|Mihai Viteazul is murdered by his own allies.||
Thomas Harriot rediscovers the law of refraction of light.
|siege of Ostend begins in the Eighty Years' War .|
|1601 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1049/50 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1593/94 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1006/07 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2144/45 (southern Buddhism); 2143/44 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||963/964 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3934/35 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1009/10 (turn of the year July 1st / 2nd)|
|Jewish calendar||5361/62 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1317/18 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1911/12 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1912/13 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1657/58 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 17 : In the Peace of Lyon , Piedmont-Savoy under Duke Charles Emanuel I finally cedes the historic regions of Bugey and Bresse as well as Valromey and Pays de Gex to France .
England / Ireland
- February 8 : Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , a distant relative of Queen Elizabeth I, tries at gunpoint to take control of London and the Privy Council . The coup failed, however, and he was executed on February 25th . His co-conspirator, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton , is also arrested, but later pardoned.
- October 2 : During the siege of Kinsale, which lasted until January 3, 1602, during the Nine Years' War , Gaelic Ireland was brought back under English control. Due to the participation of Spanish troops, this siege is also considered part of the Anglo-Spanish War . The Irish clan leader Aodh Mór Ó Néill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone , retires after the defeat to Ulster , where he confines himself to a guerrilla war.
- November 30 : The British Queen Elizabeth I directed in the Palace of Whitehall , the Golden speech to the assembled members of parliament who wanted to complain to her because of its distribution of commercial rights.
Eighty Years War
After a reconciliation between the now landless Mihai Viteazul , the former prince of Wallachia , Transylvania and Moldavia , with Emperor Rudolf II in Prague, he was sent as an imperial vassal together with the Habsburg military leader Giorgio Basta to a new campaign in the Carpathian Basin. Mihai is supposed to win back Wallachia and Transylvania and rule there as a Habsburg vassal. Together they defeat the ranks of the Transylvanian estates and Prince Sigismund Báthory near Guruslau / Gorószló on August 3rd . Mihai, whose Soldateska begins to devastate the country as in previous years because of the lack of pay, is murdered a few days later in Câmpia Turzii on the orders of Giorgio Basta, who considers him politically dangerous.
Holy Roman Empire
- On December 22 the Salzburg Archbishop approved Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau the Braugerechtssamkeit in Obertrum . This is considered to be the founding date of the Trumer private brewery .
- In the second known patent infringement process in the world because of a "newerfound Mühlwerckh" for grinding gemstones in Nuremberg, the proprietor of the property rights obtains an injunction against the infringer and a fine of 10 guilders .
- Guilders have been minted in the Netherlands since this year .
science and technology
- Thomas Harriot rediscovers the law of refraction of light, but fails to publish it.
- The Kaiser-Karls-Gymnasium in Aachen is founded.
- Pope Clement VIII offers the victims of the practice of castration , which has continued in spite of the ban in force since 1587, an existence as a singer for high voices in the papal choir .
- In Nuremberg, Hans Leo Haßler publishes his collection of songs, Lustgarten New German Singing, Balletti, Gaillarden and Intraden . The work contains, among other things, the song Mein G'müt is bewildered .
- After a hundred years of construction, the Manueline style Mosteiro dos Jerónimos ( Jeronimos Monastery ) is completed in Lisbon .
As part of the Reichstag in Regensburg , the Regensburg Religious Discussion begins on November 18 on the initiative of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and Duke Philipp Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg . The negotiations take place in the Regensburg town hall and are conducted in Latin . On the Protestant side, Aegidius Hunnius , professor of theology in Wittenberg, and Jakob Hailbronner , court preacher in Neuburg, are significantly involved, on the Catholic side, the Ingolstadt professor and university vice-chancellor Albert Hunger and Jakob Gretser, who also teaches in Ingolstadt . After 14 working sessions, the conversation failed on December 7th, mainly because of the unwillingness in both camps to forego polemics and verbal abuse. It is considered to be the last major religious discussion that takes place within the framework of a Reichstag.
- September 18 : An earthquake centered in Unterwalden in central Switzerland allegedly claims eight deaths. Vibrations can be felt all over Switzerland at that time . The landslides triggered by the earthquake lead to a tidal wave presumably up to four meters high in Lake Lucerne , which causes considerable damage in the city of Lucerne . ( Lucerne State Archives )
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 8 : Baltasar Gracián , Spanish Jesuit, preacher and writer († 1658 )
- January 19 : Guido Cagnacci , Italian painter († 1663 )
- February 16 : Charles de Schomberg , French general († 1656 )
- February 19 : Alonso Cano , Spanish painter, sculptor and architect († 1667 )
- March 7th : Johann Michael Moscherosch , statesman, satirist and educator in the Baroque era († 1669 )
- April 22 : Karl Filip of Sweden , Duke of Södermanland († 1622 )
- May: Spencer Compton, 2nd Earl of Northampton , English general, politician and peer († 1643 )
Second half of the year
- July 6 : Justus Gesenius , German theologian and hymn poet († 1673 )
- July 30th : Anna Eleonore von Hessen-Darmstadt , Duchess and Regent of Braunschweig-Lüneburg († 1659 )
- September 22 : Anna of Austria , Spanish-Portuguese Infanta and Archduchess of Austria, Queen and Regent of France and Navarre († 1666 )
- October 7 : Florimond de Beaune , French mathematician († 1652 )
- October 8 : Joachim Betke , German Protestant theologian and spiritualist († 1663 )
- October 20 : Otto Heinrich von Callenberg , German politician and officer († 1644 )
- October 24 : Alvise Contarini , Doge of Venice († 1684 )
- November 9 : Friedrich Wilhelm , Duke of Teschen († 1625 )
- November 15 : Anton Matthäus jun. , German legal scholar († 1654 )
- December 25 : Ernst I , Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg († 1675 )
Date of death secured
- January 11th : Scipione Ammirato , Italian historian (* 1531 )
- January 29 : Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont , Queen of France from 1575 to 1589 (* 1553 )
- February 25 : Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , English politician and favorite of Elizabeth I (* 1565 )
- April 5 : Wolfgang von Dalberg , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz (* 1537 )
- May 3 : August Friedrich , Margrave of Brandenburg (* 1580 )
- May 12 : Anna III. zu Stolberg , 30th abbess of the Imperial Monastery of Quedlinburg (* 1565 )
- May 16 : Carl Henriksson Horn , Swedish field marshal and statesman (* 1550 )
- May 31 : Gebhard I. von Waldburg , Elector and Archbishop of Cologne (* 1547 )
- June 24th : Henriette de Clèves , Duchess of Nevers and Rethel (* 1542 )
- June 25 : Peregrinus Bertie , English nobleman, diplomat and general (* 1555 )
- July 10 : Damat Ibrahim Pasha , Ottoman commander and Grand Vizier
- August 9 : Johannes Andreae , German pastor and theologian (* 1554 )
- August 9 : Mihai Viteazul , Prince of Wallachia (1593–1601), of Transylvania (1599–1600), and Moldavia 1600 (* 1558 )
- August 10 : Giovanni Alberti , Italian painter (* 1558 )
- September 18 : Wolf Dietrich von Gemmingen , Baden-Durlach councilor and lieutenant colonel (* 1550 )
- September 28 : Aert Mytens , Flemish painter (* around 1541 or around 1556 )
- December 24th : Johannes Dinckel , German Protestant theologian (* 1545 )
- December 29th : Abraham von Graffenried , mayor of Bern (* 1533 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Adolf XI. , Count of Holstein-Pinneberg and Count of Schauenburg (* 1547 )
- Anthony Bacon , English parliamentarian and spy (* 1558 )
- Mikołaj z Wilkowiecka , Polish Pauline Abbot and author (* 1524 )