near Darmstadt .
- December 23 : The Swedish King Gustav II Adolf and his troops enter Mainz without hindrance and occupy the city (until 1636).
Mantuan War of Succession
- April 6 : In the first treaty of Cherasco , Emperor Ferdinand II renounces Mantua and Montferrat . The French occupy the vacated Graubünden .
- June 19 : The Peace of Cherasco ends the Mantuan War of Succession between France and the House of Habsburg over northern Italian property.
Other events in Europe
- June 20 : Corsairs from the Barbarian Coast raid the Irish port city of Baltimore and abduct more than 100 people into slavery .
- September 12th / 13th : The sea battle on the Slaak in the Eighty Years War between the Netherlands and Spain ends with a complete victory for the Dutch.
North and South America
- November 24th : The Dutch occupy Olinda , the capital of Pernambuco , and set the city on fire. They prefer to invest their capital in nearby Recife .
- May 30th : Theophraste Renaudot , the royal personal physician , publishes the first French newspaper La Gazette . The weekly paper existed until 1915, from 1762 under the title Gazette de France .
- August 22nd : King Charles I of England founds the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers by decree .
science and technology
- November 6th : Pierre Gassendi is the first person to observe a passage through Mercury .
- December 7th : First predicted passage of Venus ( Johannes Kepler ). Since the passage of Venus takes place at a time when the sun is below the horizon in Central Europe, no reports of observations have come down to us.
- The English navigator Thomas James goes in search of the Northwest Passage . The journey lasts until 1633 . He first explored Hudson Bay , the southern part of which is now called James Bay .
- After the death of Mumtaz Mahal , the favorite wife of Mughal Mughal Shah Jahan , he commissioned the construction of a mausoleum, the Taj Mahal near Agra .
Society and religion
- July 16 : With the death of Prince-Bishop Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg , the witch trials in Würzburg , which he had excessively carried out, come to a temporary end. The cathedral capitular Franz von Hatzfeld was elected as his successor as Prince-Bishop of Würzburg on August 7th, but he soon had to flee to Cologne from the approaching Swedes.
- The work Cautio criminalis seu de processibus contra Sagas Liber ( Cautio criminalis or legal concerns about the witch trials ) appears in the university printing press of Petrus Lucius in Rinteln an der Weser . With the work, which has been published anonymously for the time being, the Catholic poet and Jesuit Friedrich Spee opposes the practice of witch trials and thus makes a decisive contribution to the end of the witch craze in Germany.
On December 16 the breaks Vesuvius from. On the morning of the following day, the top of the volcano is blown away. The eruption, accompanied by strong earthquakes and tidal waves, lasted until December 18 and continued with smaller tremors and ash ejections until the beginning of 1632. Lava , ash fall and mud flows cause damage in Torre Annunziata , Torre del Greco , Pugliano , Portici and other places in the area, a 30 cm layer of ash covers Naples . The volcanic dust is still registered in Istanbul . Although 40,000 people flee to Naples for protection, the eruption kills 4,000 people and 6,000 pets.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 10th : Luise von Anhalt-Dessau , Duchess of Liegnitz, Brieg, Wohlau and Ohlau († 1680 )
- March 16 : Johann Adolf von Fürstenberg , German Catholic clergyman and diplomat († 1704 )
- August 5 : Adam Adamandy Kochański , Polish mathematician († 1700 )
- August 10 : Erich Mauritius , German legal scholar († 1691 )
- August 18 : Kanō Einō , Japanese painter († 1697 )
- August 19 : John Dryden , English poet, literary critic and playwright († 1700 )
- September 29 : Johann Heinrich Roos , German painter († 1685 )
- October 3 : Sebastian Anton Scherer , German organist at Ulm Minster and German composer († 1712 )
- October 6 : Emanuel , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen († 1670 )
- October 18 : Michael Wigglesworth , New England theologian, preacher and poet († 1705 )
- November 4 : Maria Henrietta Stuart , Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau († 1660 )
- November 17 : Ludwig Gebhard von Hoym , Royal Polish and Electoral Saxon Privy Councilor († 1711 )
- December 6 : Antonio Zanchi , Italian painter († 1722 )
- December 24th : Bernhard Gustav von Baden-Durlach , cardinal and prince abbot of Fulda and Kempten († 1677 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Nicolas Antoine Le Bègue , French organist, harpsichordist and composer († 1702 )
- Maria Franziska von Eptingen , Abbess of Olsberg Monastery († 1707 )
- Cornelis Pietersz. Bega , Dutch painter († 1664 ), year of birth possibly also 1632
January to July
- January 3 : Michelangelo Galilei , Italian composer and lutenist of the early Baroque (* 1575 )
- January 20 : Jakob Matham , Dutch engraver (* 1571 )
- March 4 : Bénédict Turrettini , Swiss theologian (* 1588 )
- March 28 : Juan van der Hamen y León , Spanish baroque painter (* 1596 )
- March 31 : John Donne , English poet (* 1572 )
- April 2 : Nicolò Contarini , 97th Doge of Venice (* 1552 )
- April 3 : Philipp Dulichius , German composer (* 1562 )
- April 23 : Francesco Maria II. Della Rovere , Duke of Urbino (* 1549 )
- April 30th : Louise-Marguerite de Lorraine-Guise , Princess of Conti (* 1588 )
- May 20 : Dietrich von Falkenberg , was a Swedish colonel and military commander of Magdeburg (* 1580 )
- June 17th : Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Bano Begum), wife of the Grand Mogul Shah Jahan, who built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for her (* 1593 )
- June 21 : John Smith , English mercenary and adventurer (* 1580 )
- July 16 : Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, counter-reformer and witch hunter (* 1583 )
August to December
- August 14 : Henneke von Essen , Mayor of Arnsberg and victim of the witch hunt (* 1561 )
- August 18 : Hans Bernd von Botzheim , court official and member of the fruitful society
- August 30th : Carlo II. Gonzaga , Duke of Mayenne and d'Aiguillon, Marquis de Villars, Comte du Maine and Comte de Tende (* 1609 )
- September 15 : Gottlieb Aenetius , German physicist (* 1574 )
- September 19 : Adolf von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , German nobleman and adventurer (* 1600 )
- September 21 : Joachim Zollikofer , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1547 )
- September 22nd : Federico Borromeo , Archbishop of Milan and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1564 )
- September 22nd : Heinrich Compenius the Younger , German organ builder (* around 1565 )
- October 3 : Sophie von Mecklenburg , Queen of Denmark (* 1557 )
- October 20 : Michael Maestlin , German mathematician and astronomer (* 1550 )
- November 1st : Maria Magdalena of Austria , Grand Duchess and Regent of Tuscany (* 1587 )
- November 5 : Johann Liss , German painter (* 1597 )
- December 9 : Liborius Wagner , Catholic priest; was beatified in 1974 (* 1593 )
- December 12 : Johannes Hartmann , German polymath (* 1568 )
- December 16 : Johann Günther II. , Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (* 1577 )
- December 23 : Michael Drayton , English poet (* 1563 )
- December 25th : Johann Avenarius II. , German legal scholar