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Krasnogorsk is located in the Moscow metropolitan area , just outside the MKAD ring road , around 25 km northwest of the Russian capital. The nearest cities are - apart from Moscow - Khimki and Dedovsk . Both are about 15 km from Krasnogorsk.
Krasnogorsk emerged from several villages, including Banki , which owes its name to the river Banka ( Банька ), and Pavschino , to which the name of the train station in Krasnogorsk reminds us to this day. All of these villages have been known since the 19th century at the latest.
The present city did not begin to form until 1932. At that time, the village of Banki was converted into a workers' settlement for the factory for optical devices established there. At the same time the place got its current name, which was chosen largely arbitrarily and means something like "Rotebergstadt" (cf. the coat of arms). In the 1930s, the infrastructure of the settlement and the newly formed Krasnogorsk Rajon of the Moscow Oblast was greatly expanded; Among other things, a concrete factory was built in the city and new kolkhozes were established in the surrounding area . On October 7, 1940, Krasnogorsk was officially declared a city.
The city was fought over during the Battle of Moscow in late 1941. For this reason the optics factory had to be evacuated from time to time.
In the post-war period, industry in Krasnogorsk was rebuilt and the city was expanded to include several new quarters. In the course of a regional reform in 2004, several neighboring localities were incorporated, which together with the city center now form the “Krasnogorsk Municipal Settlement”. The latter extends to the east right up to the city limits of Moscow. In 2007 the new residence of the Moscow Oblast Administration was built in Krasnogorsk.
POW camp in Krasnogorsk
POW camp 27 for German prisoners of war from World War II was located in Krasnogorsk . A small special camp under the control of the Soviet military secret service GRU was assigned to the camp . The Antifa school of this special camp (called Lunjowo , Lunevo or Lunewo , from Russian Лунёво) became the political academy of the later GDR administrative organs. On July 12, 1943, the National Committee Free Germany was founded in the Lunjowo camp , two months later on 11/12. September 1943 the Association of German Officers (BDO).
Even after the capitulation and the end of the war on May 8, 1945, the camp continued to be used and so mainly German scientists (e.g. a group of employees from the field of the physicist Manfred von Ardenne from Berlin-Lichterfelde) came here as part of the Russian Reparation claims interned. In 1945 the well-known Danish opera tenor Helge Rosvaenge was abducted from liberated Berlin by the NKVD and held in the camp for a few months.
With the extensive dismantling of the Zeiss plant in Jena in 1946, 300 so-called specialists (engineers and skilled workers) were brought from Zeiss to the Soviet Union as part of the Ossawakim campaign to set up Zeiss production in the optical plant in Krasnogorsk . These specialists lived in a property on Parkovaya ulitsa (“Park Street”) in Krasnogorsk. The majority of Zeiss specialists were able to return to Germany in 1951, but some not until the end of 1953.
There was also a camp for Japanese prisoners of war in Krasnogorsk. Polish aristocrats, including entire families ( Krasicki , Radziwiłł , Branicki , Zamoyski ) , were interned with Japanese prisoners of war .
Note: census data
Culture and sights
- Memorial Museum of German Antifascists: The “Memorial Museum of German Antifascists” was opened in 1985 in the former building of the Central Antifascist School for Prisoners of War (Antifaschule) in the presence of representatives from the FRG and the GDR. Today the museum is a branch of the Moscow Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War .
Street: Krasnogorsk is located on the M9 trunk road and on the railway line from Moscow to Riga and has the Pavschino regional train station on it with regular train connections to the Riga train station in Moscow.
Metro: At the end of 2009, the Mjakinino station of the Moscow Metro ( Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line ), located in the Krasnogorsk urban area, went into operation. This is also the first station of the Moscow Metro to be built outside the city limits of Moscow.
Krasnogorsk is primarily known as a location for the production of photo cameras (e.g. the brands Zenit , Zorki and Krasnogorsk ) and other optical devices for civil and military use by the KMZ company , which emerged from the optics factory founded in 1932. There are also building materials, packaging and food companies in the city.
Krasnogorsk is one of the strongholds of Russian ice speedway sports . Several times the ice rink in Krasnogorsk has held Grand Prix races as part of the individual ice speedway world championships.
The city's sporting flagship is the bandy club HK Sorki Krasnogorsk , which won the first edition of the Russian Super League in 1993. The young women's football team FC Sorki Krasnogorsk , which was only founded in 2006, has already participated in the UEFA Women's Champions League several times and reached the quarter-finals in 2013 and 2014.
Krasnogorsk lists the following twin cities :
- Tukums , Latvia (since 1996)
- Höchstadt an der Aisch in Bavaria , Germany (since 2003)
- Plungė , Lithuania (since 2003)
- Wągrowiec , Poland
- Goirle in Noord-Brabant , Netherlands
sons and daughters of the town
- Vladimir Petrov (1947-2017), ice hockey player
- Dmitri Karassew (* 1970), beach volleyball player
- Julia Deulina (* 1984), ice hockey player
- Igor Oschiganow (born 1992), ice hockey player
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Erich Maschke (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- Jörg Morré: Behind the Scenes of the National Committee: The Institute 99 in Moscow and the German policy of the USSR 1943–1946. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2001, ISBN 3-486-64582-X , p. 118 ( online in the Google book search)
- Hit in the Google book search
- Rolf-Dieter Müller, Hans-Erich Volkmann: The Wehrmacht: Myth and Reality. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 1999, ISBN 3-486-56383-1 , p. 614 ( online in the Google book search)
- Helge Rosvaenge: Lache Bajazzo. Serious and cheerful things from my life. Wilhelm Andermann Verlag, Munich and Vienna 1953, p. 201 ff.
- Yuliya Deulina in the database of Sports-Reference (English)