- 1653 : Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector with absolute power (until 1658 ).
- 1653: Johan de Witt is appointed councilor of Holland (until 1672 ).
- 1654 : The effects of air pressure and vacuum are demonstrated to the Regensburg Reichstag by Otto von Guericke through the " Magdeburg hemispheres ".
- Louis XIV , King of France and Navarre
- Jules Mazarin , cardinal
- Ferdinand III. , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Philip IV , King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Portugal
- Friedrich Wilhelm , Elector and Duke of Brandenburg-Prussia
- Innocent X , Pope
- Alexander VII , Pope
- Alexei I , Tsar in Russia
- Oliver Cromwell , Lord Protector in England, Scotland and Ireland
- Charles II , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Go-Sai , Emperor of Japan
- Go-Kōmyō , Emperor of Japan
- Shunzhi , Emperor of China