|Joseph II is crowned Roman-German king in Frankfurt am Main .||Angelika Kauffmann creates the portrait of Johann Joachim Winckelmann .|
|beast of Gévaudan makes its first raids.|
|1764 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1212/13 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1756/57 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1169/70 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2307/08 (southern Buddhism); 2306/07 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1126/27 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4097/98 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1142/43 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1177/78 (June 30th / July 1st)|
|Jewish calendar||5524/25 (September 26-27)|
|Coptic calendar||1480/81 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2074/75 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2075/76 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1820/21 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
North American colonies
- February 15 : After learning that France has ceded all of its possessions east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris , French traders set up the city of St. Louis on the west side of the river .
- The British Parliament passed the Sugar Act drafted by Prime Minister George Grenville on April 5th . This tariff law cuts the tariff on molasses by half, but on the other hand extends the scope of the law to other goods such as sugar, certain wines, coffee and allspice. As a further innovation, the Sugar Act also provides for stricter rules for the enforcement of customs regulations. The rules introduced by the Sugar Act lead to a collapse in trade with Madeira, the Azores, the Canary Islands and the French West Indies, and virtually bring the colonies' economies to a standstill. The Sugar Act encounters massive resistance from the colonists and is therefore one of the causes of the American independence movement .
- May: Benjamin Franklin becomes Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly of Representatives . However, because of his proposal to convert the Penn family-owned Province of Pennsylvania into a crown colony directly under the British Crown in order to finally resolve the tax dispute with the descendants of William Penn , he lost his seat in the assembly in the November election.
- Colonel John Bradstreet marches with 1,200 men from Albany to Fort Niagara during the Pontiac Uprising in June , where he signs a series of treaties at a major meeting with the Indians. Further contracts will be concluded by September with the Lenni Lenape and Shawnee , the Wyandot , Odawa and Miami , among others . Eventually Bradstreet returns to Oswego . However, some of the agreements he has concluded are not recognized by his superiors.
- July 26 : During the Pontiac uprising four warriors of committing Lenni Lenape a massacre at a school in Pennsylvania, where the schoolmasters and ten children are killed. As a result of this incident, head bonuses for Indians are being introduced again.
- Hugh Palliser replaces Thomas Graves, 1st Baron Graves , as governor of the British colony of Newfoundland, which was finally British after the Seven Years War . In this position, he promoted the young sailor and cartographer James Cook , whom he commissioned to measure and map his province.
Holy Roman Empire
- January 7 : Ludwig to Hohenlohe-Langenburg is of Emperor I. Franz Stephan in the Imperial Prince collected.
- March 27th : The Habsburg Joseph II is elected Roman-German King and crowned on April 3rd in Frankfurt am Main .
- September 16 : Ernst Friedrich follows his late father Franz Josias as Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld . He finally moved the residence of the country, which was heavily indebted when he took office, to Coburg .
- June 4 : Due to an alleged conspiracy to seek revenge for his father, who was deposed as a sack master a few years ago and sent into exile, Lorenz Plazid Schumacher is from a Lucerne patrician family at the instigation of Joseph Rudolf Valentin Meyer , who leads a private feud against the Schumacher family Accused of treason and executed.
Poland / Russia
- April 11 : Russia and Prussia agree that they want to support the election of Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski as King of Poland against Jan Klemens Branicki and Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski with armed force if necessary.
- July 16 : After around 23 years in prison, the 24-year-old nominal Russian Emperor Ivan VI. allegedly murdered in Schliisselburg near Saint Petersburg after an attempt at liberation.
- September 7th : Russia's favorite Stanislaus II. August is elected King of Poland and, at the same time, Grand Duke of Lithuania in the last free election . He signed the Pacta conventa on September 13th and was crowned by Primate Władysław Aleksander Łubieński on November 25th in St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw . This ends the personal union of Saxony-Poland . The choice is initially not recognized by France, Austria and the Ottoman Empire, as they see Poniatowski as a tool of the Russian Empress. However, this changes after several interventions by Russian and Prussian diplomats. Domestically, too, there are protests by the supporters of Jan Klemens Branicki , who see the golden freedom of the Rzeczpospolita at risk.
- On the basis of Tsarina Catherine the Great's invitation manifesto from the previous year, Russia accepted around 30,000 so-called Volga Germans by 1767 . Thousands do not survive the hardships, hunger and illnesses during the long journey. Even on arrival, most of them are disappointed by the barren landscape. Many do not survive the first few years. In addition to the climatic conditions, pests and epidemics, another problem turned out to be the strategic location, as there are repeated attacks by horsemen from the east who destroy entire settlements and kidnap and enslave their inhabitants.
- Another Siamese-Burmese war begins with a conquest of the new Burmese ruler Hsinbyushin from the Konbaung dynasty against the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya under Ekathat . He first turns east and conquers Chiang Mai and Vientiane before occupying the Mae Nam Chao Phraya river valley .
Other events worldwide
- April 5 : Louis Antoine de Bougainville founds the first settlement on Les nouvelles Malouines , today's Falkland Islands , together with French refugees displaced from Canada after the Seven Years War after their arrival in January , naming it after Louis XV. Port Louis . On September 12th, the French king confirmed the occupation of the islands.
- June 21st : From Portsmouth the British Admiral John Byron sets out on a circumnavigation with the ships Dolphin and Tamar . The expedition sails over the Canary Islands, heading for South America.
- March 18th : The Celler Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft is founded.
- March 30th : After Duke Franz Josias of Saxony-Coburg-Saalfeld granted a concession to manufacture porcelain , Johann Wolfgang Hammann and Gotthelf Greiner found the Wallendorf porcelain factory .
- The road between Frankfurt and Fulda is one of the first roads in Hesse to be turned into a road on the instructions of the Fulda prince abbot Heinrich von Bibra .
- The new hospital bridge over the Große Röder in Radeberg will be completed after around 15 years of construction.
science and technology
- April 1st : An annular solar eclipse can be observed in Europe . It was calculated by the astronomer Nicole Lepaute .
- May 3 : Charles Messier discovers the globular cluster Messier 3 in the constellation Hounds . The celestial object is made up of approximately 500,000 stars and contains 212 variable stars - the largest number in the Milky Way .
- July 12th : The French astronomer Charles Messier discovers the first planetary nebula , later known as the dumbbell nebula, in the constellation Fuchs . Messier, who discovered numerous other astronomical objects this year, began to record the Messier catalog .
- The English Weber James Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny , a machine for spinning of wool and cotton to yarn . The Jenny spreads quickly throughout the textile industry and, with its high productivity increase compared to the spinning wheel, is considered a milestone in the industrial revolution and the history of technology .
- As a university mechanic at the University of Glasgow, James Watt was given the job of repairing the poorly functioning model of a steam engine built by Thomas Newcomen . Watt recognizes that the problem is due to the unfavorable heat balance of the basic construction. A large part of the steam flowing in is used to heat the cylinder wall to over 100 ° C. With the model, this is more evident than with the original machines due to the different relationship between cylinder surface and volume. Watt then decides to improve the machine based on preliminary work by Denis Papin .
Teaching and Research
- Baptist pastor James Manning is based in Warren , Rhode Iceland , the Rhode Iceland College , now the third oldest university in New England .
- The Milanese lawyer and legal philosopher Cesare Beccaria publishes his most famous work Dei delitti e delle pene ( On crimes and punishments ).
- February 6 : Prince Franz Xaver of Saxony establishes as administrator for his nephew, the still underage Elector of Saxony Friedrich August III. the drawing, Mahlerey and architecture academy in Leipzig . The painter Adam Friedrich Oeser is appointed as the founding director. Over the next few centuries, the Academy for Graphics and Book Art Leipzig and the University for Technology, Economics and Culture Leipzig developed from the Academy . In the same year, the General Art Academy of Painting, Sculpture, Engraving and Architecture, commissioned by Elector Friedrich Christian , who died the previous year, was founded in Dresden . The Frenchman Charles Hutin becomes the first director . The academy is the successor to the first drawing and painting school founded in 1680 . It is one of the oldest art academies in German-speaking countries.
- September 6th : The French King Louis XV. lays the foundation stone for the Panthéon in Paris, which he donated . The architect Jacques-Germain Soufflot begins construction work on what was then known as Sainte-Geneviève .
- Tsarina Katharina II of Russia bought around 250 paintings from the German art dealer and speculator Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky , which were originally intended for Frederick the Great, but could not be paid for by him. In doing so, she founded today's Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg .
- Angelika Kauffmann paints the portrait of Johann Joachim Winckelmann . The portrait, which shows the archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann, makes the painter known in one fell swoop. The work is then engraved and distributed in large numbers. In the same year the portrait of David Garrick was created .
- Johann Joachim Winckelmann publishes the history of ancient art in two volumes.
Music and theater
The "Beast of Gévaudan"
The so-called » Beast of Gévaudan « caused the first officially registered death on June 30th . 14-year-old Jeanne Boulet from the parish of Saint-Étienne-de-Lugdarès is found dead, cruelly disfigured. In the following three years around 100 children, young people and women are killed in Gévaudan , a sparsely populated region in the Massif Central in southern France , and in neighboring areas. The identity of the "beast" is never finally clarified.
- May 8 : Charlotte Albertine Ernestine von Schardt , lady-in-waiting of Duchess Anna Amalia , marries the ducal stable master of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach , Baron Gottlob Ernst Josias Friedrich von Stein in Weimar .
- June 2nd : The impoverished Corsican nobleman Carlo Buonaparte marries 14-year-old Laetitia Ramolino in Ajaccio .
- December 1st : King Charles III. from Spain and his family move into the newly built royal palace in Madrid .
- December 26th : The German Society of Pennsylvania is founded. In her early years she deals with the effects of debt bondage to German immigrants . Johann Heinrich Keppele becomes the first president.
- The orphanage of the Fürstin-Franziska-Christine-Stiftung is established.
- Brooks's Club in London is founded as a gentlemen's club .
- January 14th : Pope Clement XIII greets with the Breve Ubi primum accepimus . the election of Joseph II as Roman-German king.
- February 27 : Pope Clement XIII. prohibits reading the book De statu ecclesiae et legitima potestate Romani pontificis liber singularis , published under the pseudonym Justinus Febronius the year before, and puts it on the index Librorum Prohibitorum . The spread of the thoughts of Febronianism through multiple reprints does not stop that. The Auxiliary Bishop of Trier, Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim , was revoked years later after his exposure as an author.
- June 29 : The Woldegk region is hit by a devastating tornado of class F5 , which is rare in Germany .
- The Heidelberg Castle is destroyed by a lightning strike.
- April 1st : Eclipse , one of the progenitors of the English thoroughbred horse breed , is born, bred by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland .
Historical maps and views
January to April
- January 19 : Heinrich Julius Friedrich von Schrader , German lawyer († 1829 )
- January 28 : Gottlob Heinrich Schulz , German lawyer and mayor († 1821 )
- February 20 : Augusta von Goldstein , German writer († 1837 )
- February 15 : Jens Immanuel Baggesen , Danish writer († 1826 )
- February 25 : Karl Gustav Brinckmann , Swedish diplomat and German poet († 1847 )
- February 29 : Conrad Daniel von Blücher-Altona , Mecklenburg Oberpräsident von Altona († 1845 )
- February 29 : Karl Adalbert von Beyer , Prussian abbot of Hamborn and auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1842 )
- February 29 : Paul Erman , German physicist († 1851 )
- March 13 : Charles Gray , British statesman († 1845 )
- March 28 : Louis Michel Auguste Thévenet , French general († 1848 )
- March 30th : Hieronymus Eschenbach , German mathematician and translator († 1797 )
- April 1 : Barbara Krafft , Austrian painter († 1825 )
- April 3 : John Abernethy , English surgeon and anatomist († 1831 )
- April 13 : Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr , French politician and military man († 1830 )
- April 14 : Franz Xaver Gewey , Austrian civil servant, actor and writer († 1819 )
- April 17 : Richard Stockton , American politician († 1828 )
- April 20 : Rudolph Ackermann , German-British bookseller, lithographer, publisher and entrepreneur († 1834 )
- April 21 : Johann Christian August Heyse , German educator, grammarian and lexicographer († 1829 )
- April 27 : Johann Friedrich Cotta , German publisher, industrial pioneer and politician († 1832 )
May to August
- May 2 : Karl Adolph Gottlob Schellenberg , German Protestant clergyman and educator († 1835 )
- May 3 : Johann Wilhelm Meigen , German entomologist († 1845 )
- May 7 : Therese Huber , German writer († 1829 )
- May 11 : Konrad Engelbert Oelsner , German publicist († 1828 )
- May 20 : Johann Gottfried Schadow , Prussian sculptor and graphic artist († 1850 )
- May 26 : Edward Livingston , US Secretary of State († 1836 )
- June 7th : Karl Heinrich von Lang , Bavarian historian and publicist († 1835 )
- June 13 : Gottfried Baumann , German farmer and politician († 1845 )
- June 13 : Erduin Julius Koch , German literary historian († 1834 )
- June 19 : José Gervasio Artigas , Uruguayan officer and freedom fighter († 1850 )
- June 27 : Pawel Petrovich Sokolow , Russian sculptor († 1835 )
- July 5 : János Lavotta , Hungarian composer († 1820 )
- July 9 : Ann Radcliffe , English writer, popular proponent of the horror novel († 1823 )
- July 13 : Maria Catharina Tismar , Prussian founder of the foundation († 1845 )
- July 14 : Jean-François Varlet , French politician († 1837 )
- July 23 : Johann Baptist von Schiber , German lawyer († 1829 )
- July 23 : Franz Seraphicus Schmid , Roman Catholic clergyman and author († 1843 )
- July 30 : Carl Friedrich Ludwig von Gontard , Berlin lieutenant colonel and honorary citizen († 1839 )
- August 9 : Caroline Auguste Fischer , German writer and women's rights activist († 1842 )
- August 22 : Josef Abel , Austrian painter († 1818 )
- August 24 : Gottfried Fähse , German classical philologist and teacher († 1831 )
September to December
- September 2 : Georg Ludwig Hartig , German forest scientist († 1837 )
- September 5 : Henriette Herz , German writer and host of a literary salon († 1847 )
- September 10 : Daniel Rodney , American politician († 1846 )
- September 17 : John Goodricke , English astronomer († 1786 )
- September 25 : Fletcher Christian , British seaman († 1793 )
- October 6 : Friedrich Jacobs , German classical philologist († 1847 )
- October 11 : Prentiss Mellen , American politician († 1840 )
- October 19 : Johann Christoph Rincklake , German painter († 1813 )
- October 21 : Carl von Alten , German general († 1840 )
- October 21 : János Bihari , Hungarian composer ("gypsy violinist") († 1827 )
- October 24 : Dorothea Brendel Mendelssohn , German literary critic and romantic writer, wife of Friedrich Schlegel († 1839 )
- November 1 : Stephen Van Rensselaer , American politician, general, landowner and philanthropist († 1839 )
- November 11th : Ernst Ludwig Wilhelm von Dacheröden , German civil servant († 1806 )
- November 13 : Franz Xaver Hackher zu Hart , Austrian genius colonel and defender of the Graz Schlossberg († 1837 )
- November 15 : Hans von Held , Prussian civil servant and writer († 1842 )
- November 17 : Return Jonathan Meigs Jr. , American politician († 1825 )
- November 23 : Gustav von Hugo , German lawyer († 1844 )
- December 3 : Auguste Karoline Friederike Luise , Princess of Württemberg († 1788 )
- December 7th : Claude-Victor Perrin called Victor , Marshal of France († 1841 )
- December 8 : Ignác Held , Bohemian composer († 1816 )
- December 8 : Hans zu Rantzau , Danish General War Commissioner († 1836 )
- December 16 : Benjamin Adams , American politician († 1837 )
- December 20 : Christian Gottlieb Berger , German Protestant clergyman († 1829 )
- December 21 : John Parker Boyd , American mercenary and general († 1830 )
- December 25 : Ferdinand August von Spiegel , Westphalian Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Cologne († 1835 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- František Jan Štiasný , Czech cellist and composer († around 1830)
- Jacob Stout , American politician († 1857 )
- John Vincent , British general († 1848 )
First half of the year
- January 18 : Leonhard Joseph von Lamberts zu Cortenbach , aldermen and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen (* 1686 )
- January 27 : Petru Pavel Aron , Romanian-Greek Catholic Chaplain and Bishop of Făgăraş (* 1709 / 1712 )
- March 12 : Marie Antoinette von Ahlefeldt , German Countess and Prioress of the Uetersen Monastery (* 1711 )
- March 16 : Friedrich August Graf Rutowski , Electoral Saxon Field Marshal (* 1702 )
- March 30th : Pietro Locatelli , Italian violin virtuoso and composer (* 1695 )
- April 15 : Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Madame de Pompadour , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. (* 1721 )
- April 10 : Christian Gottlob Gerber , German Lutheran theologian and historian (* 1686 )
- April 17 : Johann Mattheson , German composer and scholar (* 1681 )
- May 3 : Francesco Algarotti , Italian writer, art critic and art dealer (* 1712 )
- May 10 : Christian Friedrich Henrici , Saxon lyricist Johann Sebastian Bachs (* 1700 )
- May 18 : Charles François II. De Montmorency-Luxembourg , Marshal of France (* 1702 )
- May 26 : Peter Joseph Kofler , Mayor of Vienna (* 1700 )
- June 7th : Sophie Karoline von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Princess of East Friesland (* 1707 )
- June 11 : Christoph Stoltzenberg , German composer (* 1690 )
- June 25 : Wilhelm Ernst Starke , German Reformed theologian, philologist and hymn poet (* 1692 )
- June 29th : Ralph Allen , British entrepreneur (* 1693 )
Second half of the year
- July 16 : Ivan VI. , Tsar of Russia (* 1740 )
- July 18 : Heinrich Giller , Swiss businessman and member of the Moravian Brethren (* 1701 )
- July 19 : Hagop II. Nalyan Zmmarazi , Armenian Archbishop (* 1706 )
- July 30 : Philipp Hafner , Austrian writer and literary critic (* 1735 )
- August 2 : Balthasar Riepp , Austrian painter (* 1703 )
- August 8 : Johann Philipp Harrach , Austrian Field Marshal and President of the Court War Council (* 1678 )
- August 22nd : Marc-Pierre d'Argenson , French nobleman and minister (* 1696 )
- September 1 : Sebastiano Conca , Italian painter (* 1680 )
- September 2 : Nathaniel Bliss , English astronomer (* 1700 )
- September 12 : Jean-Philippe Rameau , French composer and theorist (* 1683 )
- September 13th : Giovanni Domenico Barbieri , a builder from Graubünden who works in the Prince Diocese of Eichstätt (* 1704 )
- September 16 : Franz Josias , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (* 1697 )
- September 17 : Johann Christoph Struchtmeyer , German Reformed theologian, historian and rhetorician (* 1698 )
- September 25 : Daniel Stadler , German Jesuit (* 1705 )
- September 26th : Benito Jerónimo Feijoo , Spanish religious and scholar (* 1676 )
- October 2 : William Cavendish , British politician and Prime Minister (* 1720 )
- October 22 : Jean-Marie Leclair , French composer and violinist (* 1697 )
- October 23 : Pierre-Charles Roy , French librettist (* 1683 )
- October 26 : William Hogarth , British painter and engraver (* 1697 )
- November 4th : Charles Churchill , English poet (* 1732 )
- November 9th : Petrus Wesseling , German philologist and jurist (* 1692 )
- November 27 : Gottfried Geyser , German Lutheran theologian (* 1699 )
- December 1 : Christian Goldbach , Prussian mathematician (* 1690 )
- December 12th : Christian Klausing , German organ builder (* 1687 )
- December 20 : Erik Pontoppidan the Younger , Danish theologian, preacher, historian and author (* 1698 )
- December 22nd : Ladislaus Amade von Várkonyi , Hungarian poet (* 1703 )
- December 26th : Ismael Mengs , Saxon miniature and enamel painter (* 1688 )