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Heads of State · Nekrolog

The opera house on Gänsemarkt (detail from a city view by Paul Heinecken 1726)
The opening of the Oper am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg
leads to the first Hamburg theater dispute .
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman to receive a doctorate .
Ferdinand von Fürstenberg
Ferdinand von Fürstenberg
becomes Prince-Bishop of Münster .
1678 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1126/27 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1670/71 (September 10-11)
Bengali solar calendar 1083/84 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2221/22 (southern Buddhism); 2220/21 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 72nd (73rd) cycle

Year of the Earth-Horse戊午 ( at the beginning of the year Fire-Snake 丁巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1040/41 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4011/12 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1056/57
Islamic calendar 1088/89 (February 22-23)
Jewish calendar 5438/39 (September 16/17)
Coptic calendar 1394/95 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 853/854
Seleucid era Babylon: 1988/89 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1989/90 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1734/35 (April)


Politics and world events

Dutch War

Pioneers in front of the imperial army camp in Todtmoos

Northern War

Battle formation of the Battle of Warksow
Floor plan of Stralsund Fortress at the time of the siege
Landing fleet with army in battle order on Rügen on September 13th

Other events in Europe


science and technology

Image of the possibly self-propelled small steam engine that Verbiest describes as his construction
  • The Jesuit priest Ferdinand Verbiest built what is probably the world's first automobile at the Chinese court. It was a small, self-propelled and steerable car powered by a steam boiler.



Title page of the first edition of the novel
  • The historical novel La Princesse de Clèves is published anonymously in Paris . The work from the pen of the noblewoman Marie-Madeleine de La Fayette is considered to be the first historical novel in France and one of the first novels in European literary history. The novel was a great success with the public right from the start; the first edition was completely sold out shortly after publication. It was lively discussed in all literary salons of the time.
First edition of the Poems
  • The collection of poems Several Poems Compiled with Great Variety of Wit and Learning by the New England puritan Anne Bradstreet appears after the poet's death.

Music and theater



nature and environment


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Emperor Joseph I, (around 1700)

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1678


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Web links

Commons : 1678  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files