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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Mihai Viteazul
After his victory at Gorószló, Mihai Viteazul is murdered by his own allies.
Thomas Harriot
The English mathematician
Thomas Harriot rediscovers the law of refraction of light.
Siege of Ostend
The siege of Ostend begins in the Eighty Years' War .
1601 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1049/50 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1593/94 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1006/07 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2144/45 (southern Buddhism); 2143/44 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 71st (72nd) cycle

Year of the Metal Ox辛丑 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Rat 庚子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 963/964 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3934/35 (2-3 October)
Iranian calendar 979/980
Islamic calendar 1009/10 (turn of the year July 1st / 2nd)
Jewish calendar 5361/62 (September 26-27)
Coptic calendar 1317/18 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 776/777
Seleucid era Babylon: 1911/12 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1912/13 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1657/58 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events


England / Ireland

Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex

Eighty Years War

Ostend 1601

Eastern Europe

After a reconciliation between the now landless Mihai Viteazul , the former prince of Wallachia , Transylvania and Moldavia , with Emperor Rudolf II in Prague, he was sent as an imperial vassal together with the Habsburg military leader Giorgio Basta to a new campaign in the Carpathian Basin. Mihai is supposed to win back Wallachia and Transylvania and rule there as a Habsburg vassal. Together they defeat the ranks of the Transylvanian estates and Prince Sigismund Báthory near Guruslau / Gorószló on August 3rd . Mihai, whose Soldateska begins to devastate the country as in previous years because of the lack of pay, is murdered a few days later in Câmpia Turzii on the orders of Giorgio Basta, who considers him politically dangerous.

Tsar Boris Godunov

Serfdom is beginning to take hold in Russia after Tsar Boris Godunov restricted the peasants' freedom of movement.

Holy Roman Empire

In Saxony , the former Chancellor Nikolaus Krell is executed as an accused of crypto- calvinism at the instigation of the Saxon Electress widow Sophie von Sachsen .


The Safavid Abbas I the Great occupies Bahrain to consolidate his empire.


science and technology


Mosteiro dos Jerónimos


As part of the Reichstag in Regensburg , the Regensburg Religious Discussion begins on November 18 on the initiative of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and Duke Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg . The negotiations take place in the Regensburg town hall and are conducted in Latin . On the Protestant side, Aegidius Hunnius , professor of theology in Wittenberg, and Jakob Hailbronner , court preacher in Neuburg, are significantly involved, on the Catholic side, the Ingolstadt professor and university vice-chancellor Albert Hunger and Jakob Gretser, who also teaches in Ingolstadt . After 14 working sessions, the conversation failed on December 7th, mainly because of the unwillingness in both camps to forego polemics and verbal abuse. It is considered to be the last major religious discussion that takes place within the framework of a Reichstag.

St. Sebastian


Historical maps and views

Constance 1601


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Anna of Austria at the age of 15, Frans Pourbus d. J.
Louis XIII. at the age of 10, painted by Frans Pourbus d. J.


Date of death secured

Tycho Brahe with the Elephant Order

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1601  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files