|King James Bible commissioned by James I appears.||Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat.|
Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden
for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region begins.
|1611 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1059/60 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1603/04 (September 11th / 12th)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1016/17 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2154/55 (southern Buddhism); 2153/54 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||973/974 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3944/45 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||1019/20 (turn of the year March 15th / 16th)|
|Jewish calendar||5371/72 (September 7/8)|
|Coptic calendar||1327/28 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1921/22 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1922/23 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1667/68 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 23 : in the course of the Polish-Russian War of 1609–1618, the national resistance against Polish rule was formed in a first Landwehr contingent ( Opoltschenije ) of the most diverse, also mutually feuding groups under the military leadership of Prokopy Lyapunov . Troops advance on March 3rd against Moscow, which goes up in flames in the street fighting on March 19th. In the coming weeks the Poles will be pushed back to the innermost defensive ring, the Moscow Kremlin .
- June 13th : In the Polish-Russian War , the Poles succeed in capturing the Russian Smolensk after a 20-month siege .
- July 16 : The Swedish Auxiliary Corps under Jakob De la Gardie in Russia uses the chaotic domestic political situation to assert Swedish interests. On the night of July 16, the gates of Novgorod were opened to him through betrayal, and Novgorod had to become part of Sweden by contract. In the further course of the warlike enterprise the fortresses of Ingermanland , which Sweden had to renounce in the peace of 1595, are recaptured.
- July 22 : In a mutiny of Cossack is Prokopy Lyapunov murdered. The first lineup then dissolves.
- September: Under Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitri Michailowitsch Poscharski the second Landwehr contingent is formed.
- The Kalmar War between Sweden and Denmark begins and lasts until 1613 . Nominally, it is about the title of " King of the Lapps ", which both the Danish-Norwegian King Christian IV and the Swedish King Charles IX. claim for yourself. In fact, however, economic interests are crucial, as the trade in fish and skins from Finnmark, which is claimed by both countries, in northern Scandinavia is extremely profitable. Another reason is the desire for supremacy in the Baltic Sea region. After Charles IX. Sweden has refused to negotiate the disputed issues, the two states declare war on each other. After the death of Charles IX. on October 30 the war is continued by the 17-year-old heir to the throne Gustav II Adolf .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 11 : The Habsburg Matthias comes to Prague and, together with the estates, forces his brother Rudolf II to renounce the Bohemian royal crown in his favor . Matthias' coronation will take place on May 23rd .
- June 23 : Elector Christian II of Saxony dies at the age of 27, presumably childless from a stroke. His brother Johann Georg I succeeds him on the Saxon throne.
In the ox war of 1611 , also known as the salt war of 1611 , the archbishopric of Salzburg and the tribal duchy of Baiern argue over income from the Hallein salt mine and customs duties. Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau unceremoniously had the prince-provost of Berchtesgaden occupied by his troops on the night of October 7th to 8th when Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria wanted to double the tariffs on Salzburg goods. Maximilian, who as district bishop of the Bavarian Reichskreis is authorized to secure the peace within the district, takes advantage of this and marches on October 22nd with 10,000 men near Tittmoning on Salzburg territory. Burg Tittmoning is captured after a short siege, Wolf Dietrich flees on October 23 from Salzburg . On October 26th, Maximilian marched into Salzburg without a fight, Wolf Dietrich was captured by Bavarian soldiers in Carinthia the following day .
- Under Grandmaster Alof de Wignacourt is Fort St Lucian , another of the wignacourt towers for mounting Malta completed.
- June 23 : The English navigator Henry Hudson is abandoned with his son and seven loyal crew members after a mutiny in an open boat. After that, nothing is heard from the abandoned.
- For the first time ever, Jamaica has more black African than European residents.
science and technology
- March: Johann Fabricius , Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner with his student Johann Baptist Cysat discover the sunspots independently of one another . Galileo's theory that there are structures on the surface of the sun brought him the first inquisition proceedings in 1615 .
- April 28 : Miguel de Benavidez OP opens the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santisimo Rosario in Manila .
- Johannes Kepler developed the telescope named after him .
- In his work Strena seu de nive sexangula ( About the hexagonal snowflake ) Johannes Kepler sets up Kepler's conjecture . It says that no arrangement of spheres of the same size has a greater mean density than face-centered cubic packing and hexagonal packing . The mean density of these packings is slightly greater than 74 percent.
- Galileo Galilei becomes a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, founded by Federico Cesi in 1603 .
- April 20 : Simon Forman reports for the first time on the performance of Shakespeare's play Macbeth at the Globe Theater in London . It is unclear whether, and if so, when a performance of the work from 1606 took place beforehand .
- November 1 : The play The Tempest by William Shakespeare premieres in London .
- The English King James Bible commissioned by James I appears. It subsequently becomes the most influential English language translation of the Bible .
- December 2 : The Keichō-Sanriku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami , which hit the Sanriku coast in Japan and penetrated four kilometers inland, killed around 5,000 people.
First half of the year
- February 6 : Chongzhen , last emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China († 1644 )
- February 19 : Andries de Graeff , Regent and Mayor of Amsterdam († 1678 )
- March 8 : Johann Duve , German merchant and banker († 1679 )
- March 15 : Jan Fyt , Flemish painter († 1661 )
- March 25 : Evliya Çelebi , Ottoman traveler († after 1684 )
- June 24 : Johan Axelsson Oxenstierna , Swedish statesman († 1657 )
- June 26 : Johann Erich Ostermann , German Graecist († 1668 )
- June 28 : Robert Rich, 3rd Earl of Warwick , English nobleman († 1659 )
Second half of the year
- August 9 : Heinrich , Count of Nassau-Siegen, Dutch general († 1652 )
- August 18 : Luisa Maria Gonzaga , Queen of Poland († 1667 )
- September 4th : George III. , Duke of Brieg († 1664 )
- September 8 : Johann Friedrich Gronovius , German classical philologist and text critic († 1671 )
- September 11 : Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne , Viscount de Turenne, French military leader and Marshal of France († 1675 )
- September 17 : Johannes Olearius II , Protestant theologian, lecturer in Wittenberg and superintendent in Querfurt († 1684 )
- September 29 : Johann Heinrich Hummel , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1674 )
- October 17 : Gottfried Möbius , German medic († 1664 )
- October 26 : Antonio Coello , Spanish writer († 1652 )
- November 11 : Christian Lehmann , chronicler and pastor († 1688 )
- November 16 : Zacharias Kniller , German painter († 1675 )
- November 18 : Andreas Tscherning , German writer († 1659 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- (in December :) Leonora Baroni , famous Italian singer († 1670 )
- Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy , French painter († 1668 )
- Andreas Hammerschmidt , German composer and musician († 1675 )
- Hendrik Martensz. Sorgh , Dutch painter († 1670 )
- Pietro Testa , Italian painter, draftsman, etcher and writer († 1650 )
- Thomas Urquhart , Scottish poet and translator († 1660 )
First half of the year
- February 7 : Ruprecht von Eggenberg , Austrian general (* 1546 )
- February 8 : Jan Huygen van Linschoten , Dutch merchant, author and explorer (* 1563 )
- March 23 : Johann Siebmacher , German coat of arms painter, etcher, engraver and publisher (* around 1561 )
- June 13 : Melchior Jöstel , German mathematician and physician (* 1559 )
- June 23 : Christian II , Elector of Saxony (* 1583 )
- June 27 : Bartholomäus Spranger , Flemish painter (* 1546 )
Second half of the year
- July 19 : Jacob Flach , German mathematician, physician and botanist (* 1537 )
- July 30th : Markus Bäumler , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1555 )
- August 5 : Girolamo Bernerio , Italian bishop and cardinal (* 1540 )
- August 5th : Kuyucu Murad Pasha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
- August 12 : Hermann von dem Bergh , Imperial Count von dem Bergh, governor of Spanish money (* 1558 )
- August 27 : Tomás Luis de Victoria , Spanish composer (* around 1548 )
- September 9 : Eleonora de 'Medici , Duchess of Mantua and Montferrat (* 1567 )
- September 15 : Georg Limnäus , German mathematician, astronomer and librarian (* 1554 )
- September 17th : Johannes Corputius , Dutch cartographer, engineer and military leader in the Eighty Years War (* 1542 )
- September 22nd : Pedro de Ribadeneira , Spanish Jesuit (* 1527 )
- October 3 : Margaret of Austria , Archduchess of Austria , Queen of Spain , Portugal , Naples and Sicily (* 1584 )
- October 4th : Charles II. De Lorraine , Duke of Mayenne (* 1554 )
- October 5 : Gregor Bersman , German philologist and Latin poet (* 1538 )
- October 15 : Anna Erika von Waldeck , Abbess of the Gandersheim Monastery (* 1551 )
- October 30th : Charles IX. , King of Sweden (* 1550 )
- November 6th : Peter Wok von Rosenberg , Bohemian nobleman and politician, last of the Rosenbergs (* 1539 )
- November 30th : Daniel Hofmann , German Lutheran theologian (* around 1538 )
Exact date of death unknown
- February: Antony Jenkinson , English diplomat (* 1530 )
- Shmuel ben Elchanan Ja'akov Archevolti , Italian grammarian and poet
- Ekathotsarot (also Eka Thotsarot), King of Ayutthaya in Thailand (* after 1556 )
- Ralph Fitch , English traveler (* before 1583)
- Gioseffo Guami , Italian organist and composer
- Andreas Petermann , Kreuzkantor (* around 1535)