- 1607 : Foundation of the University of Giessen by Landgrave Ludwig V after granting the imperial privilege.
- 1609 : Johannes Kepler publishes the first two Kepler laws in Astronomia nova (New Astronomy).
- 1609: Galileo Galilei constructs his astronomical telescope in Venice .
- 1603 : The tax collector Miguel de Cervantes sits in prison for tax evasion and writes the novel " Don Quixote " there .
- Henry IV , King of France
- Rudolf II , Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Matthias , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia
- Philip III , King of Spain, Naples, Sicily and Portugal
- Joachim Friedrich , Elector of Brandenburg
- Johann Sigismund , Duke of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg
- Paul V , Pope
- Leo XI. , Pope
- Vasily IV , Tsar in Russia
- Boris Godunov , Tsar in Russia
- James I , King of England, Scotland and Ireland
- Elizabeth I , Queen of England and Ireland
- Go-Yōzei , Emperor of Japan
- Wanli , Emperor of China