Calendar overview 1678
Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg
leads to the first Hamburg theater dispute .
|Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman to receive a doctorate .||
Ferdinand von Fürstenberg
becomes Prince-Bishop of Münster .
|1678 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1126/27 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1670/71 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1083/84 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2221/22 (southern Buddhism); 2220/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1040/41 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4011/12 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1088/89 (February 22-23)|
|Jewish calendar||5438/39 (September 16/17)|
|Coptic calendar||1394/95 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1988/89 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1989/90 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1734/35 (April)|
Politics and world events
- After the conquest of Freiburg , the French army under Marshal François de Créquy turned to Rheinfelden in the Dutch War . The surprise attack there at the beginning of July can be repulsed by the imperial defenders with heavy losses.
- Mid-July: the imperial army crosses the Black Forest
- August 10 : France and the Netherlands sign the first of the Nijmegen peace treaties .
- September 17th : France achieves another peace treaty in Nijmegen . This time with Spain , which was embroiled in the Dutch War with other powers . France is getting area increases, so the Free County of Burgundy .
- October 4th : French troops burn down the town of Eschweiler . Only one house remains and the precious Lederpietà can be saved.
- January 18 : The Battle of Warksow takes place on Rügen during the Swedish-Brandenburg War . The Swedes recapture the island taken by the Danes against a Danish-Brandenburg army. But eight months later the other side is successful in a new fight.
- September 10 to October 5 : After a two-month siege , Brandenburg-Prussia succeeds in conquering Stralsund fortress from the Swedes .
- 12. bis 14. September : Invasion of Rügen , Brandenburg-Prussia succeeding together with Denmark taking the Swedish-dominated island of Ruegen.
Other events in Europe
- January 1st : In Turin , Maria Johanna von Savoyen opens the Knight's Academy, the Reale Accademia di Savoja , long planned by Duke Charles Emanuel II , from which the Accademia Militare di Modena will develop.
- Spring: The Scots Grays are founded by amalgamating three Scottish dragoon regiments .
- The prince-bishop of Paderborn, Ferdinand von Fürstenberg , who has ruled since 1661 , is elected prince-bishop of Münster ; he ruled the two prince-bishoprics until his death in 1683 .
- May 6th : In Leipzig , 30 merchants decide to build a joint assembly building, the Old Trading Exchange . Construction of the house on the Naschmarkt will begin on May 30th . It is very likely that the design of the building was made by Johann Georg Starcke , the chief master builder of the Oberbauamt at the Johann Georg II court in Dresden.
- The Lübeck patrician and later mayor Peter Hinrich Tesdorpf founded the Tesdorpf wine shop , which is now Germany's oldest wine shop .
- Jacob ter Gouw founds the first European stuff printing company in Amsterdam , which produces brightly colored fabrics in the Indian manner .
science and technology
- June 25th : Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman in the world to receive a doctorate in philosophy . The desired subject of theology is closed to her by the University of Padua with the argument that a woman should be silent in the church.
- Christiaan Huygens presented his Traité de la lumière to the Académie française , in which he established the wave theory of light. The work was not published until 1690.
- The Jesuit priest Ferdinand Verbiest built what is probably the world's first automobile at the Chinese court. It was a small, self-propelled and steerable car powered by a steam boiler.
- The historical novel La Princesse de Clèves is published anonymously in Paris . The work from the pen of the noblewoman Marie-Madeleine de La Fayette is considered to be the first historical novel in France and one of the first novels in European literary history. The novel was a great success with the public right from the start; the first edition was completely sold out shortly after publication. It was lively discussed in all literary salons of the time.
- The collection of poems Several Poems Compiled with Great Variety of Wit and Learning by the New England puritan Anne Bradstreet appears after the poet's death.
Music and theater
- January 2nd : The opera at Gänsemarkt in Hamburg is inaugurated with the sacred opera Adam and Eva by Johann Theile . The Hamburg State Opera later developed from the first and most important civic urban theater in the German-speaking area . The opening is accompanied by the first Hamburg theater dispute.
- February: The Baptist John Bunyan publishes the Christian edification The Pilgrim's Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come ( Pilgrimage to Blessed Eternity ).
- December 24th : During the major fire in Hardegsen , a large part of the city center fell victim to a conflagration .
nature and environment
First half of the year
- March 4 : Antonio Vivaldi , Italian composer († 1741 )
- March 21 : Marie Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , abbess of the imperial and free world monastery Quedlinburg († 1755 )
- May 3 : Georg Friedrich the Younger , Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach († 1703 )
- May 3 : Amaro Pargo , Spanish corsair of the Golden Age († 1747 )
- May 4 : Pir Nureddin Jerrahi , founder of the Jerrahi Dervish Order in Istanbul († 1721 )
- May 16 : Andreas Silbermann , German organ builder in Alsace († 1734 )
- May 19 : Francesco Farnese , Duke of Parma and Piacenza († 1727 )
- May 29 : Adolf von Dalberg , Prince Abbot of Fulda († 1737 )
Second half of the year
- August 11 : Benedikt Wilhelm von Ahlefeldt , Lord of Gut Kaden, Major and District Administrator († 1748 )
- September 16 : Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke , British politician and philosopher († 1751 )
- September 29 : Adrien-Maurice de Noailles , Marshal of France († 1766 )
- October 4 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow , Prussian field marshal and statesman († 1739 )
- October 22 : Johann Philipp Harrach , Austrian Field Marshal and President of the Court War Council († 1764 )
- October 30 : Peter von Lacy , Russian Field Marshal General († 1751 )
- November 11 : Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , lord of the Holstein estates of Jersbek and Stegen († 1757 )
- November 26 : Karl Leopold , Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1747 )
- December 2 : Nicolaus Samuelis Cruquius , Dutch hydraulic engineer and cartographer († 1754 )
- December 13 : Yongzheng , Chinese Emperor of the Qing Dynasty († 1735 )
- December 14th : Daniel Neal , English Reformed clergyman and church historian († 1743 )
- December 30th : William Croft , British organist and composer († 1727 )
Exact date of birth unknown
Born around 1678
First half of the year
- January 11 : Ferrante III. Gonzaga , Duke of Guastalla (* 1618 )
- January 23 : Wilhelm von Curti , English diplomat (* 1598 )
- January 25 : Joan Maetsuycker , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1606 )
- February 1 : Timotheus Ritzsch , German printer, bookseller and publisher of the first German daily newspaper (* 1614 )
- February 13 : Cosimo Fanzago , Neapolitan architect, sculptor and decorator (* 1591 )
- March 23 : Cornelis Gerritsz. Decker , Dutch painter (* around 1620 )
- March 29 : Pierre Daret , French painter and engraver (* around 1604 )
- April 22nd : Sebastiano Mazzoni , Italian painter (* 1611 )
- April 24th : Ludwig VI. , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1630 )
- May 3 : Bernhard , Duke of Saxony-Jena (* 1638 )
- May 4 : Anna Maria von Schürmann , Dutch-German polymath (* 1607 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Christoph Schlegel , German Lutheran theologian (* 1613 )
- July 12th : Antoine III. de Gramont , French military and diplomat (* 1604 )
- August 2nd : Nicolaus Jarre , Hamburg mayor and lawyer (* 1603 )
- August 16 : Andrew Marvell , English poet (* 1621 )
- August 31 : Ludwig VII , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1658 )
- September 1st : Jan Brueghel the Younger , Dutch painter (* 1601 )
- September 8th : Pietro della Vecchia , Italian painter (* 1602 or 1603 )
- September 19 : Christoph Bernhard von Galen , Prince-Bishop of Münster (* 1606 )
- September 28 : Maurizio Cazzati , Italian composer (* 1616 )
- October 12 : Pieter Codde , Dutch painter (* 1599 )
- October 15 : Abraham Heidanus , German Reformed theologian (* 1597 )
- October 18 : Jacob Jordaens , Flemish painter (* 1593 )
- October 19 : Samuel van Hoogstraten , Dutch painter (* 1627 )
- November 7th : Erasmus Quellinus II , Flemish painter and engraver (* 1607 )
- November 12th : Hermann Löher , mayor, city councilor and aldermen in Rheinbach, author of a pamphlet against the persecution of witches (* 1595 )
- November 18 : Giovanni Maria Bononcini , Italian violinist and composer (* 1642 )
- November 28 : Johann Ludwig Faber , German hymn poet (* 1635 )
- November 30th : Andries de Graeff , regent and mayor of Amsterdam (* 1611 )
- December 6th : Damian Hartard von der Leyen , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, Prince-Bishop of Worms (* 1624 )
- December 9 : Robert Nanteuil , French engraver and pastel draftsman (* around 1623 )
- December 9 : Jürgen Ovens , German painter (* 1623 )