|King James Bible commissioned by James I appears.||Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat.|
Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden
for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region begins.
|1611 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1059/60 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1603/04 (September 11th / 12th)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1016/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2154/55 (southern Buddhism); 2153/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||973/974 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3944/45 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1019/20 (turn of the year March 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5371/72 (September 7/8)|
|Coptic calendar||1327/28 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1921/22 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1922/23 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1667/68 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 23: in the course of the Polish-Russian War of 1609–1618, the national resistance against Polish rule is formed in a first Landwehr contingent ( Opoltschenije ) of various, also mutually feuding groups under the military leadership of Prokopy Lyapunov . The troops advance on March 3rd against Moscow, which goes up in flames in the street fighting on March 19th. In the coming weeks, the Poles will be pushed back to the innermost defensive ring, the Moscow Kremlin .
- June 13th: In the Polish-Russian War , the Poles succeed in capturing the Russian Smolensk after a 20-month siege .
- July 16: The Swedish Auxiliary Corps under Jakob De la Gardie in Russia uses the chaotic domestic political situation to enforce Swedish interests. On the night of July 16, the gates of Novgorod were opened to him by betrayal, and Novgorod had to become part of Sweden by contract. In the further course of the war, the fortresses of Ingermanland , which Sweden had to renounce in the peace of 1595, are recaptured.
- July 22: In a mutiny of Cossack is Prokopy Lyapunov murdered. The first lineup then dissolves.
- September: Under Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitri Michailowitsch Poscharski the second Landwehr contingent is formed.
The Kalmar War between Sweden and Denmark begins and lasts until 1613. Nominally, it is about the title of King of the Lapps , which both the Danish-Norwegian King Christian IV and the Swedish King Charles IX. claim for yourself. In fact, however, economic interests are decisive, as the trade in fish and skins from Finnmark, which is claimed by both countries in northern Scandinavia, is extremely profitable. Another reason is the desire for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region. After Charles IX. Sweden has refused to negotiate the disputed issues, the two states declare war on each other. After the death of Charles IX. on October 30th the war is continued by the 17-year-old heir to the throne Gustav II Adolf .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 11: The Habsburg Matthias comes to Prague and, together with the estates, forces his brother Rudolf II to renounce the Bohemian royal crown in his favor . Matthias' coronation will take place on May 23rd.
- June 23: Elector Christian II of Saxony dies at the age of 27, presumably childless from a stroke. His brother Johann Georg I succeeds him on the Saxon throne.
In the ox war of 1611 , also known as the salt war in 1611 , the archbishopric of Salzburg and the tribal duchy of Baiern argue about income from the Hallein salt mine and customs duties. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau unceremoniously had the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden occupied by his troops on the night of October 7th to 8th when Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria wanted to double the tariffs on Salzburg goods. Maximilian, who as district bishop of the Bavarian Reichskreis is authorized to secure the peace within the district, takes advantage of this and marches on October 22nd with 10,000 men near Tittmoning on Salzburg territory. Tittmoning Castle is conquered after a short siege, Wolf Dietrich fled Salzburg on October 23 . On October 26th, Maximilian marched into Salzburg without a fight, Wolf Dietrich was captured by Bavarian soldiers in Carinthia the following day .
- Under Grandmaster Alof de Wignacourt is Fort St Lucian , another of the wignacourt towers for mounting Malta completed.
- June 23: The English navigator Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat. After that, nothing is heard from the abandoned.
- For the first time ever, Jamaica has more black African than European residents.
science and technology
- March: Johann Fabricius , Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner with his student Johann Baptist Cysat discover the sunspots independently of one another . Galileo's theory that there are structures on the surface of the sun brought him the first inquisition proceedings in 1615 .
- April 28: Miguel de Benavidez OP, Archbishop of Manila , opens the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santisimo Rosario in Manila , today the oldest university in the Philippines and Asia still in existence.
- Johannes Kepler developed the telescope named after him .
- In his work Strena seu de nive sexangula ( About the hexagonal snowflake ) Johannes Kepler establishes the Kepler conjecture . It says that no arrangement of spheres of the same size has a greater mean density than face-centered cubic packing and hexagonal packing . The mean density of these packings is slightly greater than 74 percent.
- Galileo Galilei becomes a member of the Accademia dei Lincei founded by Federico Cesi in 1603 .
- April 20: Simon Forman reports for the first time on the performance of Shakespeare's play Macbeth at the Globe Theater in London . It is unclear whether, and if so, when a performance of the work from 1606 took place beforehand.
- November 1st: The play The Tempest by William Shakespeare premieres in London .
- The Missodia Sionia by Michael Praetorius are published.
- The Tenebrae responsories by Carlo Gesualdo are published.
- December 2: The Keichō-Sanriku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami , which hit the Sanriku coast in Japan and penetrated four kilometers inland, killed around 5,000 people.
Date of birth saved
- January 28: Johannes Hevelius , astronomer in Danzig († 1687)
- Chongzhen , last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China († 1644) February 6:
- February 19: Andries de Graeff , regent and mayor of Amsterdam († 1678)
- Johann Duve , German merchant and banker († 1679) March 8:
- March 15: Jan Fyt , Flemish painter († 1661)
- March 17: Robert Douglas , Scottish-Swedish field marshal († 1662)
- March 25: Evliya Çelebi , Ottoman traveler († after 1684)
- Henriette von Lothringen , Princess of Pfalzburg and Lixheim († 1660) April 7th:
- April 11: Joachim Ernst von Görzke , lieutenant general of Brandenburg († 1682)
- April 11: Karl Eusebius of Liechtenstein , Prince of Liechtenstein, Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf († 1684)
- May 19: Benedetto Odescalchi , later Pope Innocent XI. († 1689)
- June 24: Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna , Swedish statesman († 1657)
- June 26: Johann Erich Ostermann , German Graecist († 1668)
- June 28: Robert Rich, 3rd Earl of Warwick , English nobleman († 1659)
- Heinrich , Count of Nassau-Siegen, Dutch general († 1652) August 9:
- August 18: Luisa Maria Gonzaga , Queen of Poland († 1667)
- George III. , Duke of Brieg († 1664) September 4th:
- Johann Friedrich Gronovius , German classical philologist and text critic († 1671) September 8:
- September 11th: Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne , Viscount de Turenne, French military leader and Marshal of France († 1675)
- September 17: Johannes Olearius II , Protestant theologian, lecturer in Wittenberg and superintendent in Querfurt († 1684)
- September 29: Johann Heinrich Hummel , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1674)
- October 17: Gottfried Möbius , German medic († 1664)
- October 26: Antonio Coello , Spanish writer († 1652)
- November 11: Christian Lehmann , chronicler and pastor († 1688)
- November 16: Zacharias Kniller , German painter († 1675)
- November 18: Andreas Tscherning , German writer († 1659)
- Nicolaus von Avancini , German Jesuit, educator, poet and playwright († 1686) December 1:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy , French painter († 1668)
- Andreas Hammerschmidt , German composer and musician († 1675)
- Hendrik Martensz. Sorgh , Dutch painter († 1670)
- Pietro Testa , Italian painter, draftsman, etcher and writer († 1650)
- Thomas Urquhart , Scottish poet and translator († 1660)
Date of death secured
- January 10: Peter Piscator , German oriental philologist and Lutheran theologian (* 1571)
- Ruprecht von Eggenberg , Austrian general (* 1546) February 7:
- Jan Huygen van Linschoten , Dutch merchant, author and explorer (* 1563) February 8:
- William Douglas, 10th Earl of Angus , Scottish nobleman (* around 1552) March 3:
- March 13: Ludwig III. von Löwenstein , Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim (* 1530)
- March 23: Johann Siebmacher , German coat of arms painter, etcher, engraver and publisher (* around 1561)
- Heinrich Compenius the Elder , German organ builder, organist and composer (* between 1530 and 1540) May 2nd:
- June 13: Melchior Jöstel , German mathematician and physician (* 1559)
- June 23: Christian II , Elector of Saxony (* 1583)
- June 27: Bartholomäus Spranger , Flemish painter (* 1546)
- July 19: Jacob Flach , German mathematician, physician and botanist (* 1537)
- July 30th: Markus Bäumler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1555)
- Girolamo Bernerio , Italian bishop and cardinal (* 1540) August 5:
- Kuyucu Murad Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire August 5th:
- August 12: Hermann von dem Bergh , Imperial Count von dem Bergh, governor of Spanish money (* 1558)
- August 27: Tomás Luis de Victoria , Spanish composer (* around 1548)
- Eleonora de 'Medici , Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1567) September 9:
- September 15: Georg Limnäus , German mathematician, astronomer and librarian (* 1554)
- September 17th: Johannes Corputius , Dutch cartographer, engineer and military leader in the Eighty Years War (* 1542)
- September 22nd: Pedro de Ribadeneira , Spanish Jesuit (* 1527)
- Margaret of Austria , Archduchess of Austria , Queen of Spain , Portugal , Naples and Sicily (* 1584) October 3:
- Charles II. De Lorraine , Duke of Mayenne (* 1554) October 4:
- Gregor Bersman , German philologist and Latin poet (* 1538) October 5:
- October 15: Anna Erika von Waldeck , Abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery (* 1551)
- October 30th: Charles IX. , King of Sweden (* 1550)
- Peter Wok von Rosenberg , Bohemian nobleman and politician, last of the Rosenbergs (* 1539) November 6th:
- November 30th: Daniel Hofmann , German Lutheran theologian (* around 1538)
Exact date of death unknown
- February: Antony Jenkinson , English diplomat (* 1530)