Urban district (Russia)
A city district ( Russian городской округ , Gorodskoi okrug ; plural городские округа , gorodskije okruga ) is in the Russian Federation a management unit within the local government , a type of "municipal entities" (Russian munizipalnoje obrasowanije ) below the plane of the federation subjects .
City districts were introduced by Federal Law No. 131-FS On the General Organizational Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation of October 6, 2003. The law defines a city district as a "city municipality (Russian gorodskoje posselenije ), which is not part of a municipal rajon and whose organs of local self-government decide questions of local importance of the municipality and questions of local importance of the municipal rajon in accordance with the present law, and also individual state powers observe the federal laws and the laws of the federal subjects. ”Accordingly, an urban district combines the administrative levels of a Rajon and the subordinate municipalities (gorodskoje posselenije) and rural municipalities (selskoje posselenije); In contrast to the Rajon, there is no further level of local self-government in the form of municipalities below the urban district level.
City districts comprise one or more localities. In most cases, this is the city that usually gives it its name or, rarely, an urban-type settlement , as well as mostly other rural areas, less often urban-type settlements. The " closed cities " (officially closed administrative-territorial units, SATO ) form urban districts in all cases, even if the eponymous localities themselves do not have an urban status or the status of an urban-type settlement.
The establishment of urban districts was put into practice as part of the municipal reform from January 1, 2006. Initially, they mostly emerged from cities that were previously directly subordinate to the subjects of the federation and thus rajon-free cities. Later, earlier rajons were also converted into city districts, with the result that the communities of the Rajons were dissolved and their localities were incorporated directly into the respective city district. This process continues (as of 2014).
Urban districts exist in all federal subjects of Russia with the exception of the cities with subject status Moscow and Saint Petersburg , in which local self-government is organized differently. In some, predominantly less urbanized federation subjects, there is only one city district, formed by the respective administrative seat. Most urban districts include Sverdlovsk Oblast (68, with only 5 Rajons), Moscow Oblast (36 districts and Rajons each) and Sakhalin Oblast (18, only 1 Rajon). There are also more urban districts than Rajons in Murmansk Oblast (12, with 5 Rajons) and in the Khanty and Mansi Autonomous Okrug / Ugra (13, with 9 Rajons). The total number of urban districts in Russia is 520 (with 1815 rajons; all data as of January 1, 2014).
- Law No. 131-FS On the General Organizational Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation of October 6, 2003, with all amendments by October 14, 2014 (Russian)
- Rosstat: Distribution of municipal administrative units according to federal subjects as of January 1, 2014 (Russian)