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Heads of State · Nekrolog

King James Bible, first edition
The English King James Bible commissioned by James I appears.
Henry Hudson, his son and crew members after they were abandoned by the mutineers.  Painting by John Collier
The English navigator Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat.
Kalmar War
The Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden
for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region begins.
1611 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1059/60 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1603/04 (September 11th / 12th)
Bengali solar calendar 1016/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2154/55 (southern Buddhism); 2153/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the metal pig辛亥 ( at the beginning of the year metal dog 庚戌)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 973/974 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3944/45 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 989/990
Islamic calendar 1019/20 (turn of the year March 15/16)
Jewish calendar 5371/72 (September 7/8)
Coptic calendar 1327/28 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 786/787
Seleucid era Babylon: 1921/22 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1922/23 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1667/68 (April)


Politics and world events

Polish-Russian War

Siege of Smolensk 1609 to 1611
  • February 23: in the course of the Polish-Russian War of 1609–1618, the national resistance against Polish rule is formed in a first Landwehr contingent ( Opoltschenije ) of various, also mutually feuding groups under the military leadership of Prokopy Lyapunov . The troops advance on March 3rd against Moscow, which goes up in flames in the street fighting on March 19th. In the coming weeks, the Poles will be pushed back to the innermost defensive ring, the Moscow Kremlin .
  • June 13th: In the Polish-Russian War , the Poles succeed in capturing the Russian Smolensk after a 20-month siege .
Novgorod 1611

Kalmar War

The Kalmar War between Sweden and Denmark begins and lasts until 1613. Nominally, it is about the title of King of the Lapps , which both the Danish-Norwegian King Christian IV and the Swedish King Charles IX. claim for yourself. In fact, however, economic interests are decisive, as the trade in fish and skins from Finnmark, which is claimed by both countries in northern Scandinavia, is extremely profitable. Another reason is the desire for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region. After Charles IX. Sweden has refused to negotiate the disputed issues, the two states declare war on each other. After the death of Charles IX. on October 30th the war is continued by the 17-year-old heir to the throne Gustav II Adolf .

Holy Roman Empire

The main town of Saltzburg inaugurated by the Bairfirsten, 1611 Iar , contemporary etching

In the ox war of 1611 , also known as the salt war in 1611 , the archbishopric of Salzburg and the tribal duchy of Baiern argue about income from the Hallein salt mine and customs duties. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau unceremoniously had the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden occupied by his troops on the night of October 7th to 8th when Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria wanted to double the tariffs on Salzburg goods. Maximilian, who as district bishop of the Bavarian Reichskreis is authorized to secure the peace within the district, takes advantage of this and marches on October 22nd with 10,000 men near Tittmoning on Salzburg territory. Tittmoning Castle is conquered after a short siege, Wolf Dietrich fled Salzburg on October 23 . On October 26th, Maximilian marched into Salzburg without a fight, Wolf Dietrich was captured by Bavarian soldiers in Carinthia the following day .


Fort St Lucian, view from the sea side

American continent

  • June 23: The English navigator Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat. After that, nothing is heard from the abandoned.
  • For the first time ever, Jamaica has more black African than European residents.

science and technology

Basic functionality of a Kepler telescope


Front page of the Missodia Sionia


The English King James Bible commissioned by James I appears. It subsequently becomes the most influential English language translation of the Bible .



Date of birth saved

Johannes Hevelius
  • January 28: Johannes Hevelius , astronomer in Danzig († 1687)
  • 0February 6: Chongzhen , last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China († 1644)
  • February 19: Andries de Graeff , regent and mayor of Amsterdam († 1678)
  • 0March 8: Johann Duve , German merchant and banker († 1679)
  • March 15: Jan Fyt , Flemish painter († 1661)
  • March 17: Robert Douglas , Scottish-Swedish field marshal († 1662)
  • March 25: Evliya Çelebi , Ottoman traveler († after 1684)

Exact date of birth unknown


Date of death secured

  • July 19: Jacob Flach , German mathematician, physician and botanist (* 1537)
  • July 30th: Markus Bäumler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1555)

Exact date of death unknown