An urban-type settlement or settlement urbanized ( Russian посёлок городского типа possjolok gorodskowo tipa , abbreviated пгт pgt ; Ukrainian селище міського типу (смт) selyschtsche miskoho typu (smt) ; Belarusian пасёлак гарадскога тыпу (пгт) passjolak haradskoga typu (pht) ) is an administrative and territorial unit from the urban development policy of the Soviet Union , which in terms of size and characteristics can be classified between village and city and is comparable to a minority town . The term is still used today in some of the successor states of the Soviet Union .
The urban-type settlement is more likely to be assigned to the village in terms of size, but urban in terms of its infrastructure, for example through at least one large industrial settlement. In the definition, the characteristic was mostly that the economic focus of the place was not on agriculture .
According to the Great Soviet Encyclopedia , the following subspecies were summarized under the term in the Soviet Union:
- Workers settlement
- Town with factories, mining, power stations, construction industry or the like with at least 3,000 inhabitants, of which at least 85% are workers, employees and their family members.
- Course settlement
- A town with a significant number of sanatoriums and health resorts and at least 2,000 inhabitants. The number of annual spa guests should be at least 50% of the population.
- Settlement, which is mainly for the purpose of summer and weekend recreation, with a maximum of 25% adults employed in agriculture.
These definitions continue to apply in today's Russia , even if they are applied imprecisely.
- a settlement with more than 2,000 inhabitants, more than two thirds of whom are workers or employees (or their relatives).
- with industrial plants, buildings and rail connections
- Settlements with middle and higher technical schools, research institutions, sanatoriums or hospitals.
In exceptional cases, settlements with 500 to 2,000 inhabitants were given the status of an urban-type settlement if they had good prospects for economic or social development. But some of these settlements also have 10,000 inhabitants and more.
The highest body of the urban-type settlement was / is the settlement Soviet (municipal council).
There are no more urban-type settlements in Armenia . Of the 31 settlements that existed at the time of independence, 21 were given city rights in connection with the administrative restructuring in the 1990s, nine were downgraded to villages and one was incorporated into the capital Yerevan .
In Georgia , most of the 51 urban-type settlements that existed in the early 1990s continue to exist as daba ( Georgian დაბა ), which means 'small' or ' minor town '. In the Soviet period, too, this traditional Georgian term was used as an alternative to the official literal translation from Russian, ქალაქური ტიპის დასახლება kalakuri tipis dassachleba . After 2010, some of the settlements were incorporated into cities or downgraded to villages. In the areas of Abkhazia and South Ossetia that are not under Georgian control, two of the settlements received city rights ( Pizunda and Kwaissa ) from the local authorities, but not under Georgian jurisdiction .
In the People's Republic of Poland the “osiedla typu miejskiego” (singular “osiedle”) existed from 1954 to 1972.
- Art. " Посёлок " (Possjolok) . In: Alexander Michailowitsch Prokhorov (Ed.): Great Soviet Encyclopedia . 3. Edition. tape 20 . State science publisher "Great Soviet Encyclopedia", Moscow 1975, p. 408 (Russian: Большая советская энциклопедия .).
- WS Andschyjewskyj: Art. " Селище " (Selyschtsche) . In: Mykola Baschan (ed.): Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia . 2nd Edition. tape 10 . Kiev 1983, p. 94 (Ukrainian, original title: Українська радянська енциклопедія .).
- Ustawa z dnia 25 września 1954 r. o osiedlach i radach narodowych osiedli; Dz. U. No. 43 poz. 192.
- Ustawa z dnia 29 listopada 1972 r. o utworzeniu gmin i zmianie ustawy o radach narodowych; Dz. U. No. 49 poz. 312.