Michael I. (Russia)

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Tsar Michael I of Russia

Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov ( Russian Михаил Федорович Романов ., Scientific Translit. Mikhail Romanov Fedorovič * July 12 jul. / 22. July  1596 greg. In Moscow , † July 13 jul. / 23. July  1645 greg. In Moscow) was the first Tsar and Grand Duke of Russia from the Romanov dynasty . He ruled from 1613 to 1645.


Mikhail was born on July 12, 1596, the son of the boyar Fyodor Nikititsch Romanow -Jurjew, a cousin of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich , and his wife Xenia Ivanovna Schestowa. The Romanov family was persecuted by the then ruler of Russia Boris Godunov after being denounced . Fyodor Nikititsch was banished under the name of "Monk Philaret " to the Anton Sijskij monastery and Xenia Ivanovna as Marfa to a monastery near Lake Onega. Mikhail and two of his aunts were banished to the actual home of the Romanovs, the city of Klin , in 1603 . Pseudodimitri I rehabilitated the family. From 1605 on, the young Mikhail and his parents lived in Rostov .


The young Michael Romanov between Minin and Poscharsky on the National Monument Thousand Years of Russia in Novgorod

Mikhail Fedorovich was (after the March 3, 1613 Julian Calendar 21 February), elected tsar and on 21 July 1613 (or July 11) was crowned Czar .

In the early years, his policy was directed primarily against Poland . Polish troops besieged Moscow at the time of his election. King Sigismund III. of Poland refused to recognize Mikhail's rule because he wanted to bring his son Władysław IV. Wasa , who had been elected tsar before Michael, to the throne. In this demand the Russians saw the treaty concluded in Tushino in 1610 broken and demanded the return of Smolensk .

This conflict could only be partially resolved with the peace treaty of Deulino (near Moscow) of December 11, 1618, which guaranteed a peace of 14 ½ years and 1634 with the conclusion of the perpetual peace with Poland, which ended the Smolensk War . On the evening before the latter was signed, a secret article was signed by Russian envoys allegedly obliging Moscow to pay 20,000 rubles to Poland for the cession of the city of Serpeysk . In reality, however, it was about Wladyslaw's renunciation of the tsar title.


In 1624 he married Maria Dolgorukaja for the first time , but she died early. She was most likely poisoned. In his second marriage in 1626 he married Evdokia Streschnewa , who gave him numerous children:

  • Irina (April 22, 1627 - February 8, 1679), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Pelageja (April 20, 1628 - January 25, 1629), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Alexei I (March 29, 1629 - February 8, 1676), Tsar of Russia,
  • Anna (July 14, 1630 - October 27, 1692), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Marfa (August 14, 1631 - September 21, 1633), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Ivan (June 1, 1633 - January 10, 1639), Grand Duke of Russia,
  • Sofia (14 September 1634 - 23 April 1636), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Tatiana (January 5, 1636 - August 23, 1706), Grand Duchess of Russia,
  • Evdokija (* / † February 10, 1637), Grand Duchess of Russia, and
  • Wassili (* / † March 25, 1639), Grand Duke of Russia.

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predecessor Office successor
Władysław IV.
Tsar of Russia
Alexei I.