Michael I. (Russia)
Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov ( Russian Михаил Федорович Романов ., Scientific Translit. Mikhail Romanov Fedorovič * July 12 jul. / 22. July 1596 greg. In Moscow , † July 13 jul. / 23. July 1645 greg. In Moscow) was the first Tsar and Grand Duke of Russia from the Romanov dynasty . He ruled from 1613 to 1645.
Mikhail was born on July 12, 1596, the son of the boyar Fyodor Nikititsch Romanow -Jurjew, a cousin of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich , and his wife Xenia Ivanovna Schestowa. The Romanov family was persecuted by the then ruler of Russia Boris Godunov after being denounced . Fyodor Nikititsch was banished under the name of "Monk Philaret " to the Anton Sijskij monastery and Xenia Ivanovna as Marfa to a monastery near Lake Onega. Mikhail and two of his aunts were banished to the actual home of the Romanovs, the city of Klin , in 1603 . Pseudodimitri I rehabilitated the family. From 1605 on, the young Mikhail and his parents lived in Rostov .
In the early years, his policy was directed primarily against Poland . Polish troops besieged Moscow at the time of his election. King Sigismund III. of Poland refused to recognize Mikhail's rule because he wanted to bring his son Władysław IV. Wasa , who had been elected tsar before Michael, to the throne. In this demand the Russians saw the treaty concluded in Tushino in 1610 broken and demanded the return of Smolensk .
This conflict could only be partially resolved with the peace treaty of Deulino (near Moscow) of December 11, 1618, which guaranteed a peace of 14 ½ years and 1634 with the conclusion of the perpetual peace with Poland, which ended the Smolensk War . On the evening before the latter was signed, a secret article was signed by Russian envoys allegedly obliging Moscow to pay 20,000 rubles to Poland for the cession of the city of Serpeysk . In reality, however, it was about Wladyslaw's renunciation of the tsar title.
In 1624 he married Maria Dolgorukaja for the first time , but she died early. She was most likely poisoned. In his second marriage in 1626 he married Evdokia Streschnewa , who gave him numerous children:
- Irina (April 22, 1627 - February 8, 1679), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Pelageja (April 20, 1628 - January 25, 1629), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Alexei I (March 29, 1629 - February 8, 1676), Tsar of Russia,
- Anna (July 14, 1630 - October 27, 1692), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Marfa (August 14, 1631 - September 21, 1633), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Ivan (June 1, 1633 - January 10, 1639), Grand Duke of Russia,
- Sofia (14 September 1634 - 23 April 1636), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Tatiana (January 5, 1636 - August 23, 1706), Grand Duchess of Russia,
- Evdokija (* / † February 10, 1637), Grand Duchess of Russia, and
- Wassili (* / † March 25, 1639), Grand Duke of Russia.
- Publications by and about Michael I in VD 17 .
- Antonia von Reiche: The Path of Russian Tsarism to Recognition in the Period from 1547 to 1722 , Law, University of Hamburg , 2002 (PDF; 1.4 MB)
Tsar of Russia
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Romanov, Mikhail Fyodorowitsch; Романов, Михаил Фёдорович (Russian); Romanov, Michail Fedorovič (scientific transliteration)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Tsar of Russia (1613–1645)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 22, 1596|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Moscow , Tsarist Russia|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 23, 1645|
|Place of death||Moscow , Tsarist Russia|