Calendar overview 1651
|Thomas Hobbes publishes the political theory book Leviathan .||
Ferdinand Maria becomes
Elector of Bavaria .
|Poland-Lithuania in the Battle of Beresteczko temporarily ends the Khmelnytskyi uprising .|
|1651 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1099/1100 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1643/44 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1056/57 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2194/95 (southern Buddhism); 2193/94 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1013/14 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3984/85 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1061/62 (December 13-14)|
|Jewish calendar||5411/12 (September 15/16)|
|Coptic calendar||1367/68 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1961/62 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1962/63 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1707/08 (April)|
Politics and world events
England / Ireland
- January 1 : . Charles II is in Scone to King of Scotland crowned.
- June to October: The second siege of Limerick ends with the conquest of the city by the parliamentary troops .
- July: The Confederate troops under Donagh MacCarthy meet English parliamentary troops under Roger Boyle at the Battle of Knocknaclashy and are defeated.
- August: The siege of Galway , which lasts until May of the following year, begins.
- August 25 : The Battle of Wigan Lane takes place during the Third English Civil War between royalists led by James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby , and sections of the New Model Army led by Col. Robert Lilburne . The royalists are defeated and lose almost half of their officers and soldiers.
- September 3 : In the decisive battle of the English Civil War near Worcester , the parliamentary troops under Oliver Cromwell defeat the new King Charles II , who can only save himself into exile with luck.
- December 1 : The on October 9 decided first English Navigation Act comes into force. It reserves the entire import of non-European goods into England as well as all coastal trade and fishing in the English waters of the English flag and permits the import of European goods only on English ships and those of the countries of origin. These provisions are aimed at abolishing the profitable intermediate trade between the Netherlands and England and the English colonies , and replacing it with active trade with England. The regulations are a severe blow to Dutch trade and lead directly to the first Dutch-English naval war the following year.
- February 6th : Jules Mazarin has to flee Paris from the Fronde .
- The 13-year-old Louis XIV is declared of legal age, which officially ends the reign of his mother Anna of Austria . The young king transfers the duties of office to Cardinal Mazarin.
Holy Roman Empire
- September 27th : After the death of Maximilian I , his son Ferdinand Maria succeeds the throne of the Electorate of Bavaria . The fifteen-year-old is initially under the tutelage of his mother Maria Anna of Austria , who is also the regency.
- June 28th : The battle of Beresteczko begins. The aristocratic republic of Poland-Lithuania is fighting an army of advanced Zaporozhian Cossacks and Tatars .
- June 30 : The Battle of Beresteczko ends with a victory for the Polish-Lithuanian army. The rebellions in the eastern part of Poland-Lithuania slow down and the Khmelnytskyi uprising is temporarily ended.
- The ten-year-old Tokugawa Ietsuna becomes the 4th Shogun in Japan after the death of Tokugawa Iemitsu . Thereupon the Keian uprising breaks out, in which abandoned samurai under the leadership of Yui Shosetsu and Marubashi Chūya try to overthrow the Tokugawa Shoguns.
Other events in Asia
- The death of Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyel , the unifier of Bhutan , has been kept secret for 54 years in order to prevent the state he founded from falling apart.
science and technology
- A copy of a work by the Islamic mystic Bāyazid Ansāri , a collection of religious verses, dated September 6, 1651 , is the oldest known work in the Pashtun language .
- After three years, Gian Lorenzo Bernini completes the four rivers fountain in Piazza Navona in Rome.
- Prince Bishop Christoph Bernhard von Galen is based on the way back from the war in Holland the bachelor Protect shaft Wettringen .
- February 22nd : The Petriflut devastates the islands and coasts of Friesland, the German Bight and the Altes Land. The storm surge cost thousands of lives and huge land loss. The dune chains on the islands of Juist and Langeoog were split, and settlements such as Dornumersiel , Accumersiel and Altensiel were destroyed. The water reached the Kirchwarft of Fulkum , four kilometers inland from today's coastline, numerous dykes break. The western part of Buise Island is disappearing for good.
First half of the year
- January 9 : Petronio Franceschini , Italian composer († 1680 )
- February 21 : Silvius II. Friedrich , Duke of Württemberg-Oels († 1697 )
- February 25 : Quirinus Kuhlmann , German writer († 1689 )
- March 17 : Johann Christian Frisch , Austrian sculptor and carpenter († 1677 )
- March 27 : George Abraham von Arnim , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1734 )
- March 31 : Charles II , Elector Palatinate († 1685 )
- April 4 : Georg Friedrich Meinhart , German Protestant theologian († 1718 )
- April 10 : Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus , German scientist († 1708 )
- May 7 : Giuseppe Archinto , Italian cardinal († 1712 )
- May 27 : Louis-Antoine de Noailles , cardinal and archbishop of Paris († 1729 )
- June 12 : Johann Georg Ahle , German composer, organist, poet and church musician († 1706 )
Second half of the year
- August 6 : François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon , French clergyman and writer († 1715 )
- August 6 : Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld , Swedish general, governor of Skåne, field marshal († 1722 )
- August 13 : Balthasar Permoser , sculptor († 1732 )
- September 1 : Natalja Kirillowna Naryshkina , Tatar nobleman, second wife of Tsar Alexei I of Russia († 1694 )
- baptized September 5th : William Dampier , British privateer, circumnavigator, explorer and geographer († 1715 )
- September 16 : Engelbert Kaempfer , German doctor and explorer († 1716 )
- November 1 : Jean-Baptiste Colbert , French statesman († 1690 )
- November 16 : Christian Vater , German medic († 1732 )
- November 23 : Christoph von Steiger , mayor of Bern († 1731 )
- December 6th : Johann Arnold Barckhausen , German legal scholar († 1726 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Honorius Aigner , Austrian Benedictine and abbot of the Kremsmünster Monastery († 1704 )
- Takemoto Gidayū , Japanese Jōruri singer († 1714 )
- Mukai Kyorai , Japanese poet († 1704 )
- Manuel de Oms y de Santa Pau , Spanish diplomat and viceroy of Peru († 1710 )
- Martin Trumler , Italian stonemason and sculptor († 1705 )
First half of the year
- January 2 : Gregor Francke , German Protestant theologian (* 1585 )
- January 27 : Abraham Bloemaert , Dutch painter (* 1564 )
- February 12 : Johann Jacob Pock , German stonemason and sculptor (* 1604 )
- March 18 : Paul Röber , German Lutheran theologian (* 1587 )
- March 18 : Gerard Seghers , Flemish painter (* 1591 )
- March 21 : Katharina Charlotte of Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Countess Palatine of Neuburg and Duchess of Jülich-Berg (* 1615 )
- April 1 : Johann von Hessen-Braubach , Hessian landgrave and soldier (* 1609 )
- April 7th : Lennart Torstensson , Swedish Field Marshal, Imperial Councilor and Governor General (* 1603 )
- April 15 : Thomas Francine , Florentine fountain master in France (* 1571 )
- April 20 : Franz Ludwig von Erlach , mayor of Bern (* 1574 )
- May 1 : Kanō Sansetsu , Japanese painter (* 1590 )
- June 8th : Tokugawa Iemitsu , third shogun of the Japanese Tokugawa dynasty (* 1604 )
- June 17th : Francesco Piccolomini , Italian general of the Societas Jesu (* 1582 )
- June 28 : Christoph Schelhammer , German physician (* 1620 )
- June 30th : Tuhaj Bej , political-military leader of the Crimean Tatars
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Charlotte des Essarts , French noblewoman and mistress (* around 1580 )
- July 17th : Wilhelm Biener , lawyer and Tyrolean Chancellor (* 1590 )
- July 25 : Gottfried Cundisius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1599 )
- August 8th : Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münzenberg , Countess of Hessen-Kassel (* 1602 )
- August 18 : Niccolò Tornioli , Italian painter (* after 1598 )
- August 20 : Jeremi Wiśniowiecki , Polish magnate and general (* 1612 )
- September 3 : Kösem Mahpeyker , favorite of Sultan Ahmed I and influential woman in the Ottoman Empire (* around 1589 )
- September 12th : William Hamilton, 2nd Duke of Hamilton , Scottish nobleman (* 1616 )
- September 18 : Henriette Marie von der Pfalz , titular Countess Palatine and Countess of Mongatsch (* 1626 )
- September 24th : Étienne Pascal , French lawyer, administrator and mathematician, father of Blaise Pascal (* 1588 )
- 27 September : Maximilian I , Duke since 1597 and Elector of Bavaria since 1623 (* 1573 )
- September: Arthur Dee , English alchemist (* 1579 )
- October 6 : Heinrich Albert , German song writer and composer (* 1604 )
- October 15 : James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby , English peer, politician and military (* 1607 )
- November 7th : Hans Christoph von Ebeleben , German lawyer and administrative officer (* 1578 )
- November 8th : Stephan I. Thököly , Hungarian baron and landowner (* 1581 )
- November 9 : Jan Cornelisz Geelvinck , Amsterdam wholesaler and regent (* 1579 )
- November 20 : Mikołaj Potocki , Grand Hetman of the Polish Crown (* around 1595 )
- November 26 : Henry Ireton , General of the Parliamentary Armies in the English Civil War (* 1611 )
- December 15 : Virginia Centurione Bracelli , Italian saint (* 1587 )
- December 17th : Ennemond Gaultier , French lutenist and composer (* around 1575)