Tuschino ( Russian Тушино , ) is the name of a settlement in the north of the city that has belonged to Moscow since 1960 and of a passenger station of the same name on the Moscow – Riga line. In 1991, Tushino Raion was divided into the districts of North Tushino ( Russian Северное Тушино ), South Tushino ( Russian Южное Тушино ) and Pokrovskoye-Streschnewo (in the northwestern administrative district ).
Tushino was first mentioned in the 14th century and belonged to the Kvashin-Tusha boyars . In the 16th century Tushino fell into the possession of the Trinity Monastery . Ivan the Terrible had one of the most impressive churches built there with the typical sloping roof. Tushino was then used as an accommodation facility for the state visit before they were received in Moscow. During the Smuta , the false son of the tsar, Pseudodimitri II , held court in Tushino in 1608/1609 until he was driven out of Tushino as a thief .
Industrialization began in the second half of the 18th century , initially with windmills and weaving mills. In 1920 a stocking factory started production. In 1929 the mass organization OSSOAWIACHIM founded the Tushino airfield and flight school. Later, the company developed near this airport GP Tushino MKB Soyuz , an aircraft factory and research institutions in the aviation and aerospace .
In 1939 Tushino received city rights.
Tushino became internationally known after the Soviet army showed aircraft overflights here every year since 1933 - with the exception of World War II - to demonstrate the state of Soviet aviation developments. Western observers were also invited. To this day, the flight day in Tuschino is a popular travel destination for people interested in aviation and technology from all over the world and has always offered surprises.
What is less well known is that after the Second World War , German specialists lived and worked with their families in Tushino (see Ossawakim campaign ). There were two groups. The first worked on the development of aircraft engines from 1946 to 1950, the second group developed guidance systems for anti-aircraft missiles and aircraft from 1950 to 1955. This group comprised about 100 German specialists with their families. They lived in a special settlement in what is now North Tushino, enclosed by a 2.5 m high wooden fence. The adults were only allowed to leave the settlement after registering, accompanied by a Soviet security officer (e.g. shopping, theater visits, but also hospital stays). A special school was set up in the settlement for those starting school, the teachers were Russian, but the language of instruction was German. In 1955 this group came to Sukhumi to “cool off”. The specialist knowledge should no longer be interesting in Western Europe. From 1956 the first specialists were allowed to return to the GDR , all those who had decided directly for the West had to stay in Sukhumi until February 1958 as a “punishment”.
Tushino train station
Through southern Tushino the most runs Riga railhead incipient Moscow railway line Moscow- Riga , which was also a station for commuter trains is called Tushino. It was established in 1903 and today serves as a stop for all regional connections from Moscow to places such as Krasnogorsk , Dedowsk , Istra or Wolokolamsk . In addition, the station is an important transfer point both to a large number of bus lines (including urban and intercity buses) and to the metro , whose Tushinskaya station on line 7, built in 1975, is in the immediate vicinity of the station.
- Overview of the Russian space companies at russianspaceweb (engl.)
- Karl-Heinz Eyermann , Wolfgang Sellenthin: The air parades of the USSR. Central Board of the Society for German-Soviet Friendship, 1967. p. 30.