- 1618 to 1648 : Thirty Years War .
- 1641 : Parker Volcano erupts on January 4th in the Philippines . The eruption cloud darkened Mindanao Island for several weeks. The eruption reached a level of five on the volcanic explosion index .
- 1641: Japan closes its ports; The country began to be isolated from the outside world, which would last until 1853 .
- 1642 : Beginning of the English Civil War between the Crown and Parliament (until 1648 ), which ends with the victory of the parliamentary armed forces.
- 1644 : Beginning of the Qing Dynasty .
- 1648: End of the Thirty Years War through the Peace of Westphalia .
- 1649 : King Charles I of England is beheaded for high treason . England becomes a republic under Oliver Cromwell .
- Louis XIV , King of France and Navarre
- Jules Mazarin , cardinal
- Ferdinand III. , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Philip IV , King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Portugal
- Friedrich Wilhelm , Elector of Brandenburg
- Innocent X , Pope
- Urban VIII. , Pope
- Michael I , Tsar in Russia
- Alexei I , Tsar in Russia
- Oliver Cromwell , Lord Protector in England, Scotland and Ireland
- Charles I , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Go-Kōmyō , Emperor of Japan
- Meishō , Empress of Japan
- Chongzhen , Emperor of China
- Shunzhi , Emperor of China
- Jan Brueghel the Younger completes the satirical painting Allegory of Tulipomania . It refers to what is known as the tulip mania in the Netherlands in the 1630s.