Calendar overview 1645
|Denmark must cede territories to Sweden in the Peace of Brömsebro .||
Thomas Fairfax commands
the New Model Army .
Battle of Alerheim
the French defeat imperial troops.
|1645 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1093/94 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1637/38 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1050/51 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2188/89 (southern Buddhism); 2187/88 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1007/08 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3978/79 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1023/24 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1054/55 (February 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5405/06 (September 20/21)|
|Coptic calendar||1361/62 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1955/56 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1956/57 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1701/02 (April)|
Politics and world events
- The formation of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army is largely complete. The commanding officer is Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron . Oliver Cromwell commands the cavalry, the so-called Ironsides .
- January 10th : Archbishop of Canterbury , William Laud , who has been in captivity since 1640 , is executed in the Tower of London on the basis of a Bill of Attainder , a judgment of the English Parliament .
- June 14th : At the Battle of Naseby , the Roundheads of Parliament under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell fight the Royal Army under the command of King Charles I in the final great decisive battle of the English Civil War . Cromwell's New Model Army wins a decisive victory, with the Ironsides cavalry force having a decisive influence on the outcome of the battle. King Charles flees and soon surrenders to the Scots.
- July 10th : After the Battle of Langport in the English Civil War, the parliamentary troops gain control of the main supply area for royalist troops through their victory .
Thirty Years' War
- In the battle of Jankau , about 60 kilometers south-east of Prague , on March 6, a Swedish Protestant army under Field Marshal Lennart Torstensson defeated the Imperial Habsburg troops under Field Marshal Melchior von Hatzfeldt . It is one of the last great battles of the Thirty Years War and has the result that the imperial government intensified its efforts in the peace negotiations in Münster and Osnabrück , which three years later lead to the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia .
- The Swedes with their General Lennart Torstenson occupy the town of Schrattenthal in Lower Austria from March to October. They then move to Vienna and leave a trail of devastation through the entire northern Lower Austria.
- May 5th : The French general Turenne and his troops lose the battle near Herbsthausen in the Thirty Years' War . His Bavarian opponent Franz von Mercy succeeded with a numerically smaller army through a surprise maneuver.
- July 5 : The Spanish diplomat Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán comes to Munster for three years on behalf of Philip IV as Spain’s envoy to the minister , in order to take part in the peace negotiations there. He is accompanied by an entourage of 112.
- August 3 : The battle of Alerheim sees French-Hessian troops victorious over the imperial soldiers. Franz von Mercy , the Commander in Chief of the Imperial Bavarian Army, is killed in the battle.
- 23 August : In the Peace of Brömsebro , Denmark and Sweden agree to stop their fighting in the Torstensson War towards the end of the Thirty Years' War . Gotland becomes part of Sweden .
- September 6 : The Truce of Kötzschenbroda between Electoral Saxony and Sweden contains the following conditions: The Electorate of Saxony waived for six months in any part in the fighting. The three Saxon regiments in the imperial army remain in imperial service, but may not be used against the Swedish army. The cities of Leipzig and Torgau remain under Swedish occupation. The Electorate of Saxony pays monthly contributions of 11,000 thalers to the Swedish army, plus natural goods. The Swedish army is allowed to march unhindered through the Electorate of Saxony, with the exception of a three-mile neutral zone around Dresden.
- December 13th : With the Peace of Linz between Emperor Ferdinand III. and Transylvanian Prince Georg I. Rákóczi succeeds in averting the danger of a joint attack by Swedish and Transylvanian troops on Vienna during the Thirty Years' War .
Other events in Europe
- March 6 : Troops from Hessen-Kassel enter Upper Hesse. Beginning of the Hessian War with Hessen-Darmstadt , triggered by Landgravine Amalie Elisabeth
- June 25th : Turkish Wars : The so-called 6th Venetian Turkish War begins with the attack by Ottoman troops on Venetian Crete . On August 17th, after a two-month siege, the city of La Canea ( Chaniá in modern Greek ) surrenders . According to the terms of the surrender, the Venetians were granted free travel on five ships on August 22nd .
- July 23 : The Russian Tsar Michael I from the House of Romanov dies. While still on his deathbed, he hands over the rule to his son Alexei I , who is only 16 years old at the time.
- The official Swedish state gazette Post-och Inrikes Tidningar is established.
- The Royal Casthouse in Berlin is founded by order of Elector Friedrich Wilhelm .
- around 1645: The Gluckhennentaler is minted in Basel .
science and technology
- The theater group L'Illustre Théâtre goes bankrupt. The owner, Molière , is brought into custody.
- Thorner religious talk mediated by the Protestant theologian Georg Calixt
- November 20 : Pope Innocent X upgraded the previous seminary in Manila to the University of Santo Tomas . The Catholic university is today the oldest university in Asia.
First half of the year
- January 13 : Jakob Dietlof von Arnim , colonel in Brandenburg, major general and captain († 1689 )
- February 9 : Johann Egidius Bach , German violist († 1716 )
- February 22nd : Johann Ambrosius Bach , musician, father of Johann Sebastian Bach († 1695 )
- February 22nd : Johann Christoph Bach the Elder Ä. , Musician, twin brother of Johann Ambrosius Bach († 1693 )
- February 24 : Franz I. Rákóczi , Prince of Transylvania († 1676 )
- March 11 : Valentin Veltheim , German moral philosopher and Lutheran theologian († 1700 )
- April 21 : Otto Graf von Schwerin , Brandenburg-Prussian Privy Councilor and diplomat († 1705 )
- May 10 : Johann Jakob Kees , Leipzig merchant and senior postmaster from the Electoral Saxony († 1705 )
- May 15 : George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys , English Lord Chancellor and Lord Chief Justice in England and Wales († 1689 )
- June 11 : Johann Heinrich Horb , German Protestant theologian († 1695 )
Second half of the year
- July 9 : Balthasar Adelmann , German Jesuit and teacher († 1713 )
- July 28 : Marguerite Louise d'Orléans , Grand Duchess of Tuscany († 1721 )
- July 30 : Miguel Núñez de Sanabria , Spanish lawyer and viceroy of Peru († 1729 )
- August 16 : Jean de La Bruyère , French writer († 1696 )
- August 24 : Johann Heinrich am Ende , German painter († 1695 )
- September 21 : Louis Joliet , French explorer and cartographer († 1700 )
- September 25 : Georg Wartmann , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1727 )
- October 26 : Aert de Gelder , Dutch painter († 1727 )
- November 30th : Andreas Werckmeister , German musician and music theorist († 1706 )
- December 3 : Michael Stephan Radziejowski , Bishop of Warmia, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania († 1705 )
- December 24th : Hans Carl von Carlowitz , German scientist († 1714 )
- December 27 : Giovanni Antonio Viscardi , Italian builder of the Baroque, who mainly worked in Bavaria († 1713 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Bidil , Persian-speaking poet from India († 1721 )
- Đorđe Branković , envoy and count of Transylvania († 1711 )
- Lambert Chaumont , Belgian composer, organist and clergyman († 1712 )
- Raimondo De Dominici , Italian painter († 1705 )
- William Kidd , Scottish-American privateer († 1701 )
Born around 1645
First half of the year
- January 10 : William Laud , Archbishop of Canterbury and one of the advisors to the King of England (* 1573 )
- January 30th : Maria Ward , founder of the English lady and pioneer of girls' education (* 1585 )
- February 9 : Mutio Vitelleschi , Italian Order General (* 1563 )
- February 10th : Dorothea Sophie von Sachsen-Altenburg , 33rd abbess of the Reichsstift von Quedlinburg (* 1587 )
- February 10 : Conchobhar Mag Uidhir , Irish rebel leader (* 1616 )
- March 4 : Johann von den Birghden , German postmaster (* 1582 )
- March 4 : Matthias Hoë von Hoënegg , German Lutheran theologian (* 1580 )
- March 6 : Johann von Götzen , imperial general in the Thirty Years War (* 1599 )
- March 22nd : Hans Caspar Lang the Elder , Swiss glass, panel and facade painter and book illustrator (* 1571 )
- April 12 : Sigismund Heusner von Wandersleben , German officer and politician (* 1592 )
- April 16 : Tobias Hume , English composer, gambist and soldier (* around 1569 )
- April 19 : Antonio van Diemen , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1593 )
- April 29 : Maximilian von Liechtenstein , Imperial Field Marshal and Imperial Prince (* 1578 )
- June 13 : Miyamoto Musashi , Japanese samurai (* 1584 )
- June 28 : Johann Arbogast von Annenberg , Governor of the County of Glatz (* unknown)
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Georg Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Weikersheim , German officer and occasional poet (* 1569 )
- July 13 : Marie de Gournay , French philosopher (* 1565 )
- July 23 : Michael I , Tsar of Russia (* 1596 )
- August 3 : Franz von Mercy , General of the Catholic League in the Thirty Years War (* 1597 )
- August 7th : Georg Corvin , Professor of Philosophy (* around 1608 )
- August 28th : Hugo Grotius , Dutch political philosopher, reformed theologian, legal scholar and early enlightener (* 1583 )
- September 11 : Nikolaus Esterházy , Hungarian nobleman (* 1582 / 83 )
- September 24th : William Lawes , English composer and musician (* 1602 )
- October 10 : Heinrich Julius von Wietersheim , Stiftshofmeister in Quedlinburg (* 1585 )
- October 24th : Martin Chemnitz , German lawyer and diplomat in the Swedish service, victim of the plague (* 1596 )
- December 18 : Nur Jahan , wife of the 4th Mughal Jahangir (* 1577 )
- December 21 : Armand de Sillègue d'Athos d'Autevielle , French musketeer (* 1615 )
- December 28 : Giovanni Battista Carlone , Italian builder and architect (* around 1580 /90 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Andreae , German registrar and court historian (* around 1570 )
- Lucas Cranach III. , German painter (* 1586 )
- Mathias Edlinger , master stonemason and sculptor in Wiener Neustadt and Kaisersteinbruch, victim of the plague
- Paolo Finoglia , Neapolitan painter (* around 1590 )
- Antonius Purisol , master stonemason and sculptor in Vienna and Kaisersteinbruch